• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rumen Population

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Evaluation and Isolation of Phytin Phosphohydrolyzing Bacterial Population in the Rumen

  • Suzuki, C.;Ushida, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.957-961
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    • 2000
  • A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate phytin phosphohydrolysis actlVlty in the rumen and to isolate phytase positive rumen bacteria. Endogenous phytase activity of wheat bran was estimated and compared with that of bacterial phytin phosphohydrolysis. Substantial phytase activity was detected in wheat bran during in vitro rumen incubation. Bacterial phytase activity was suggested not to be high. Only two facultative anaerobes, Klebsiella sp. and Corynebacterium sp. were isolated as phytase producing organisms. These belonged to a minor microbial group in the rumen population. Protozoal fraction showed an initial velocity of phytin phosphohydrolysis 7 times higher than the bacterial fraction.

A Comparative Study on the Rumen Microbial Population of Cattle and Swamp Buffalo Raised under Traditional Village Conditions in the Northeast of Thailand

  • Wanapat, M.;Ngarmsang, A.;Korkhuntot, S.;Nontaso, N.;Wachirapakorn, C.;Beakes, G.;Rowlinson, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.918-921
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    • 2000
  • A comparative study on rumen bacterial and protozoal population and fungal zoospores in cattle (Brahman$\times$Native) and swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was conducted. Forty animals, twenty of each, with same sex and similar age which were raised under similar condition in the Northeast of Thailand, were used. Rumen digesta were sampled immediately post slaughtering for total microscopic counts of bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores. It was found that total bacterial population were higher in swamp buffalo that those in cattle (1.6 vs $1.36{\times}10^{8}cells/ml$) having more population of cocci, rods and ovals. Lower rumen protozoal pupulation in swamp buffalo with lower numbers of Holotrichs and Entodiniomorphs were found as compared to those in cattle. Significant higher fungal zoospore counts were in swamp buffalo than those in cattle being 7.30 and $3.78{\times}10^6$, respectively. Study under electron microscope, revealed Anaeromyces sp. with acuminate apex were more predominant in the rumen of swamp buffalo. With these findings, cattle and swamp buffaloes showing differences in rumen bacterial, protozoal population and fungal zoospore counts, offer new additional information as why swamp buffaloes exhibit conditionally better than cattle especially during long dry season without green grass.

THE EFFECTS OF BENTONITE ON RUMEN PROTOZOAL POPULATION AND RUMEN FLUID CHARACTERISTICS OF SHEEP FED PALM KERNEL CAKE

  • Abdullah, N.;Hanita, H.;Ho, Y.W.;Kudo, H.;Jalaludin, S.;Ivan, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 1995
  • The effects of bentonite (B) on rumen protozoal population and rumen fluid characteristics of sheep fed palm kernel cake (PKC) were studied for a period of 21 days. Two groups, each comprising two sheep were fed either PKC or PKC + B ad libitum A third group was left at pasture. Rumen fluid was sampled through a rumen cannula three times daily from all animals. Palm kernel cake contained 16% crude protein, 1 % crude fat and high amounts of copper, zinc, iron and manganese. Protozoal population in the rumen fluid decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the onset of feeding PKC or PKC + B. However, sheep given bentonite supplementation at 2% of the dietary dry matter, maintained higher protozoal densities ($15{\times}10^4/ml$) when compared to animals fed only PKC ($8{\times}10^4/ml$). With both diets, the protozoa were mainly of the small entodinia species. Animals at pasture had higher protozoal population ($47{\times}10^4/ml$) with varying species of entodiniomorphids and holotrichs. Rumen fluid pH and ammonia concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in animals at pasture compared to animals fed PKC or PKC + B. Volatile fatty acid concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in animals fed PKC when compared to animals at pasture. There was a shift in fermentation pattern in animals fed PKC or PKC + B towards a lower acetate; and higher propionate, isovalerate and valerate. Studies in vitro also showed the positive effect of bentonite on protozoal numbers.

Effect of Transinoculation of Goat Rumen Liquor on Degradation and Metabolism of Mimosine in Sheep Fed with Leucaena leucocephala Leaves

  • Vaithiyanathan, S.;Sheikh, Q.;Kumar, Ravindra
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.332-339
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    • 2005
  • The effect of transinoculation of goat rumen liquor into sheep rumen on mimosine toxicity was studied. One adult Kutchi male goat having higher mimosine degradation capacity than sheep was gradually adapted to Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) leaves by feeding increasing level of eucaena leaves supplementation for 1 month. Six Bharat Merino rams (12-18 months of age) were divided into two equal groups with (group I) or without (group II) infusion of 200 ml of goat rumen liquor per animal. The mimosine degradation in groups I and II were 3.04 and 2.31; 3.90 and 3.73 mg per day per 10 ml rumen liquor respectively after 1 and 2 weeks of leucaena feeding leaves. Total rumen bacterial population in RGCA medium and in a selective medium containing iron showed an increasing trend in both groups, while the bacterial population growing in the presence of cellulose showed a decreasing trend. Animal performance data did not show any adverse effect. Results revealed that transinoculation of rumen liquor from leucaena leaves adapted goat to sheep rumen did not help to improve mimosine degradation in the sheep. The sheep transinoculated with goat rumen liquor displayed no in vivo improvements in nutrient utilization vis-a-vis mimosine metabolism.

Changes of Microbial Population in the Rumen of Dairy Steers as Influenced by Plant Containing Tannins and Saponins and Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

  • Anantasook, N.;Wanapat, M.;Cherdthong, A.;Gunun, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.11
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    • pp.1583-1591
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to investigate microbial population in the rumen of dairy steers as influenced by supplementing with dietary condensed tannins and saponins and different roughage to concentrate ratios. Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers (Bos indicus) were used in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The main factors were two roughage to concentrate ratios (R:C, 60:40 and 40:60) and two supplementations of rain tree pod meal (RPM) (0 and 60 g/kg of total DM intake). Chopped 30 g/kg urea treated rice straw was used as a roughage source. All animals received feed according to respective R:C ratios at 25 g/kg body weight. The RPM contained crude tannins and saponins at 84 and 143 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that ruminal pH decreased while ruminal temperature increased by a higher concentrate ratio (R:C 40:60) (p<0.05). In contrast, total bacterial, Ruminococus albus and viable proteolytic bacteria were not affected by dietary supplementation. Numbers of fungi, cellulolytic bacteria, Fibrobactor succinogenes and Ruminococus flavefaciens were higher while amylolytic bacteria was lower when steers were fed at 400 g/kg of concentrate. The population of Fibrobactor succinogenes, was found to be higher with RPM supplementation. In addition, the use of real-time PCR technique indicated that the population of protozoa and methanogens were decreased (p<0.05) with supplementation of RPM and with an increasing concentrate ratio. Supplementation of RPM and feeding different concentrate ratios resulted in changing the rumen microbes especially, when the animals were fed at 600 g/kg of concentrate and supplemented with RPM which significantly reduced the protozoa and methanogens population.

Effect of condensed tannins from Leucaena leucocephala on rumen fermentation, methane production and population of rumen protozoa in heifers fed low-quality forage

  • Pineiro-Vazquez, Angel T.;Canul-Solis, Jorge R.;Jimenez-Ferrer, Guillermo O.;Alayon-Gamboa, Jose A.;Chay-Canul, Alfonso J.;Ayala-Burgos, Armin J.;Aguilar-Perez, Carlos F.;Ku-Vera, Juan C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.11
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    • pp.1738-1746
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of increasing amounts of Leucaena leucocephala forage on dry matter intake (DMI), organic matter intake (OMI), enteric methane production, rumen fermentation pattern and protozoa population in cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum and housed in respiration chambers. Methods: Five crossbred heifers (Bos taurus${\times}$Bos indicus) (BW: $295{\pm}6kg$) were fed chopped P. purpureum grass and increasing levels of L. leucocephala (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of dry matter [DM]) in a $5{\times}5$ Latin square design. Results: The voluntary intake and methane production were measured for 23 h per day in respiration chambers; molar proportions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were determined at 6 h postprandial period. Molar concentration of VFAs in rumen liquor were similar (p>0.05) between treatments. However, methane production decreased linearly (p<0.005), recording a maximum reduction of up to ~61% with 80% of DM incorporation of L. leucocephala in the ration and no changes (p>0.05) in rumen protozoa population were found. Conclusion: Inclusion of 80% of L. leucocephala in the diet of heifers fed low-quality tropical forages has the capacity to reduce up to 61.3% enteric methane emission without affecting DMI, OMI, and protozoa population in rumen liquor.

Enhancing Butyrate Production, Ruminal Fermentation and Microbial Population through Supplementation with Clostridium saccharobutylicum

  • Miguel, Michelle A.;Lee, Sung Sill;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Choi, Yeon Jae;Jeong, Chang Dae;Son, Arang;Cho, Kwang Keun;Kim, Eun Tae;Kim, Sang Bum;Lee, Sang Suk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.1083-1095
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    • 2019
  • Butyrate is known to play a significant role in energy metabolism and regulating genomic activities that influence rumen nutrition utilization and function. Thus, this study investigated the effects of an isolated butyrate-producing bacteria, Clostridium saccharobutylicum, in rumen butyrate production, fermentation parameters and microbial population in Holstein-Friesian cow. An isolated butyrate-producing bacterium from the ruminal fluid of a Holstein-Friesian cow was identified and characterized as Clostridium saccharobutylicum RNAL841125 using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The bacterium was evaluated on its effects as supplement on in vitro rumen fermentation and microbial population. Supplementation with $10^6CFU/ml$ Clostridium saccharobutylicum increased (p < 0.05) microbial crude protein, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids concentration but had no significant effect on $NH_3-N$ at 24 h incubation. Butyrate and total VFA concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in supplementation with $10^6CFU/ml$ Clostridium saccharobutylicum compared with control, with no differences observed for total gas production, $NH_3-N$ and propionate concentration. However, as the inclusion rate (CFU/ml) of C. saccharobutylicum was increased, reduction of rumen fermentation values was observed. Furthermore, butyrate-producing bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes population in the rumen increased in response with supplementation of C. saccharobutylicum, while no differences in the population in total bacteria, protozoa and fungi were observed among treatments. Overall, our study suggests that supplementation with $10^6CFU/ml$ C. saccharobutylicum has the potential to improve ruminal fermentation through increased concentrations of butyrate and total volatile fatty acid, and enhanced population of butyrate-producing bacteria and cellulolytic bacteria F. succinogenes.

Effect of inclusion of different levels of Leucaena silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

  • Nguyen, Thien Truong Giang;Wanapat, Metha;Phesatcha, Kampanat;Kang, Sungchhang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.181-186
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods: Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of $167{\pm}12kg$ were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control), T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results: Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p<0.05), whereas the amylolytic bacteria population was not affected by treatments (p>0.05). Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05). Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05) and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion: Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

Studies on Population of Rumen Ciliates as Affected by Feeding (사료급여후(飼料給與後) 시간경과(時間經過)에 따른 젖소의 제일위내(弟一胃內) 섬모충류(纖毛蟲類)의 동태(動態))

  • Rhee, Jae Ku;Lee, Ho Il;Lee, Sang Bork;Baek, Byeong Kirl
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 1979
  • Eight Holstein cows weighing 419-673kg with 2 to 10 years of age were allocated into two groups, four animals each, to study the effect of feeding urea and urea plus Zeolite on rumen pH and the population of rumen ciliates. Rumen fluid samples were taken after morning feed for 7 times at one hour intervals. Experimental results obtained were as follows; 1. Rumen pH was gradually dropped from 7.272 to 7.163 by 3.01 hour and from 7.18 to 7.07 by 2.87 hour and reached 7.352 and 7.29 at 7 hour after feeding, respectively on urea and urea plus Zeolite feeding group. 2. Total ciliate numbers decreased from 209,540 to 113,755 by 4.311 hour and from 381,430 to 203.125 by 4.406 hour and gradually increased to 151,030 and 265,230 by 7 hour after feeding, respectively on urea and urea plus Zeolite feeding group. 3. Population of ruminal ciliates was not changed and Entodinium simplex was the major ciliate population for both treatments. It was from 81.21 to 89.12% on urea feeding group and from 84.6 to 88.3% of total number of ciliates on urea plus Zeolite feeding group.

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Effect of Feed Types on Ochratoxin A Disappearance in Goat Rumen Fluid

  • Upadhaya, Santi Devi;Yang, Liu;Seo, Ja-Kyeom;Kim, Myung-Hoo;Lee, Chang-Kyu;Lee, Chan-Ho;Ha, Jong-K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.198-205
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feed types on Ochratoxin A (OTA) degradation by Korean native goats. Rumen fluid from canulated goats fed whole roughage or 50% roughage served as a source of micro-organisms. Experiments were undertaken i) to investigate OTA degradation ability in a $2{\times}4$ factorial arrangement with different feed types (100% roughage vs. 50% roughage) and rumen fluid fractions (whole rumen fluid, cells, autoclaved rumen fluid and supernatant) supplemented with OTA ii) to evaluate OTA degradation by the rumen fluid of goats fed two different diets at different time points (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h) of feeding iii) to isolate potential rumen microorganisms and iv) to identify elements responsible for OTA degradation. Rumen fluid from goats fed 100% roughage had higher (p<0.05) OTA degradability than 50% roughage diets. OTA degradation based on rumen fluid collection times showed that rumen fluid at 0 h showed significantly higher (p<0.05) degradability. Carboxypeptidase A (CPA) enzyme has been reported to be responsible for OTA degradation. Thus, using real time PCR, primers designed to target the CPA gene from Bacillus licheniformis could be amplified using genomic DNA from rumen fluid of goats and sequenced, thus enabling evaluation of the Bacillus population under different feeding condition and times. Our findings showed that the Bacillus population was significantly higher (p<0.05) before feeding (0 h) in animals which were fed a whole roughage diet, giving indirect evidence of OTA degradation being influenced by Bacillus sps. Thus, it can be concluded that OTA degradability is influenced by feed, feeding time and Bacillus licheniformis population.