• Title, Summary, Keyword: SPT

Search Result 330, Processing Time 0.115 seconds

Ground Characterization of the Cheongju Granite Area Using the Geophysical Methods (물리탐사를 이용한 청주 화강암 지역의 지반특성 파악)

  • Kim Ji-Soo;Han Soo-Hyung;Seo Yong-Seok;Lee Yong-Jae
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
    • /
    • v.15 no.1
    • /
    • pp.41-55
    • /
    • 2005
  • This research is aimed at investigating the ground characterization of the Cheongju granite area using the geophysical methods. Test site was chosen from the building site in Chungbuk University, Chongju, Chungbuk province. Furthermore, geophysical methods are employed on the outcrops in the east to map the distribution of fault and intrusion and reveal the degree of weathering. The subsurface structure mapped from seismic re-fraction survey mainly consists of two units of weathered soil and rock. Threshold of the units were determined on the basis of seismic velocity of 800 m/s, supported from the standard classification table. From the results of standard penetrating test(SPT), these units are found to show medium-high and high density, respectively. Weathering soil is subdivided in unsaturated layer and saturated layer with thresholds of seismic velocity (500 m/s) and resistivity (200 ohm-m). In particular, unsaturated layer is again classified into dry and wet portions using the GPR section. The boundary between unsaturated and saturated weathering soils corresponds to the groundwater table at depth of approximately 5~6.2 m, which is well correlated with the one from drill-core data. However, bedrock is not delineated by geophysical methods. In the GPR section, fault and intrusion observed on the outcrop are revealed not to extend to the building site. With respect to weathering degree, the outcrop characterized by low resistivity and velocity corresponds to the grade of 'completely weathered' from the geotechnical investigations.

Study on the Applicability of CPT Based Soil Classification Chart (콘관입시험결과를 이용한 흙분류차트의 적용성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Chan-Hong;Im, Jong-Chul;Kim, Young-Sang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
    • /
    • v.28 no.5C
    • /
    • pp.293-301
    • /
    • 2008
  • Soil profiling is one of the most important work among geotehnical engineering practice. Generally, soil profile is estimated from the observation of soil samples during subsurface exploration but such estimation also includes some experiencing aspects such as flushed water from the borehole, slime colour, boring speed and so on. In addition, since the capacity of hydraulic drill rig is significantly increased, thin layers might be easily missed. So, continuous soil profile is almost impossible over all depth to be bored from conventional subsurface exploration. While CPT or CPTu can serve continuous soil profile information over all depth generally in 5cm interval. Many charts or methods for soil profile from CPT result have been proposed during last several decades over the world. However they have not been verified in local ground condition in Korea. In this research, CPT results and soil classification results based on USCS were compiled from 17 sites over the Korea. Soil classification results by using 7 CPT soil classification charts were compared with those of USCS for the compiled database. Most proper CPT soil classification chart for Korean soil characteristics was evaluated and effective parameters for the soil classification from CPT were discussed. Finally interrelationship between CPT soil classification chart and USCS soil classification was evaluated.

  • PDF

Resistance Factor and Target Reliability Index Calculation of Static Design Methods for Driven Steel Pipe Pile in Gwangyang (광양지역에 적합한 항타강관말뚝의 목표신뢰성지수 및 저항계수 산정)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Tae;Kim, Daehyeon;Lim, Jae-Choon;Park, Kyung-Ho;Lee, Ik-Hyo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
    • /
    • v.16 no.12
    • /
    • pp.8128-8139
    • /
    • 2015
  • Recently, the necessity of developing the load and resistance factor design(LRFD) for soft ground improvement method has been raised, since the limit state design is requested as international technical standard for the foundation of structures. In this study, to develop LRFD codes for foundation structures in Korea, target reliability index and resistance factor for static bearing capacity of driven steel pipe piles were calibrated in the framework of reliability theory. The 16 data(in Gwangyang) and the 57 data(Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 2008) sets of static load test and soil property tests conducted in the whole domestic area were collected along with available subsurface investigation results. The resistance bias factors were evaluated for the tow static design methods by comparing the representative measured bearing capacities with the expected design values. Reliability analysis was performed by two types of advanced methods : the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), and the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method using resistance bias factor statistics. As a result, when target reliability indices of the driven pipe pile were selected as 2.0, 2.33, 2.5, resistance factor of two design methods for SPT N at pile tip less than 50 were evaluated as 0.611~0.684, 0.537~0.821 respectively, and STP N at pile tip more than 50 were evaluated as 0.545~0.608, 0.643~0.749 respectively. The result from this research will be useful for developing various foundations and soil structures under LRFD.

A Applicability Study on Single Grouted Column Method (C-RJP Grouting) for Buoyancy-Resistant Permanent Anchor in Highly Permeable Volcanic Clastic Zones (투수성이 높은 화산쇄설층에서 부력앵커 시공을 위한 단일공 차수공법 (C-RJP Grouting)의 적용성에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Yonggun;Chae, Youngsu;Park, Byunghee;Kim, Jeongryeol
    • Journal of the Korean Geoenvironmental Society
    • /
    • v.16 no.8
    • /
    • pp.5-12
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this study, buoyancy-resistance permanent anchor was considered to prevent uplift pressure of a building structure. However, this test was failed to put anchor body in the boring hole because of the rapid outflow of ground water and coefficient of permeability. In addition, the hole where the anchor body was forcefully inserted constantly flew the sea water and cement. And it was found that anchor was not settled in the ground. In order to solve this problem, jet grouting method was applied to block the ground water and the single grouted column method was chosen to install the buoyancy-resistance permanent anchor. In this paper, the single grouted column method was applied with the general jet grouting methods and grout material was fixed by 3-field tests. These tests confirmed the effect of permeability and ground improvement with field permeability test by core sampling, Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and unconfined compression test. Confirming the stability of the buoyancy-resistance permanent anchor with installation and tension test, application of the single grouted column method in the volcanic clastic zones was verified.

Study on Applicability of Simultaneous Multiple Compaction Grouting Method in Soft Clay Ground (점성토 연약지반에서의 다중 동시주입 컴팩션 그라우팅 공법 적용성 연구)

  • Lee, Hyobum;Jung, Hyun-Seok;Jung, Eui-Youp;Choi, Hangseok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
    • /
    • v.39 no.6
    • /
    • pp.779-788
    • /
    • 2019
  • The compaction grouting method is one of the conventional ground improvement methods, which consolidates and compacts the surrounding ground through the injection of grout materials with low mobility. Injecting the grout into the ground can improve the soil properties, as well as form a composite of soil-grout columns. However, the conventional grout pumping is not applicable to handle multiple injection holes at the same time, which may diminish its constructability when the construction time is not enough. This paper proposes a simultaneous multiple compaction-grouting method using a new pump system developed to cover up simultaneously three injection holes at a time. Field injection tests with a single injection hole and with triangular arrangement of injection holes were conducted to evaluate the applicability of the proposed method to soft clay ground. In addition, a series of standard penetration tests (SPTs) were performed to assess the efficiency of each arrangement in improving the soft ground. It is noted from the in-situ test results that the interval distances between injection holes and the elapse time for ground stabilization are the crucial factors governing the applicability of the simultaneous multiple compaction-grouting method to improve the soft clay ground.

A Study on the Allowable Bearing Capacity of Pile by Driving Formulas (각종 항타공식에 의한 말뚝의 허용지지력 연구)

  • Lee, Jean-Soo;Chang, Yong-Chai;Kim, Yong-Keol
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
    • /
    • v.26 no.1
    • /
    • pp.106-111
    • /
    • 2002
  • The estimation of pile bearing capacity is important since the design details are determined from the result. There are numerous ways of determining the pile design load, but only few of them are chosen in the actual design. According to the recent investigation in Korea, the formulas proposed by Meyerhof based on the SPT N values are most frequently chosen in the design stage. In the study, various static and dynamic formulas have been used in predicting the allowable bearing capacity of a pile. Further, the reliability of these formulas has been verified by comparing the perdicted values with the static and dynamic load test measurements. Also, in most cases, these methods of pile bearing capacity determination do not take the time effect consideration, the actual allowable load as determined from pile load test indicates severe deviation from the design value. The principle results of this study are summarized as follows : As a result of estimate the reliability in criterion of the Davisson method, t was showed that Terzaghi & Peck >Chin>Meyerhof > Modified Meyerhof method was the most reliable method for the prediction of bearing capacity. Comparisons of the various pile-driving formulas showed that Modified Engineering News was the most reliable method. However, a significant error happened between dynamic bearing capacity equation was judged that uncertainty of hammer efficiency, characteristics of variable, time effect etc... was not considered. As a result of considering time effect increased skin friction capacity higher than end bearing capacity. It was found out that it would be possible to increase the skin friction capacity 1.99 times higher than a driving. As a result of considering 7 day's time effect, it was obtained that Engineering news, Modified Engineering News, Hiley, Danish, Gates, CAPWAP(CAse Pile Wave Analysis Program) analysis for relation, repectively, $Q_{u(Restrike)} / Q_{u(EOID)} = 0.98t_{0.1}$ , $0.98t_{0.1}$, $1.17t_{0.1}$, $0.88t_{0.1}$, $0.89t_{0.1}$, $0.97t_{0.1}$.

A Clinical Study of HBV Markers in Various Liver Diseases Carriers and Controls (간기능 검사상 이상을 보인 환자에서의 HBV 표식자 발현 양상)

  • Choi, Jung-Kyu;Lee, Yong-Won;Choi, Jin-Myung;Chung, Moon-Kwan;Lee, Heon-Ju;Kim, Chong-Suhl
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.211-220
    • /
    • 1985
  • Serum HBsAg, AntiHBs, HBeAg, AntiHBe and AntiHBc were detected by radioimmunoassay in 39 patients with acute viral hepatitis, 79 patients with chronic hepatitis, 30 patients with liver cirrhosis, 16 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, 14 patients of HBsAg carriers and 129 cases of controls:78 cases of normal level of SGOT, SGPT, and 51 cases of elevated level of SGOT, SGPT. Following results were obtained: 1. HBsAg was detected in 66.7% of acute viral hepatitis, 63.3% of chronic hepatitis, 36.7% of liver cirrhosis, 81.3% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma and 27.1% of controls. 2. AntiHBs was positive in 0% of acute viral hepatitis, 21.5% of chronic hepatitis, 36.7% of liver cirrhosis, 31.3% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma, 0% of carrier and 44.2% of controls. 3. HBeAg was detected in 45.6% of chronic hepatitis, 23.3% of liver cirrhosis and 31.3% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma. 4. Among chronic liver diseases, antiHBe was positive in 56.3% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma, 23.3% of liver cirrhosis and 20.3% of chronic hepatitis. 5. AntiHBc was detected in most of all examines and the significance of presence of AntiHBc does not seem to represent liver disease itself but the evidence of infection of HBV. 6. Among 14 HBV carriers, 6 cases presented with abnormal SGOT, SGPT. 7. All HBV markers were negative in 5.1% of acute viral hepatitis, 5.1% of chronic hepatitis and 14.7% of controls: 17.6% of subjects with abnormal SGOT, SGPT and 12.8% of subjects with normal SGOT, SGPT. 8. Beside of HBV, other causes, such as non A, non B virus, Delta-agent, other viruses or related factors should be excluded among the patients with evidence of HBV infection associated with elevation of SGOT & SGPT.

  • PDF

The Comparative Study of Effect on Speech before and after Orthognathic Surgery of Patients (악교정 환자의 악교정 수술전후 발음양상에 대한 비교연구)

  • Kwon, Kyung-Hwan;Kim, Soo-Nam;Lee, Dong-Keun;Cho, Yong-Min;Lee, Suk-Hyang
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.191-205
    • /
    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was undertaken to determine the effects of orthognathic surgery on speech. The hyposis stated herein is that functional behaviors of the dentofacial complex, such as speech production, may be adversely affected by deviations of a structural nature(especially, Class III malocclusion). Twenty adults with Class III malocclusion(13 female and 7 male) were studied preoperative, immediate postoperative and either 6 or 12 months postoperative lateral cephalograms. They had mandibular prognathism and had undergone mandible setback operation. The position of tongue, soft palate(Uvula), hyoid bone, respiratory track width, and pharyngeal depth were assessed on lateral cephalograms with 23 cephalometric variables, ANOVA, Paired t-tests and Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient tests were used to evalute the operative changes in all cephalometric parameters. A experienced speech and language pathologists performed narrow phonetic transcriptions of tape-recorded words and sentences produced by each of the ninth patients and the recording tapes were analyzed by phonetic computer program(Computerized Speech Lab(CSL) Model 4300BI(U.S.A.)) These judges also recorded their ratings of each patient's overall consonants, hypernasality, hyponasality, and articulation proficiency. The results obtained are as follows; 1. There were significant changes in distance of posterior pharyngeal wall to tongue (TI-TW2, TS-TW3) after the surgery at 6 months postoperatively(each p<0.01 p<0.05). 2. The posterior tongue point(TI, TS, PPT) moved posteriorly after surgery and remained to its changed position at 6 months postoperatively(p<0.05). The displacement of tongue was correlated with the movement of mandibular setback amount(p<0.05). The hyoid bone moved posteriorly superiorly after immediate postoperative period. There was significant changes in hyoid bone movement after immediated postoperative period(p<0.05), but returned to its original position during the follow-up period(p>0.05) 3. The soft palate was displaced posteriorly superiorly after immediated operative period and remained to its changed position at 6 months postoperatively(p<0.05). ANS-PNS-SPT angle increasing, PPU-PPPo distance narrowing was showed after surgery, and remained its appearance 6 months postoperatively(p<0.05). 4. There were significant changes in formant value and squre diagram of vowel sound after the orthognathic surgery and the follow-up period. There were significant changes in /ㅅ/sound and posterior tongue sound. 5. The posterior movement of tongue and the posteriosuperior movement of soft palate was correlated with mandibular setback amount after orthognathic surgery. On the vowel squre diagram, the author found that the place of articulation after operation moved downward, backward, upward. 6. In assessing speech abnormalities, dental occlusion should be considered as a contributing factor. The vast majority of subjects with preoperative misarticulations eliminated or reduced their errors following orthognathic surgery. There was significant difference in speech impovement between pre- and postoperation.

  • PDF

The Relationship between the Causative Allergens of Allergic Diseases and Environments in Korea Over a 8-Year-Period: Based on Skin Prick Test from 2006 to 2015

  • Park, Chan-Soon;Kim, Boo-Young;Kim, Soo Whan;Lee, Joo Hyung;Koo, Soo Kweon;Kim, Kyung-Su;Kim, Seon Tae;Kim, Yong-Dae;Kim, Jeong Hong;Kim, Jin Kook;Kim, Chang Hoon;Kim, Hyun Jun;Kim, Hyo Yeol;Rha, Ki-Sang;Roh, Hwan-Jung;Park, Dong-Joon;Shin, Seung-Heon;Lim, Sang-Chul;Lee, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Heung Man;Lee, Heung Gu;Kim, Young Ha;Cho, Jin Hee
    • Journal of Rhinology
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.91-98
    • /
    • 2018
  • Background and Objectives: The present study evaluated the results of skin prick test using 55 allergens at 20 centers in the Republic of Korea in 2006, 2010, and 2014-2015. The aim was to assess changes in the positive rate of allergens according to temporal, regional, and environmental factors. Materials and Method: In total, 20 hospitals were selected based on the population distribution in the Republic of Korea. A skin prick test panel comprising 55 aeroallergens was distributed to 18 hospitals for this prospective study. The 2006 and 2010 skin prick test results were collected and analyzed retrospectively from 20 hospitals, while the 2014/2015 skin prick test results (from June 2014 to May 2015) were collected prospectively from 18 hospitals. Results: A total of 14,897 SPT test results were analyzed: 4,319 in 2006, 7,431 in 2010, and 1,852 in 2014/2015. The overall rate of skin prick test positivity to more than two allergens was significantly higher in males than females. The positive rates of alder pollens and birch, oak and ragweed pollen positivity were increased in older patients. Several positive rates were increased according to the temperature in spring. The positive rates for beech pollen, birch pollen, hazel pollen, oak pollen, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mugwort, cat, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae were significantly increased, while those of Cult rye pollen and dandelion were significantly decreased over the three test periods. The overall positive rate for allergens in Jeju province varied significantly from Seoul and other cities. Conclusion: Change in the positive rate of multiple aeroallergens was evaluated in the Republic of Korea over time. Our findings can be used to recommend aeroallergens suitable for inclusion in skin prick test panels in the Republic of Korea and will facilitate further investigation of changes in the patterns of allergic diseases.

Comparison of Sleep Indices between Both Wrist Actigraphies and Nocturnal Polysomnography (양측 손목에 착용한 Actigraphy와 야간수면다원검사 간의 수면지수 비교)

  • Shin, Byung-Hak;Park, Doo-Heum;Lee, Hyun-Kwon;Yu, Jae-Hak;Ryu, Seung-Ho;Ha, Ji-Hyeon;Shin, Hyeon-Sil;Hong, Seok-Chan
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.20-25
    • /
    • 2007
  • The present study compared the actigraphic indices between both wrist actigraphies (WATGs), and the sleep estimates between each WATG and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) to assess their differences and consistencies. We studied 22 right-handed subjects (mean age $43.9{\pm}13.3\;years$, M:F=14:8) with untreated primary sleep disorders (primary insomnia=8, simple snorer=2, obstructive sleep apnea=12) undergone by overnight both WATGs and NPSG, simultaneously. Comparison and correlation were analyzed between right and left wrist actigraphic data. In the sleep estimates of both WATGs and NPSG, each WATG was compared and correlated with NPSG in sleep period time (SPT), total sleep time (TST), sleep latency (SL), sleep efficiency (SE) and wake time (WT). Sleep indices between both WATGs showed significant positive correlations with no correlations in SL and fragmentation index (FI). There were no differences in sleep indices between both WATGs. SPTs of both WATGs, SL of left WATG, and TST of right WATG showed positively significant correlations, and SE of right WATG did negatively significant correlation in sleep indices between each WATG and NPSG. As each WATG was compared to PSG, SPTs of both WATGs and WT of right WATG were decreased, and TST and SE of right WATG and SL of left WATG were increased. Inconsistent SL and FI between both WATGs indicate that the activities between both WATGs can differentially happen during wake or arousal. Inconsistent sleep estimates between each WATG and NPSG may indicate the limited usefulness in measuring and analyzing one-night sleep by using WATG.

  • PDF