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Effects of Signal Peptide and Adenylate on the Oligomerization and Membrane Binding of Soluble SecA

  • Shin, Ji-Yeun;Kim, Mi-Hee;Ahn, Tae-Ho
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.319-328
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    • 2006
  • SecA protein, a cytoplasmic ATPase, plays a central role in the secretion of signal peptide-containing proteins. Here, we examined effects of signal peptide and ATP on the oligomerization, conformational change, and membrane binding of SecA. The wild-type (WT) signal peptide from the ribose-binding protein inhibited ATP binding to soluble SecA and stimulated release of ATP already bound to the protein. The signal peptide enhanced the oligomerization of soluble SecA, while ATP induced dissociation of SecA oligomer. Analysis of SecA unfolding with urea or heat revealed that the WT signal peptide induces an open conformation of soluble SecA, while ATP increased the compactness of SecA. We further obtained evidences that the signal peptide-induced oligomerization and the formation of open structure enhance the membrane binding of SecA, whereas ATP inhibits the interaction of soluble SecA with membranes. On the other hand, the complex of membrane-bound SecA and signal peptide was shown to resume nucleotide-binding activity. From these results, we propose that the translocation components affect the degree of oligomerization of soluble SecA, thereby modulating the membrane binding of SecA in early translocation pathway. A possible sequential interaction of SecA with signal peptide, ATP, and cytoplasmic membrane is discussed.

대학도서관 자료처리 원가계산에 관한 연구

  • 이경호;심의순
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.10
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    • pp.157-191
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    • 1983
  • The purpose of the study is to build a general cost a counting model for university libraries, to clarify the possible areas of its a n.0, pplication by employing job cost accounting and process cost accounting methods. System analysis is performed as to the fields of acquisition, processing (cataloging & classification), and book shelving system. The existing operation processes and time required for each operation of these three systems are analyzed, from which detailed system flowcharts were drawn and job descriptions and the content of job were identified. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: (1) The processing time of one book in each systems: Oriental books. a. Acquisition system. the time required the time required in case of job cost case of job cost accounting after purchasing, 8 min. 21 sec. the time required in case of process cost accounting 15 min. 7 sec. b. Processing system. the time required for non-duplicate, 34 min. 40 sec. the time required for duplicate, 8 min. 49 sec. the time required for purchasing of more than the time required two copies at a time. 4 min. 44 sec. c. Book shelving system. the time required. 1 min. 43 sec. Western books. a. Acquisition system the required in case of job cost accounting, 9 min. 1 sec. the time required in case of process cost accounting. 15 min. 7 sec. b. Processing system. the time required for non-duplicate, 32 min. 58 sec. the time required for duplicate, 9 min. 26 sec. the time required for purchasing of more than two copies at a time. 5 min. 33 sec. c. Book shelving system. the time required. 1 min. 43 sec. (2) Total sum of processing time and processing cost per book. Oriental books (including material cost) the time required. cost. a. non-duplicate, 51 min. 30 sec. 2, 791 won b. duplicate, 25 min. 39 sec. 1, 580 won c. purchasing of more than two copies as a time, 21 min. 34 sec. 1, 368 won Western books(including material cost) a. non-duplicate, 49 min. 48 sec. 3, 189 won b. duplicate, 26 min. 16 sec. 1, 846 won c. purchasing of more than two copies at a time. 22 min. 23 sec. 1, 388 won

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Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the secY Homolog from Streptomyces lividans TK24 (Streptomyces lividans Tk24에서 secY homolog의 클로닝과 분석)

  • 김순옥;서주원
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.110-116
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    • 1998
  • The secY gene of Streptomyces lividans TK24 was cloned by the PCR method with synthetic oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of the conserved regions of Ll5-secY-adk operon from E. coli, B. subtilis, and M luteus. The deduced amino acid sequences of the SecY are highly homologous to those of other known SecY. It has 46%, 43%, 57%, 44%, 42%,56%, 90% similarity to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus licheniformis Staphylococcus carnosus, Brevibacterium flavum, Streptomyces scabies, respectively and almost the same with Streptomyces coelicolor, The gene organization of Ll5- SecY-Adk is also similar to those of other bacteria. SecY and Adk are very likely translationally coupled that is overlapping stop codon of SecY and start codon of Adk with one base pair, which is common structure among high GC content strains of gram positive bacteria.

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The Changes of Isokinetic Strength in Accordance with Short-term Weight loss of Wrestlers (레슬링 선수들의 단기간 체중감량이 슬관절의 등속성 운동능력에 미치는 영향)

  • 염종우
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.780-785
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate isokinetic strength changes of knee joint in accordance with short-term weight loss of wrestlers. For this purpose, 14 male wrestlers of a K technical high school in B city participated in our research. The wrestlers were divided into two groups; one group of the wrestlers didn't lose any weight, and the other lost over 5% of their weights. The isokinetic strength was also observed before and after weight loss. The isokinetic strenght test were processed at test speed of the$60^{\circ}C$/sec, $90^{\circ}C$/sec, and $250^{\circ}C$/sec with the CYBEX NORM system(Cybex 770+TMS, USA). Peak torque, peak torque %BW, total work, total work %BW, and endurance ratio were measured. Results showed that the isokinetic strength after the short-term weight loss of wrestlers decreased meaningfully Although endurance ratio didn't show any meaningful difference in our research, but more accurate research may find out the relationship between short-term weight loss and the endurance ratio of isokinetic strength.

Analysis of Forest Fire Spread Rate and Fire Intensity by a Wind Model (모형실험에 의한 풍속변화에 따른 산불의 확산속도와 강도 분석)

  • 채희문;이찬용
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.213-217
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    • 2003
  • Forest fire spread and intensity were modeled as a function of wind and fuel. Spread rate and intensity of forest fire were related to weight and thickness of forest fuel beds and to wind speed. Forest fire spread rate and fire intensity were differentiated according to wind speed. Rapid wind speed causes a faster forest fire spread rate and greater fire intensity than does slow wind speed. Relative burning time of the fire from beginning to end in the model was 161 sec at a wind speed of 0.5 m/sec and 146 sec at 1m/sec on the model. Average forest lire spread rate was 0.014 m/sec at a wind speed of 0.5 m/sec and 0.020 m/sec at 1m/sec. Average fire intensity was 0.183 ㎾/m at a wind speed of 0.5 m/sec, 0.259 ㎾/m at 1m/sec. Fire intensity was greater when forest fire spread rate was rapid.

Isokinetic Evaluation of the Trunk Flexors and Extensors of Operated Laminectomy & Disectomy Patients (요추간판 수핵탈출중 수술환자의 체간부 굴근 및 신근의 등속성 운동 평가)

  • Choi, Byung-Ok
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.951-961
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    • 1996
  • Isokinetic exercise is dynamic, but the spped of movement must be regulated so that the resistance is in ratio to the force applied at each point throughout the full range of motion. The purpose of this study is to comparise with trunk flexors & extensors of isokinetic evaluation of pre-exercise and post-exercise in operated laminectomy & disectomy patients. 7 subjects were examined at $120^{\circ}$/sec and $60^{\circ}$/sec each 15 days. The results were as follows; 1. Peak torque of extensors on $60^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically(p<0.05), but peak torque of flexors on $60^{\circ}$/sec showed no significant difference statistically. 2. Trunk flexors/extensors ratio of peak torque of $60^{\circ}$/sec showed no significant difference ststistically. 3. Peak torque % B.W of extensors on $60^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically(p<0.05), but peak torque % B.W of flexors on $60^{\circ}$/sec showed no significant difference statistically. 4. TAE of extensors on $60^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically (p<0.05), but TAE of flexors on $60^{\circ}$/sec showed no significant difference. 5. Total work of flexors & extensors on $60^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically (p<0.05). 6. Average power of flexors & extensors on $120^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically(p<0.05). 7. Endurance ratio of flexors & extensors on $120^{\circ}$/sec showed no significant difference statistically. 8. Set total work of flexors & extensors on $120^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically(p<0.05). 9. TAE of extensors on $120^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically(p<0.05), TAE of flexors on $120^{\circ}$/sec showed no significant difference statistically. 10. Total work of flexors & extensors on $120^{\circ}$/sec showed significant difference statistically (p<0.05).

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Dynamic Behavior of Model Set Net in the Flow (모형 정치망의 흐름에 대한 거동)

  • Jung, Gi-Cheul;Kwon, Byeong-Guk;Le, Ju-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.275-284
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    • 1997
  • This experiment was carried out to measure the sinking depth of each buoy, the change in the net shape of the net, and the tension of sand bag line according to the R (from bag net to the fish court) and L (from fish court to the bag net) current directions and their velocity by the model experiment. The model net was one-fiftieth of the real net, and its size was determined after considering the Tauti’s Similarity Law and the dimension of the experimental tank. 1. The changes of the net shape were as follows : In the current R, the end net of fish court moved 20mm down the lowerward tide and 10mm upper part. So the whole model net moved up at 0.2m/sec. The shape of the net showed an almost linear state from bag net to the fish court at 0.6m/sec. In the current L, the door net moved 242mm down the lowerward tide and 18mm upper part. So the whole model net moved up at 0.2m/sec. The net shape showed an almost linear state from the fish court to the bag net at 0.5m/sec. 2. The sinking depths of each buoy were as follows: In the current R, the head buoy started sinking at 0.2m/sec and sank 20mm, 99mm at 0.3m/sec and 0.6m/sec, respectively. The end buoy didn't sink from 0m/sec to 0.6m/sec but showed a slight quake. In the current L, the end buoy started sinking at 0.1m/sec, and sank 5mm and 108mm at 0.2m/sec and 0.6m/sec, respectively. The whole model net sank at 0.5m/sec except the head buoy. 3. The changes of the sand bag line tension were as follows: In the current R, the tension affected by the sand bag line of the head buoy showed 273.51g at 0.1m/sec increased to 1298.40g at 0.6m/sec. In the current L, the tension affected by the sand bag line of the end buoy on one side showed 137.08g at 0.1m/sec increased to 646.00g at 0.6m/sec. The changes in the sand bag line tension were concentrated on the sand bag line of the upperward tide with increasing velocity at the R and L current directions. However, no significant increase in tension was observed in the other sand bag lines.

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THE EFFECT OF ETCHING TIME ON SHEAR BOND STRENGTH AND ADAPTIBILITY OF ONE-BOTTLE DENTIN ADHESIVE (One-bottle 상아질 접착제의 전단결합강도와 접착성에 관한 부식시간의 효과)

  • Park, Kwang-Soo;Park, Il-Yoon;Cho, Young-Gon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.240-250
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching time on the shear bond strength and adaptibility of composite to enamel and dentin when used one-bottle adhesive Prime & Bond$^{TM}$ 2.0. The proximal and occlusal surfaces of 88 extracted human molars were ground to expose enamel(n=44) and dentin (=44) using diamond wheel saw. Teeth were randomly assigned to four test groups(n=11) and received the following treatments : Control group were conditioned with 36% phosphoric acid for 20 sec. according to the manufacturer's directions. Experimental 10 sec. group, 30 sec. group and 60 sec. group were conditioned with 36% phosphoric acid for 10 sec., 30 sec. and 60 sec., respectively. Teeth were rinsed and dried for 2 sec. Prime & Bond$^{TM}$ 2.0 were applied according to the manufacturer's directions and Spectrum$^{TM}$ TPH composite resins were bonded to enamel and dentin surfaces. All specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours. Eighty specimens were sheared in a Universal Testing Machine with a crosshead speed of 5mm/minute. One way ANOVA and LSD test were used for statistical analysis of the data. Failure modes of all specimens after shear bond strength test were examined and listed. Also, representive postfracture modes and eight specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope. The results of this study were as follows: 1. The shear bond strength to enamel was the highest value in 30 sec. group (20.68${\pm}$8.54MPa) and the lowest value in 10 sec. group (14.92${\pm}$6.07MPa), so there was significant difference of shear bond strength between two groups (p<0.05). But there was no significant difference among other groups (p>0.05). With longer etching time to enamel from 10 sec. to 30 sec., higher the shear bond strength was obtained, but the shear bond strength was decreased at 60 sec. etching time. 2. The shear bond strength to dentin was the highest value in control group (13.08${\pm}$6.25MPa) and the lowest value in 60 sec. group (9.47${\pm}$3.35MPa), but there was no significant difference among the all groups (p>0.05). The eching time over 20 sec. decreased the shear bond strength to dentin. 3. In SEM observation, the enamel and resin interfaces were showed close adaptation with no relation to etching time of enamel. And the dentin and resin interfaces were showed close adaptation at 20 sec. and 30 sec. etching time, but showed some gaps at 10 sec. and 60 sec. etching time. Accordingly, these results indicated that a appropriate etching time in Prime & Bond$^{TM}$ 2.0 was required to be 30 sec. in enamel and 20 sec. in dentin for the high shear bond strength and good adaptation between the composite resin and tooth substance.

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Effect of Korean folk medicine 'SecSec' on inflammatory cytokine secretion in HMC-1 cells

  • Choi, In-Young;Kim, Mi-Sun;Koo, Hyoun-Na;Hong, Seung-Hun;Kim, Hyung-Min;Um, Jae-Young
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2005
  • 'SecSec' has been used for the purpose of prevention and treatment of throat diseases such as sore throat, cough, bronchial asthma and allergic asthma in Korea. However, its effect in experimental models remains unknown. To investigate the biological effect of SecSec, we examined cytotoxicity and secretion of inflammatory cytokines on human leukemic mast cell line, HMC-1, stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore A23187. SecSec by itself had no cytotoxicity on HMC-1. When SecSec (1 mg/ml) was added, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha $(TNF-{\alpha})$, interleukin (IL)-6, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was significantly inhibited about 47.20%, 25.55%, and 46.43%, respectively on PMA plus A23187-stimulated HMC-1 cells. But SecSec did not inhibit IL-8 secretion. These findings may help understanding the mechanism of action of this medicine leading to control activated mast cells on allergic inflammatory condition like asthma.

Bacillus subtilis의 단백질 분비기구 SecY의 유전자 수준의 조절이 단백질 분비에 미치는 영향

  • 김상숙;김순옥;서주원
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.408-414
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    • 1996
  • The SecY is a central component of the protein export machinery that mediate the translocation of secretory proteins across the plasma membrane, and has been known to be rate-limiting factor of secretion in Escherichia coli. In order to study the extracellular protein secretion in Gram-positive microorganism, we have, constructed strains harboring more than one copy of the gene for SecY. Firstly, the gene, for B. subtilis SecY and its promoter region was subcloned into pDH32 and the chimeric vector was inserted into amyE locus by homologous recombination. Secondly, low copy number vector, pCED6, was also used for subcloning the secY gene and for constructing a strain which harbors several copies of secY. The KH1 cell which harbor two copies of secY on the chromosome excreted more extracellular proteins than the wild type PB2. Moreover, the KH2 cells which harbor several copies of secY in pCED6 vector excreted more extracellular proteins than the KH1 cells. Here, we found that the capacity of protein secretion is partly controlled by the number of secY and it is suggested that SecY has also an important role in protein secretion in B. subtilis, a gram positive microorganism, as like in E. coli. This will promote the use of B. subtilis as a host for the expression of useful foreign gene and excretion of precious proteins.

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