• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rubus occidentalis

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Comparative Study on Antioxidant Effects of Extracts from Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis (토종 복분자 Rubus coreanus와 외래종 복분자 Rubus occidentalis 추출물의 항산화능 비교)

  • Kim, Lee Seon;Youn, Sang Hyuck;Kim, Ji Yeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.9
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    • pp.1357-1362
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    • 2014
  • This study compared the antioxidant effects of two kinds of black raspberry extract, obtained from fruits of Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis, which can be found in Korea. The fruits of R. coreanus and R. occidentalis were each extracted with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% ethanol (EtOH). Among the extracts of these two varieties, 50% EtOH extract of R. occidentalis showed the highest contents of total polyphenols ($46.96{\pm}2.78mg/g$) and flavonoid compounds ($11.77{\pm}0.81mg/g$). The 50% EtOH extract of R. occidentalis showed the highest antioxidant activity ($84.77{\pm}0.97%$) in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity. On the contrary, 25% EtOH extract of R. occidentalis showed the best antioxidant activity ($29.65{\pm}2.41%$) in terms of ABTS radical scavenging activity. In the results of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 50% EtOH extract of R. occidentalis showed the highest antioxidant activity ($0.49{\pm}0.02%$). In the cytotoxicity test stimulated with $H_2O_2$, the extracts of 75% and 100% EtOH from R. occidentalis showed the highest cell viability ($93.54{\pm}3.37%$ and $97.19{\pm}0.74%$, respectively). According to our results, extracts of R. occidentalis showed higher antioxidant activities than extracts of R. coreanus. Especially, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of R. occidentalis showed the highest significant correlation with FRAP by Pearson's correlation (P=0.005 and P=0.013, respectively).

Potential prevention effects of Rubus occidentalis seed on UVB-induced MMP-1 production and procollagen degradation in CCD-986sk cells

  • Kim, Dong-Hee;Park, Tae-Soon;Son, Jun-Ho
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2016
  • UV exposure induces matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes expression. We studied the protective effect of Rubus occidentalis seed against UVB-generated skin photoaging using human fibroblast cells (CCD-986sk). We used an ELISA kit to measure the supernatents of procollagen type I and MMP-1 in CCD-986sk cells after they were exposed to UVB irradiation. The CCD-986sk cells that were used with RC-E/E after the UVB irradiation caused higher levels of type I procollagen and lesser levels of MMP-1 compared with the control group. Furthermore, the RC-E/E treated group showed lesser MMP-1 levels and higher procollagen type I levels than the untreated counterpart. Therefore, it can be concluded that Rubus occidentalis seed can prevent from skin photoaging.

Phylogenic Relationship of Rubus Cultivated in Korea Revealed by Chloroplast DNA Spacers (Chloroplast DNA Spacers로 분석한 국내 Rubus 재배종의 계통학적 유연관계)

  • Eu, Gee-Suck;Park, Myoung-Ryoul;Baek, So-Hyeon;Yun, Song-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.266-272
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    • 2010
  • There is a considerable difference in morphological traits between Bokbunja cultivated in Korea (KCB) and Korea native Rubus coreanus, contrary to the conviction that the cultivated Bokbunja is the domestication of R. coreanus. To infer the phylogenetic relationship of KCB with other Rubus species, we compared the chloroplast DNA spacers of KCB with those of several Rubus species including black raspberry, R. occidentalis. The three chloroplast DNA spacers, atpB~rbcL, trnL~trnF, and trnT~trnL, were amplified using the specific primer pairs and converted to Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP) markers. The SSCP makers of the chloroplast DNA spacers showed a considerable variation both within and among Rubus species. In the phylogenetic tree generated by the SSCP markers, KCB accessions were located in the same clade with R. occidentalis, but R. coreanus accessions in the different clade. Also, in the phylogenetic tree by the nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast DNA spacer trnL~trnF, KCB located in the same clade with R. occidentalis but not with R. coreanus. These results suggest that the three KCB accessions share higher similarity with R. occidentalis than with R. coreanus in the three chloroplast DNA spacers.

Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Regions Reveals Phylogenic Relationships of Rubus Species Cultivated in Korea (Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS)로 분석한 국내 Rubus 재배종의 계통학적 유연관계)

  • Eu, Gee-Suck;Park, Myoung-Ryoul;Yun, Song-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2009
  • The bramble cultivated widely in South Korea, which is known as Bokbunja-ddal-gi, is regarded as having originated from Korean native Rubus coreanus. This study was carried out to obtain basic phylogenetic information on Korean cultivated bramble (KCB) by comparing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions with those of R. coreanus, blackberry (R. lanciniatus), black (R. occidentalis) and red (R. idaeus) raspberry. Sequences of the ITS 1 suggest that some KCB accessions share a significant similarity with both R. occidentalis and R. coreanus in the ITS 1 region. The ITS 2 sequences of the three KCB accessions clustered more closely to those of two R. occidentalis accessions than to those of R. coreanus. These results suggest that there exist variations in the sequences of ITS among KCB accessions and KCB accessions are more closely related to black raspberry than R. coreanus in the ITS regions.

Comparison of the Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Extracts from Rubus coreanus and Rubus occidentalis (토종 복분자와 외래종 복분자 추출물의 항염증효과 비교)

  • Yang, Hyun-Mo;Lim, Soon-Sung;Lee, Yeon-Sil;Shin, Hyun-Kyung;Oh, Yang-Seok;Kim, Jin-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.342-347
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    • 2007
  • The dried fruit of the Rubus coreanus, which is well-known in Korea and referred to as 'Bokbunja,' has been employed as a traditional medicine for centuries. This crude drug has been utilized in Korea for the management of impotence, spermatorrhea, enuresis, asthma, and allergic diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of R. coreanus have anti-inflammatory effects. The principal objective of the present study was to conduct a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extracts of R. coreanus and R. occidentalis; here, we tested the unripe (URCE), half-ripened (HRCE), and ripened fruits (RCE) of R. coreanus, and the unripe (UROE), half-ripened (HROE), and ripened fruits (ROE) of R. occidentalis. We found that URCE, UROE, HRCE, and HROE reduced the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin $E_{2}$ as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Interestingly, the R. coreanus extracts showed stronger inhibitory effects on the production of these inflammatory mediators than the R. occidentalis extracts.

Characteristics of Rubus coreanus Miq. Fruits at Different Ripening Stages (숙성에 따른 토종 복분자 딸기의 특성)

  • Kim, Ji-Myoung;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 2011
  • To develop a healthy functional food containing Rubus coreanus fruit (RCF) powder with different degrees of ripening, the composition, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant activity of native RCF during ripening were investigated and compared with Rubus occidentalis fruit (ROF). Ripened RCF was bright red in color, whereas ripened ROF was dull and dark red in color. The seeds of RCF were softer and smaller than those of ROF. Crude protein, crude lipid, and total sugar content of RCF powder increased with increased ripening time, whereas ash and total dietary fiber contents decreased with increased ripening time. Color differences increased with Increased ripening. Eighteen types of amino acids were analyzed from RCF, and glutamic acid had the highest content. RCF powder had the highest level of potassium and calcium and did not contain any hazardous metals. Mineral and organic acid contents decreased according to ripening.

Phylogenic Relationships of Rubus Species Revealed by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers

  • Eu, Gee-Suck;Chung, Byung-Yeoup;Bandopadhyay, Rajib;Yoo, Nam-Hee;Choi, Dong-Geun;Yun, Song-Joong
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2008
  • Korean cultivated bramble, which is known as Bokbunja-ddal-gi is regarded to be originated from Korea native Rubus coreanus. However, little scientific evidence and significant morphological differences between Korean cultivated bramble(KCB) and R. coreanus throw doubt on the ancestry of KCB. This study was carried out to obtain phylogenetic information on KCB by comparing its nuclear genomic background with those of R. coreanus, black(R. occidentalis) and red(R. idaeus) raspberry, blackberry(R. lanciniatus) and R. crataegifolius. A total of 99 random amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD) markers were generated and used for phylogenetic analysis of 76 Rubus accessions. Accessions of each species were grouped into each distinct subclade by the RAPD markers at a similarity coefficient of about 0.59. The KCB subclade formed a clade with R. occidentalis and R. crataegifolius subclades at a similarity coefficient of 0.47. The R. coreanus subclade formed a clade with R. idaeus, R. lanciniatus and R. crataegifolius subclades at a similar similarity coefficient. Only one KCB accession from Hoengsung was included in R. coreanus subclade. The accession shows leaf and flower characteristics different from the rest of the KCB accessions. The phylogenetic relationship inferred from the RAPD markers suggests that the nuclear genomic background of KCB accessions which show morphological similarity to black raspberry is more closely related to black raspberry than to R. coreanus. This brings about the need for close scientific evaluations on the ancestry of KCB at both morphological and molecular levels.

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Freeze-thawing Conditions to Produce High Quality Bokbunja (Rubus occidentalis) (냉동유통 고품질 복분자 생산을 위한 냉해동 조건 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Eun;Jo, Hye-Jin;Yu, Min-Ji;Song, Kyung Bin;Kim, Ha-Yun;Hwang, In Guk;Yoo, Seon Mi;Han, Gwi Jung;Park, Jong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.710-715
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    • 2014
  • To date, the quality and safety of frozen bokbunja have not been clearly assessed. To produce high-quality frozen bokbunja, the optimal freeze-thaw conditions need to be explored. The most popular cultivar (Rubus occidentalis) in Korea was selected for this study. To determine the changes in the quality of frozen R. occidentalis berries, different freezing temperatures were used. The berries were frozen at -20, -45, and $-70^{\circ}C$ immediately after harvest. The drip ratio, hardness, pH, sugar content, color, and anthocyanidin content of the frozen and thawed samples were analyzed. The drip ratio, sugar content, and hardness of the berries correlated significantly with the freezing temperatures. The color and pH of the berries were not significantly affected by the freezing conditions. Frozen leaks between cells reduced significantly with decreasing temperatures. The freeze-thawing process significantly reduced the total aerobic bacteria and inhibited the growth of yeast/mold in the berries to about 2 log scales.

Cloning and Characterization of Cinnamate-4-Hydroxylase Gene from Rubus occidentalis L.

  • Lee, Eun Mi;Lee, Seung Sik;An, Byung Chull;Barampuram, Shyamkumar;Kim, Jae-Sung;Cho, Jae-Young;Lee, In-Chul;Chung, Byung Yeoup
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2008
  • Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which leads a variety of secondary metabolites to participate in differentiation and protection of plant against environmental stresses. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA of the C4H gene from a black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the RocC4H gene contained a 1,515 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 504 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 57.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 9.1. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that RocC4H gene had three exons and two introns. By multiple sequence alignment, RocC4H protein was highly homologous with other plant C4Hs, and the cytochrome P450-featured motifs, such as the heme-binding domain, the T-containing binding pocket motif (AAIETT), the ERR triad, and the tetrapeptide (PPGP) hinge motif, were highly conserved. Southern blot analysis revealed that RocC4H is a single copy gene in R. occidentalis.

Restoration of Declined Immune Responses and Hyperlipidemia by Rubus occidenalis in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

  • Lee, Youngjoo;Kim, Jiyeon;An, Jinho;Lee, Sungwon;Lee, Heetae;Kong, Hyunseok;Song, Youngcheon;Choi, Hye Ran;Kwon, Ji-Wung;Shin, Daekeun;Lee, Chong-Kil;Kim, Kyungjae
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.140-148
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    • 2017
  • Hyperlipidemia, which is closely associated with a fatty diet and aging, is commonly observed in the western and aged society. Therefore, a novel therapeutic approach for this disease is critical, and an immunological view has been suggested as a novel strategy, because hyperlipidemia is closely associated with inflammation and immune dysfunction. In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of Rubus occidentalis (RO) in obese mice were investigated using immunological indexes. The mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce hyperlipidemia, which was confirmed by biochemical analysis and examination of the mouse physiology. Two different doses of RO and rosuvastatin, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor used as a control, were orally administered. Disturbances in immune cellularity as well as lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were significantly normalized by oral administration of RO, which also decreased the elevated serum tumor necrosis factor $(TNF)-{\alpha}$ level and total cholesterol. The specific immune-related actions of RO comprised considerable improvement in cytotoxic T cell killing functions and regulation of antibody production to within the normal range. The immunological evidence confirms the significant cholesterol-lowering effect of RO, suggesting its potential as a novel therapeutic agent for hyperlipidemia and associated immune decline.