• Title, Summary, Keyword: Running Safety

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A Study on the Wireless Communication Method for Emergency Broadcasting System in Metro Environments (도시철도용 비상방송시스템을 위한 무선통신방식 연구)

  • Jang, Soo-Hyun;Shin, Dae-Kyo;Yoon, Sang-Hun;Jung, Han-Gyun;Jin, Seong-Keun;Lim, Ki-Taeg
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.202-210
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    • 2018
  • Recently, the subway running in metro environments has a problem in securing the safety of passengers due to the failure of announcement in emergency situations such as breakdown, train accidents and power outage in the underground tunnels. Thus, there is a need to develop an emergency broadcasting system that can provide the announcement to all passenger cars in any emergency situations on the railway route. In this paper, the applicability of various wireless communication technologies for the emergency broadcasting system through the measurement campaign was examined in Seoul metropolitan subway. A WAVE(Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments) is communication technology that can use 5.9GHz dedicated frequency band without charge and it is possible to directly communicate between terminals over 200m without the help of additional relay. Especially, it confirms robust communication performance in the various metro environments, and therefore, it is considered to be suitable as a communication method of a radio-connected emergency broadcasting system for urban subway.

Dynamic Interaction Evaluation of Maglev Vehicle and the Segmented Switching System (자기부상열차 차량과 분기기 동적상호작용 시험 평가)

  • Lee, Jong-Min;Han, Jong-Boo;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.576-582
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    • 2017
  • The switching system in a maglev train is an indispensable element for distributing train routes, and it should be designed to ensure safe operation. Unlike conventional wheels on rails, the switching track in EMS-type maglev is supported by a group of 3 to 4 steel girders. When the vehicle changes its route, the segmented track allows the girders to change from a straight position to a curved one with a small radius of curvature. Hence, the structural characteristics of the segmented switching system may affect the levitation stability of the maglev vehicle. This study experimentally evaluates the dynamic interaction between maglev vehicles and a segmented switching system. The results may be helpful for improving the switching system. The measured levitation and lateral air gaps were evaluated at a vehicle speed of 25 km/h, and the ride quality of the Maglev vehicle was determined to be "comfortable" according to the UIC 513 standard.

An Experimental Study on Debris Reduction System for Culvert (암거의 유송잡물 저감시설에 관한 실험 연구)

  • Kim, Sung-Joong;Kang, Joon-Gu;Kim, Jong-Tae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.696-706
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to verify experimentally debris reduction facilities for culverts installed in small rivers. A culvert is defined as a structure laid under a road or a railroad that passes through an inner urban area or downtown area to make an artificial canal. Culverts are generally categorized into road culverts or waterway culverts, among which the latter are artificial structures designed to discharge running water into a river. At the time of floods, the structural safety of waterway culverts can be undermined by the accumulation of debris, such as soil, boughs and weeds, and they may be at risk of overflowing due to blockages. Debris reduction facilities are necessary to prevent such damage. In this study, the effects of the three existing types of debris reduction facilities were examined through hydraulic experiments. The results of the experiments showed that vertical separation to divert debris reduced the accumulation rate by 27.65 to 31.39 percent. The two types of screen designed to block and divert debris, respectively, were found to have excellent debris blocking abilities. However, when the effects of the rising water level are considered simultaneously, the screen to divert debris was found to show superior effects. The screen to block debris can be considered to have excellent debris blocking ability, but requires the continuous collection of the debris, due to the high risk of rising water levels caused by its accumulation.

Ultrastructure of Sarcocystis grueneri-like Sarcocysts from Cardiac Muscle of Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in Korea (한국산 Red Deer (Cervus elaphus)의 심근에서 관찰된 Sarcocystis grueneri 양 포낭의 투과전자현미경 소견)

  • Son, Hwa-Young;Kim, Nam-Soo;Ryu, Si-Yun;Kim, Hyeon-Cheol;Rhee, Ju-Hee;Cho, Jeong-Gon;Park, Bae-Keun
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.595-599
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    • 2009
  • Sarcocystis grueneri-like sarcocysts were found from the cardiac muscles of a rearing red deer (Cervus elaphus) carcass in Korea. In the light microscopical examination of sarcocysts, they were oval to spherical cysts and 90-170$\times$110-380 ${\mu}m$ in size. However, there was no inflammation and myofiber degeneration. In the transmission electron microscope, these cysts were located within the sarcoplasm of the host cell and filled with merozoites. The sarcocysts were enclosed by a very thin wall (0.45-0.6 ${\mu}m$ thick) that consists of protrusions and ground substance. The primary cyst wall formed numerous strip-like protrusions which were 0.2-0.3 ${\mu}m$ wide and up to 4.2 ${\mu}m$ long. The protrusions were running in parallel with the surface of the cyst. A characteristic of the cyst wall was absent of fibrils inside the protrusions. Merozoites in the compartment measured about $15\times4\;{\mu}m$. The merozoite consisted of four regions: micronemes and rhoptries, amylopectin granule, nucleus, and amylopectin granules. The number of rhoptry was counted in 7-13.

Early Results of Extracardiac Fontan Operation (심장외폰탄수술의 조기성적)

  • 김웅한;정도현;김수철;전홍주;이창하;김욱성;오삼세;정철현;나찬영
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.31 no.7
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    • pp.650-659
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    • 1998
  • Between August 1996 and August 1997, 22 patients underwent extracardiac Fontan operations. The basic diagnoses included univentricular heart of the right ventricular type (n=12); univentricular heart of the left ventricular type (n=4); tricuspid atresia (n=4); left isomerism, transposition of great arteries, ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis (n=1); and criss-cross heart with uneven ventricle (n=1). The median age of the 14 men and 8 women was 29 months (range from 21 months to 26 years). Previous procedures included bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (n=15, interval=15.6$\pm$3.4 months), Kawashima operation (n=4, interval=37.5$\pm$20 months), and classic Glenn shunt (n=1, interval=14 years). In 2 patients, extracardiac Fontan operations were done without any previous procedures. A 16- to 22-mm flexible Gore-Tex tube graft (n=18), Hemashield graft (n=3), or, alternatively, a nonvalved aortic allograft (n=1) was cut and anastomosed end-to-end between inferior vena cava and undersurface of pulmonary artery using Gore-Tex or Prolene suture in a running fashion. In risk Fontan patients (n=12), a communication between the extracardiac conduit and the right atrium was constructed. In the most 13 recent patients, the procedures were done without cross-clamping of the aorta and with a beating heart. Operative mortality was 9.1% (n=2). Complications included persistent chest tube drainage for more than 7 days (n=5), chorea (n=2), and low cardiac output (n=1). There were no late deaths. Follow-up echocardiogram (mean: 6 months) demonstrated satisfactory hemodynamic results in the surviving 20 patients. Potential advantages of this technique consist of minimization of surgical manipulation of atrial tissue, reduction or elimination of myocardial ischemia, creationof a uniform and stable inferior vena cava-to-pulmonary artery conduit, and increased flexibility and safety in certain high-risk patients such as those with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary hypertension, and impaired ventricular function. Further investigations during a longer follow-up are needed to confirm the intermediate and long-term results, especially the reduction of late atrial arrhythmias.

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Validation of Ship Detection by the RADARSAT Synthetic Aperture Radar and KOMPSAT EOC: Field Experiments (RADARSAT SAR와 KOMPSAT EOC에 의한 선박 탐지의 검증: 현장 실험)

  • Yang Chan-Su;Kim Sun-Young
    • Proceedings of KOSOMES biannual meeting
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    • pp.43-47
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    • 2004
  • Two different sensors (here, KOMPSAT and RADARSAT) are considered for ship detection, and are used to delineate the detection performance for their data The experiments are set for coastal regions of Mokpo Port and Ulsan Port and field experiments on board pilot boat are conducted to collect in situ ship validation information such as ship type and length This paper introduce mainly the experiment result of ship detection by both RADARSAT SAR imagery and land-based RADAR data, operated by the local Authority of South Korean, so called vessel traffic system (VTS) radar. Fine imagery of Ulsan Port was acquired on June 19, 2004 and in-situ data such as wind speed and direction, taking pictures of ships and natural features were obtained aboard a pilot ship. North winds, with a maximum speed of 3.1 m/s were recorded Ship's position, size and shape and natural features of breakwaters, oil pipeline and alongside ship were compared using SAR and VTS. It is shown that KOMPSAT/EOC has a good performance in the detection of a moving ship at a speed of kts or more an hour that ship and its wake can be imaged. The detection capability of RADARSAT doesn't matter how fast ship is running and depends on a ship itself, e.g. its material, length and type. Our results indicate that SAR can be applicable to automated ship detection for a VTS and SAR combination service.

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Study on Imputation Methods of Missing Real-Time Traffic Data (실시간 누락 교통자료의 대체기법에 관한 연구)

  • Jang Jin-hwan;Ryu Seung-ki;Moon Hak-yong;Byun Sang-cheal
    • The Journal of The Korea Institute of Intelligent Transport Systems
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2004
  • There are many cities installing ITS(Intelligent Transportation Systems) and running TMC(Trafnc Management Center) to improve mobility and safety of roadway transportation by providing roadway information to drivers. There are many devices in ITS which collect real-time traffic data. We can obtain many valuable traffic data from the devices. But it's impossible to avoid missing traffic data for many reasons such as roadway condition, adversary weather, communication shutdown and problems of the devices itself. We couldn't do any secondary process such as travel time forecasting and other transportation related research due to the missing data. If we use the traffic data to produce AADT and DHV, essential data in roadway planning and design, We might get skewed data that could make big loss. Therefore, He study have explored some imputation techniques such as heuristic methods, regression model, EM algorithm and time-series analysis for the missing traffic volume data using some evaluating indices such as MAPE, RMSE, and Inequality coefficient. We could get the best result from time-series model generating 5.0$\%$, 0.03 and 110 as MAPE, Inequality coefficient and RMSE, respectively. Other techniques produce a little different results, but the results were very encouraging.

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Alternative to Improve the Lighting of Crosswalk on Rural Highways (지방지역 도로 횡단보도 조명 개선 방안)

  • Lee, Suk-Ki
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.435-443
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    • 2013
  • While rural highways carry on lower traffic volumes, the deviations of running speeds between vehicles appear to be higher on rural highways than urban highways. The speed characteristic of rural highways is adding to pedestrian-related accidents which occur on a crosswalk with poor sight distance due to the limits of car headlights and lighting. Specially, the aged was mostly occupied in nighttime-related accidents on crosswalks, and pedestrians crossing on the far side of approaching vehicles appear to have the probability of fatality higher than the near side. An alternative is needed to resolve the compounded accidents, and then this study is to establish a new approach to an optimum lighting environment on a crosswalk to improve pedestrian safety. This study was conducted by a survey and a field study on the lighting of existing crosswalks. The field study shows that the existing lighting has the problem of wasting energy and impeding walking due to glare. The survey shows that nighttime sight distance on a crosswalk is required to improve and that road users prefer to be brighter pedestrian waiting space together with the crosswalk. Thus, a lighting environment that is not too bright and illuminates the crosswalk and the pedestrian waiting space is needed to implement.

Performance Analysis of TPMS Beamformer According to Variance of Antenna Interelement Spacing (안테나 간격 변화에 대한 TPMS 빔형성기 성능분석)

  • Choi, Byung-Sang;Kim, Seong-Min;Hwang, Suk-Seung
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.907-915
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    • 2013
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) is an auxiliary safety system for recognizing the condition of tires based on the pressure and temperature data transmitted from the sensor unit installed on a tire of the vehicle. Using TPMS, a driver can frequently check the state of tires and it aids to maintain the optimum running condition of the vehicle. Since TPMS must utilize the wireless communication technique to transmit data from a sensor unit to a signal processing unit installed in the vehicle, it suffers from interference signals caused by various external electrical or electronic devices. In order to suppress high-power interference signals, we employ beamforming techniques based on the uniform linear antenna array. As the number of the antennas is increased, the performance of the interference suppression is improved. However, there is the limit of the number of antennas, installed in the center of a vehicle, because of its size. In this paper, we compare and analyze the performance of the beamformer, when reducing the interelement spacing of antennas, to increase the number of the receiving antennas. For the performance analysis of the beamformers, we consider the switching beamformer and minimum-variance distortionless-response (MVDR) beamformer for TPMS, recently proposed.

Analysis of Trial Test for ATP On-board Equipment of Tilting Train (틸팅열차 ATP 차상장치의 시운전시험 분석)

  • Baek, Jong-Hyen
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.11 no.10
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    • pp.3911-3916
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    • 2010
  • In this paper we describe contents and results on running test for ATP on-board equipment, which has propelled as one of the research projects, so called, "Reliability assessment and operation technology development for Korean-type tilting trains" in order to ensure the safety and operation efficiency of tilting trains. We developed tilting trains for the speed-up of conventional lines and for the passenger service improvement where the KTX is not available. And we made progress the operation trial test in the 120,000 km distance with the use of ATS equipment, used in existing lines, for the purpose of the reliability assessment of the developed tilting trains. We decided to accelerate the speed for more than 200km/h with respect to the 6 existing lines including Jungang-line and Chungbuk-line where KTX has not operated. According to this decision, Train control system is to be changed from ATS to ATP. We should have installed an ATP on-board unit in tilting trains and verified the operational suitability, therefore we installed the same ATP on-board unit on tilting trains as that used in the ATP construction project on Gyeongbu-line and Honam-line, and verified that the function and performance of the installed ATP on-board unit conformed to the tilting trains operation.