• Title, Summary, Keyword: Rumen VFA

Search Result 195, Processing Time 0.083 seconds

Effects of Dietary Acidogenicity Values on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Nutrients Digestibility

  • Choi, Y.J.;Lee, Sang S.;Song, J.Y.;Choi, N.J.;Sung, H.G.;Yun, S.G.;Ha, Jong K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.16 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1625-1633
    • /
    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to observe effects of dietary acidogenicity value (AV) on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility. The AV of feedstuffs was based on the dissolution of Ca from $CaCO_3$ powder added at the end of a 24 h in vitro fermentation. Three diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous with different AV. Two experiments were involved in this study. In experiment 1, it appears that pH, $NH_3-N$ concentration and A:P ratio tended to decrease, but gas production, VFA production and DM disappearance tended to increase with increasing dietary AV. In experiment 2, the rumen pH tended to decrease in order of high AV>medium AV>low AV treatment, respectively. There were no significant effects of dietary AV on $NH_3-N$ concentration, enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility. In addition, total VFA and individual VFA concentrations tended to increase with increasing dietary AV without significance. In fact, we hypothesized that different dietary AV would affect rumen fermentation and nutrients digestibility because dietary AV was adjusted with fermentable carbohydrate sources. The present results indicate that differences in dietary AV between treatments were too small to affect rumen fermentation and its effects were minimal.

Effects of Volatile Fatty Acids on IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, Insulin and Glucagon in Plasma, and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in Different Tissues of Growing Sheep Nourished by Total Intragastric Infusions

  • Zhao, Guang-Yong;Sun, Ya-Bo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.23 no.3
    • /
    • pp.366-371
    • /
    • 2010
  • Twelve Suffolk${\times}$Small-tail-Han male sheep (body weight 21-26 kg), aged four months, were used to study the effects of volatile fatty acids (VFA) on IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I), IGFBP-3 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3), GH (growth hormone), insulin and glucagon in plasma, and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in different tissues. The sheep were randomly divided into four groups with 3 sheep in each group. The sheep were sustained by total intragastric infusions and four levels of mixed VFA (the molar proportion of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid was 65:25:10), which supplied 333, 378, 423 and 468 KJ energy/kg $W^{0.75}$/d, were infused into the rumen as experimental Treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively. The experiment lasted 12 days, of which the first 8 days were for pretreatment and the last 4 days for collection of samples. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken and then the sheep were slaughtered and tissue samples from the rumen ventral sac, rumen dorsal sac, liver, duodenum and Longissimus dorsi muscle were obtained. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, insulin and glucagon in plasma and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in different tissues were analysed. Results showed that the concentration of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, insulin or glucagon in plasma and the content of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in the rumen dorsal sac, rumen ventral sac, liver or Longissimus dorsi muscle were increased with VFA infusion level (p<0.05). No significant differences were found in duodenum IGF-I between Treatments I and II and in rumen dorsal sac IGFBP-3 between Treatments II and III (p>0.05). It was concluded that IGF-I, IGFBP-3, GH, insulin and glucagon in plasma and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in rumen dorsal sac, rumen ventral sac, liver and Longissimus dorsi muscle were increased significantly with increasing level of ruminal infusion of mixed VFA.

Factors Influencing Biohydrogenation and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Mixed Rumen Fungi

  • Nam, In-Sik;Garnsworthy, Philip C.
    • Journal of Microbiology
    • /
    • v.45 no.3
    • /
    • pp.199-204
    • /
    • 2007
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soluble carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose), pH (6.0, 6.5, 7.0), and rumen microbial growth factors (VFA, vitamins) on biohydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA) by mixed rumen fungi. Addition of glucose or cellobiose to culture media slowed the rate of biohydrogenation; only 35-40% of LA was converted to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or vaccenic acid (VA) within 24 h of incubation, whereas in the control treatment, 100% of LA was converted within 24 h. Addition of VFA or vitamins did not affect biohydrogenation activity or CLA production. Culturing rumen fungi at pH 6.0 slowed biohydrogenation compared with pH 6.5 or 7.0. CLA production was reduced by pH 6.0 compared with control (pH 6.5), but was higher with pH 7.0. Biohydrogenation of LA to VA was complete within 72 h at pH 6.0, 24 h at pH 6.5, and 48 h at pH 7.0. It is concluded that optimum conditions for biohydrogenation of LA and for CLA production by rumen fungi were provided without addition of soluble carbohydrates, VFA or vitamins to the culture medium; optimum pH was 6.5 for biohydrogenation and 7.0 for CLA production.

In vitro Screening of Essential Oil Active Compounds for Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Mitigation

  • Joch, M.;Cermak, L.;Hakl, J.;Hucko, B.;Duskova, D.;Marounek, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.29 no.7
    • /
    • pp.952-959
    • /
    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 11 active compounds of essential oils (ACEO) on rumen fermentation characteristics and methane production. Two trials were conducted. In trial 1, ACEO (eugenol, carvacrol, citral, limonene, 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, linalool, bornyl acetate, ${\alpha}$-pinene, and ${\beta}$-pinene) at a dose of $1,000{\mu}L/L$ were incubated for 24 h in diluted rumen fluid with a 70:30 forage:concentrate substrate (16.2% crude protein; 36.6% neutral detergent fiber). Three fistulated Holstein cows were used as donors of rumen fluid. The reduction in methane production was observed with nine ACEO (up to 86% reduction) compared with the control (p<0.05). Among these, only limonene, 1,4-cineole, bornyl acetate, and ${\alpha}$-pinene did not inhibit volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and only bornyl acetate produced less methane per mol of VFA compared with the control (p<0.05). In a subsequent trial, the effects on rumen fermentation and methane production of two concentrations (500 and $2,000{\mu}L/L$) of bornyl acetate, the most promising ACEO from the first trial, were evaluated using the same in vitro incubation method that was used in the first trial. In trial 2, monensin was used as a positive control. Both doses of bornyl acetate decreased (p<0.05) methane production and did not inhibit VFA production. Positive effects of bornyl acetate on methane and VFA production were more pronounced than the effects of monensin. These results confirm the ability of bornyl acetate to decrease methane production, which may help to improve the efficiency of energy use in the rumen.

Enhanced Anaerobic Degradation of Food Waste by Employing Rumen Microorganisms (Rumen 미생물을 이용한 주방폐기물 혐기성소화의 효율증진 방안)

  • Shin, Hang-Sik;Song, Young-Chae;Son, Sung-Sub;Bae, Byung-Uk
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.103-113
    • /
    • 1993
  • Every year, over $3.37{\times}10^7$ ton of municipal solid waste is generated in Korea, of which about 28% is organic food waste from restaurant, dining halls and households etc. Methane conversion of the food waste by anaerobic digestion could be a viable approach for energy recovery as well as safe disposal of the waste. However, as food waste is composed of highmolecular complex polymers such as cellulose, lignin and protein, anaerobic digestion of food waste has not been efficient in terms of volumetric loading rate, solid retention time and extent of anaerobic degradation. In this research, the improved anaerobic degradation of food waste was attemped by applying rumen microorganisms to anaerobic digestion. Acidification efficiency of food waste by rumen microorganisms was compared with that of conventional acidogenesis. And optimum acidification conditions by rumen microorganisms were also determined. For the experiments, anaerobic batch reactors of 600 mL was fed with the processed (dried and milled) food waste obtained from a restaurant. Ultimate volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield produced by rumen microorganisms was about 8.4 meq VFA/g volatile solid (VS) that is 95% of the theoretical value. This yield was not much different from that of conventional acidogenesis, but hydrolysis rate was about twice faster. Cumulative VFA concentration increased from 66 meq/L to 480 meq/L, when the initial TS was increased from 1% to 15%. But VFA yield at 15% TS was half of that at 1% TS. This inhibition on the acidification might be caused by the rapid drop of pH and higher concentration of nonionized VFA. Optimal pH and temperature range for the acidification were about 6.0~7.5 and $35{\sim}45^{\circ}C$, respectively.

  • PDF

Changes in the ruminal fermentation and bacterial community structure by a sudden change to a high-concentrate diet in Korean domestic ruminants

  • Lee, Mingyung;Jeong, Sinyong;Seo, Jakyeom;Seo, Seongwon
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.1
    • /
    • pp.92-102
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objective: To investigate changes in rumen fermentation characteristics and bacterial community by a sudden change to a high concentrate diet (HC) in Korean domestic ruminants. Methods: Major Korean domestic ruminants (each of four Hanwoo cows; $545.5{\pm}33.6kg$, Holstein cows; $516.3{\pm}42.7kg$, and Korean native goats; $19.1{\pm}1.4kg$) were used in this experiment. They were housed individually and were fed ad libitum with a same TMR (800 g/kg timothy hay and 200 g/kg concentrate mix) twice daily. After two-week feeding, only the concentrate mix was offered for one week in order to induce rapid rumen acidosis. The rumen fluid was collected from each animals twice (on week 2 and week 3) at 2 h after morning feeding using an oral stomach tube. Each collected rumen fluid was analyzed for pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), and $NH_3-N$. In addition, differences in microbial community among ruminant species and between normal and an acidosis condition were assessed using two culture-independent 16S polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and quantitative real-time PCR). Results: The HC decreased ruminal pH and altered relative concentrations of ruminal VFA (p<0.01). Total VFA concentration increased in Holstein cows only (p<0.01). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time quantitative PCR analysis using culture-independent 16S PCR-based techniques, revealed rumen bacterial diversity differed by species but not by HC (p<0.01); bacterial diversity was higher in Korean native goats than that in Holstein cows. HC changed the relative populations of rumen bacterial species. Specifically, the abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes was decreased while Lactobacillus spp. and Megasphaera elsdenii were increased (p<0.01). Conclusion: The HC altered the relative populations, but not diversity, of the ruminal bacterial community, which differed by ruminant species.

INORGANIC SELENIUM FOR SHEEP II. ITS INFLUENCE ON RUMEN BACTERIAL YIELD, VOLATILE FATTY ACID PRODUCTION AND TOTAL TRACT DIGESTION OF TIMOTHY HAY

  • Serra, A.B.;Nakamura, K.;Matsui, T.;Harumoto, T.;Fujihara, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.7 no.1
    • /
    • pp.91-96
    • /
    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of inorganic selenium (Se) sources on rumen bacterial yield, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and total tract digestion of timothy hay (Phlewm pratense L.) in Japanese Corriedale wethers. A $3{\times}3$ Latin square design was used with three wethers, three periods and three treatments. In each period, there was 7 d dietary adjustment followed by 5 d total collection of urine and feces. Ruminal fluid samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h postprandially on the final day of the collection period. The three dietary treatments were: (1) without Se supplementation (control); (2) with Se supplementation as sodium selenate; and (3) sodium selenite at a rate 0.2 mg Se/kg dietary DM. The basal diet was timothy hay fed at 2% of body weight/d. Results indicated that there was slight decrease in rumen bacterial yield of animal supplement with inorganic Se, however, differences over the control were insignificant. It was found that Se content of ruminal fluid was negatively correlated (p < 0.05) to rumen bacterial yield. The various VFA contents and acetate and propionate ratio of the different ruminal fluid samples were insignificant across treatment means and the same manner was observed to the different digestibilities (DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF and NDS). This study concludes that Se supplementation at 0.2 mg Se/kg dietary DM either from sodium selenate or sodium selenite could not significantly influence rumen bacterial functions.

Fumarate Reductase-Producing Enterococci Reduce Methane Production in Rumen Fermentation In Vitro

  • Kim, Seon-Ho;Mamuad, Lovelia L.;Kim, Dong-Woon;Kim, Soo-Ki;Lee, Sang-Suk
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.558-566
    • /
    • 2016
  • Biotic agents such as fumarate-reducing bacteria can be used for controlling methane (CH4) production in the rumen. Fumarate-reducing bacteria convert fumarate to succinate by fumarate reductase, ultimately leading to the production of propionate. Fumarate-reducing bacteria in the genus Enterococcus were isolated from rumen fluid samples from slaughtered Korean native goats. The enterococci were identified as Enterococcus faecalis SROD5 and E. faecium SROD by phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The fumarate reductase activities of the SROD5 and SROD strains were 42.13 and 37.05 mM NADH oxidized/min/mg of cellular nitrogen (N), respectively. Supplementation of rumen fermentation in vitro with the SROD5 and SROD strains produced significantly higher propionate, butyrate, and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations than controls at 12 h; VFA concentrations tended to increase after 24 h of incubation. The generated CH4 concentration was significantly lower in the SROD5 and SROD treatment groups after 24 h of incubation. These findings indicate that E. faecium SROD has potential as a direct-fed microbial additive for increasing total VFAs while decreasing CH4 production in rumen fermentation in vitro.

Comparison of in vitro ruminal fermentation between different originated corn grains

  • Kim, Do Hyung;Park, Ha Young;Choi, Chang Weon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.44 no.4
    • /
    • pp.541-548
    • /
    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to compare in vitro rumen fermentation characteristics among corn grains imported from America, Brazil, Argentina and Ukraine A and Ukraine B. Two Holstein steers, each surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula, consuming total mixed ration were used as rumen fluid donors. In vitro rumen fermentation experiments were performed in a completely random design which included a control (no corn) and treatments with 3.0 g of corn from different geographical origins, i.e., America, Brazil, Argentina, and Ukraine A and Ukraine B, respectively. Ruminal pH, ammonia-N, volatile fatty acid (VFA) and total gas production were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h post-incubation, respectively. No differences (p > 0.05) in mean ruminal pH appeared among the treated groups, however, ruminal pH patterns differed; i.e. corn treated groups had dramatically lower pH compared with control during the entire incubation period. Similarly, no different patterns between the groups in ammonia-N (p > 0.05) appeared until 6 h post-incubation. Unexpectedly, higher ammonia-N concentration for control than that for the corn treated groups appeared after 12 h post-incubation despite that for all groups increased. Total VFA was similar between the groups until 6 h post-incubation, but VFA after 12 h post-incubation was different (p < 0.05), i.e. VFA for corn from Argentina, Ukraine A, Ukraine B, and Brazil were comparatively higher than for America. Overall, data in this study showed that the corns of different origins may have different feed values to ruminants despite having similar chemical compositions.