• Title, Summary, Keyword: SPI

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Effect of Soybean Protein Isolate on the Baking Qualities of Bread (분리 대두단백질의 첨가가 제빵적성에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Song-Hwan;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1295-1300
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean protein isolate (SPI) on the baking qualities of bread which was made of composite flour blended with SPI extracted at acidic (pH 2.0, 3.0), neutral (pH 7.0) and alkaline (pH 10.0, 12.0) conditions. The mixogram showed that water absorption of composite flour dough blended with SPI extracted at pH 2.0 and 12.0 was higher than that of 100% wheat flour dough, and mixing time was shorter than that of 100% wheat flour dough. No differences were found between the composite flour blended with SPI at level of 5% and 100% wheat flour on the loaf volume of bread. The loaf volume of bread made of composite flour blended with $SPI_2\;AND\;SPI_3$ at level of 10% was lower than that of 100% wheat flour, but that of $SPI_7,\;SPI_{10},\;and\;SPI_{12}$, which had higher emulsion capacity than $SPI_2,\;SPI_3$ was similar to that of 100% wheat flour. No differences were found between the composite flour blended with SPI at level of 5% and that of 100% wheat flour on springiness, chewiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, adhesiveness and hardness of bread. The composite flour blended with SPI at level of 10% was similar to 100% wheat flour on springiness, chewiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, adhesiveness and hardness of bread except for chewiness, gumminess and hardness of $SPI_2,\;and\;SPI_{12}$ which were significantly higher than that of 100% wheat flour (P<0.05).

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Correlation Analysis of Forest Fire Occurrences by Change of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI 변화에 따른 산불발생과의 관계 분석)

  • YOON, Suk-Hee;WON, Myoung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.14-26
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    • 2016
  • This study analyzed the correlation between the standardized precipitation index(SPI) and forest fire occurrences using monthly accumulative rainfall data since 1970 and regional fire occurrence data since 1991. To understand the relationship between the SPI and forest fire occurrences, the correlations among the SPI of nine main observatory weather stations including Seoul, number of fire occurrences, and log of fire occurrences were analyzed. We analyzed the correlation of SPI with fire occurrences in the 1990s and 2000s and found that in the 1990s, the SPI of 3 months showed high correlation in Gyeonggi, Gangwon, and Chungnam, while the SPI of 6 months showed high correlation in Chungbuk, and the SPI of 12 months showed high correlation in Gyeongnam, Gyenongbuk, Jeonnam, and Jeonbuk. In the 2000s, the SPI of 6 months showed high correlation with the fire frequency in Gyeonggi, Chungnam, Chungbuk, Jeonnam, and Jeonbuk, whereas the fire frequency in western Gangwon was highly correlated with the SPI of 3 months and, in eastern Gangwon, Gyeongnam, and Gyenongbuk, with the SPI of 1 month. In the 1990s, distinct differences in the drought condition between the SPI of 3 months and 12 months in the northern and southern regions of Korean Peninsula were found, whereas the differences in both the SPI of 1 month and 6 months were found in the Baekdudaegan region except western Gangwon since the 2000s. Therefore, this study suggests that we can develop a model to predict forest fire occurrences by applying the SPI of 1-month and 6-month data in the future.

Effect of Soybean Protein Isolate on the Properties of Noodle (분리대두단백질의 첨가가 제면적성에 미치는 영향)

  • Bae, Song-Hwan;Rhee, Chul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1301-1306
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of soybean protein isolate (SPI) on the properties of noodle which was made of composite flour blended with SPI extracted at acidic (pH 2.0, 3.0), neutral (pH 7.0) and alkaline (pH 10.0, 12.0) conditions. L-value of dry and cooked-moodle which were made of composite flour was lower than that of 100% wheat flour, but a and b-value wete higher than those of 100% wheat flour, Optimal cooking time of dry-noodle which was made of composite flour was longer than that of 100% wheat flour, but the weight, volume and water absorption of the cooked-noodle were lower than those of cooked-noodle of 100% wheat flour. Breaking force of dry-noodle which was made of composite flour blended with $SPI-2,\;SPI_3,\;SPI_{7}$, and $SPI-{10}$ was lower than that of 100% wheat flour, but the breaking force of dry-noodle which was made of composite flour blended with $SPI-{12}$ at level of 5% and 10% was same as that of 100% wheat flour. Springiness and cohesiveness of the cooked-noodle which was made of composite flour were same as those of 100% wheat flour, but chewiness and hardness were higher than those of 100% wheat flour.

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Effects of pH, Electrolyte Concentrations, and Alginate Molecular Weights on Surface Hydrophobicity of Soy Protein Isolates (pH, 전해질의 농도 및 알긴산 분자량이 분리콩단백질의 표면소수성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Yeong-Seon;Yoo, Byung-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.1285-1292
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    • 2016
  • Changes in surface hydrophobicity of soy protein isolate (SPI), which plays an important role in the functional characteristics of protein, were measured according to various SPI concentrations, pH levels, electrolytes concentrations, and alginate molecular weights by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonic acid as a fluorescent probe. SPI surface hydrophobicity decreased as SPI concentrations increased. SPI surface hydrophobicity reached a maximum at pH 7.0. SPI surface hydrophobicity rapidly increased as the NaCl concentration of SPI solution increased up to 100 mM, and showed no large increases above 100 mM. However, SPI surface hydrophobicity radically decreased until the $CaCl_2$ concentration reached 50 mM and revealed no large variations above 50 mM. A similar trend was exhibited in the case of $MgCl_2$. As both the concentration and molecular weight of sodium alginate increased, SPI surface hydrophobicity decreased. The increasing rate of SPI surface hydrophobicity decreased as the molecular weight of sodium alginate increased.

Effect of Phytate on the Solubility and Digestibility of Soy Protein Isolates (분리 대두단백의 용해도와 소화율에 미치는 Phytate의 영향)

  • Cho, Hee-Hwan;Yoon, Jae-Young;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.286-290
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    • 1991
  • Phytic acid known as an antinutritional facfor was studied for its effect on the solubility and digestibility of high-phytate and low-phytate soy protein isolates (SPI) obtained by two different methods of pH adjustment. Phytic acid content was 2.48% in high-phytate SPI and 0.72% in low-phytate SPI. Solubility of soy proteins was higher in low-phytate SPI than in high-phytate SPI at all pH values tested and it was lowered by adding more phytic acid to result in precipitation of the proteins. The inhibitory effect of phytic acid toward pepsin digestion of SPI increased by the increasing amount of phytic acid added and its effect was slightly higher in high-phytate SPI than in low-phytate SPI.

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Estimation and assessment of long-term drought outlook information using the long-term forecasting data (장기예보자료를 활용한 장기 가뭄전망정보 산정 및 평가)

  • So, Jae-Min;Oh, Taesuk;Bae, Deg-Hyo
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.50 no.10
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    • pp.691-701
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term drought outlook information based on long-term forecast data for the 2015 drought event. In order to estimate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for different durations (3-, 6-, 9-, 12-months), we used the observation precipitation of 59 Automated Synoptic Observing System (ASOS) sites, forecast and hindcast data of GloSea5. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis and statistical analysis (Correlation Coefficient, CC; Root Mean Square Error, RMSE) were used to evaluate the utilization of drought outlook information for the forecast lead-times (1~6months). As a result of ROC analysis, ROC scores of SPI(3), SPI(6), SPI(9) and SPI(12) were estimated to be over 0.70 until the 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-months. The CC and RMSE values of SPI(3), SPI(6), SPI(9) and SPI(12) for forecast lead-time were estimated as (0.60, 0.87), (0.72, 0.95), (0.75, 0.95) and (0.77, 0.89) until the 2-, 4-, 5- and 6-months respectively.

Mutation of the invF Gene Encoding a Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI1) Activator Increases Expression of the SPI2 Gene, sseA (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1(SPI1)의 발현조절 유전자 invF의 변이가 SPI2 유전자(sseA)의 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Ah-Reum;Joe, Min-Ho;Kim, Dong-Ho;Baik, Sang-Ho;Lim, Sang-Yong
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.70-75
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    • 2012
  • In Salmonella enterica, many genes encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI) 1 and 2 are required to cause a range of diseases in a variety of hosts. The SPI1-encoded regulator HilD activates both the SPI1 and 2 genes at different times during growth in Luria-Bertani (LB) media. In this study, the expression levels of hilD during growth in LB were investigated. The data suggest that hilD expression is induced in the early stationary phase and decreases in the late stationary phase, when sseA, an SPI2 gene, is maximally expressed. However, HilD could act as an activator of sseA expression in the late stationary phase despite being present at low levels. SseA expression was investigated in SPI1 regulator mutant strains, hilA, hilD and invF mutants. As expected, hilD mutation decreased sseA expression. However, we found that invF mutation caused a 1.5-fold increase in sseA expression in not only LB but also M9 minimal media, which is thought to resemble an intracellular environment. InvF overexpression restored sseA expression to wild-type levels in an invF mutant but did not cause an additional reduction in sseA expression. These results suggest that SPI1 controls SPI2 expression either positively or negatively.

Inland regional drought study using SPI (SPI를 이용한 내륙지방 가뭄 연구)

  • Kim, Kyosik;Park, Kibum;Kim, Myojeong;Jung, Kang-Young;Jun Young, Hong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.389-391
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    • 2017
  • 본 연구에서는 SPI지수를 이용하여 내륙지방의 가뭄을 분석하였다. 본 연구에서 적용된 SPI가뭄 지수는 국내에서 발생하였던 과거의 가뭄사상 특성을 분석하기 위하여 SPI(Standardized Precipitation Index)지수를 선정하여 안동관측소의 1983년~2016년까지의 월평균 강우자료를 취합하여 가뭄지수를 산정하였다. 또한 이를 이용하여 가뭄발생을 3개월, 6개월, 9개월, 12개월로 나누어 가뭄기간 조사를 통하여 내륙지방의 대표적인 도시인 안동지방의 가뭄특성 및 주기를 분석하였다. 그 결과, SPI-3은 겨울과 이듬해인 봄까지는 가뭄현상이 심화되며, 여름철에는 장마로 인해 가뭄이 완화되는 것으로 분석되었다. 또한, 가뭄의 주기성을 분석한 결과 5년 내외 주기가 유의한 것으로 나타났으며, SPI-3의 분석결과 1년에서 2년의 주기성을 보였다. 따라서 SPI가뭄지수를 이용하여 안동지역의 가뭄을 분석한 결과 2000년 이후 길게는 6년을 주기로 가뭄지수가 나타났으며, 관측된 강우자료를 이용하여 가뭄을 산정하데 있어서 효과적인 분석에 적용될 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.

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Effect of ${\gamma}-irradiation$ on the Physicochemical Properties of Soy Protein Isolate and Whey Protein Concentrate (감마선 조사가 Soy Protein Isolate와 Whey Protein Concentrate의 이화학적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Yong-Sik;Song, Kyung-Bin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1488-1494
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    • 1999
  • Effect of ${\gamma}-irradiation$ on the SDS-PAGE pattern, secondary structure content, the solubility of commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) was investigated. The change in the subunit molecular weight of SPI and WPC irradiated in aqueous solution or dried state was studied using SDS-PAGE. The SDS-PAGE pattern of SPI irradiated in aqueous solution revealed the fragmentation and aggregation of the subunit protein. For WPC irradiated in aqueous solution. fragmentation of the subunit protein up to 10 kGy was observed. In contrast, ${\gamma}-irradiation$ of SPI and WPC in dried state did not cause any significant changes in the SDS-PAGE pattern. The change In the secondary structure of irradiated SPI and WPC solution was studied using circular dichroism. The aperiodic structure content of SPI and WPC solution increased at higher irradiation doses, which suggests that ${\gamma}-irradiation$ caused the disruption of the ordered structure of SPI and WPC solution. Gamma-irradiation also caused the change in solubility of SPI and WPC in dried state.

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Drought Forecasting Using the Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) Artificial Neural Network Model (다층 퍼셉트론 인공신경망 모형을 이용한 가뭄예측)

  • Lee, Joo-Heon;Kim, Jong-Suk;Jang, Ho-Won;Lee, Jang-Choon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.46 no.12
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    • pp.1249-1263
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    • 2013
  • In order to minimize the damages caused by long-term drought, appropriate drought management plans of the basin should be established with the drought forecasting technology. Further, in order to build reasonable adaptive measurement for future drought, the duration and severity of drought must be predicted quantitatively in advance. Thus, this study, attempts to forecast drought in Korea by using an Artificial Neural Network Model, and drought index, which are the representative statistical approach most frequently used for hydrological time series forecasting. SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) for major weather stations in Korea, estimated using observed historical precipitation, was used as input variables to the MLP (Multi Layer Perceptron) Neural Network model. Data set from 1976 to 2000 was selected as the training period for the parameter calibration and data from 2001 to 2010 was set as the validation period for the drought forecast. The optimal model for drought forecast determined by training process was applied to drought forecast using SPI (3), SPI (6) and SPI (12) over different forecasting lead time (1 to 6 months). Drought forecast with SPI (3) shows good result only in case of 1 month forecast lead time, SPI (6) shows good accordance with observed data for 1-3 months forecast lead time and SPI (12) shows relatively good results in case of up to 1~5 months forecast lead time. The analysis of this study shows that SPI (3) can be used for only 1-month short-term drought forecast. SPI (6) and SPI (12) have advantage over long-term drought forecast for 3~5 months lead time.