• Title, Summary, Keyword: SPT

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Chaotic Behavior of a Single Machine Scheduling Problem with an Expected Mean Flow Time Measure (기대 평균흐름시간 최소화를 위한 단일설비 일정계획의 성능변동 분석)

  • Joo, Un Gi
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.87-98
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    • 2016
  • A single machine scheduling problem for jobs with stochastic processing time is considered in this study. Shortest processing time (SPT) sequencing according to the expected processing times of jobs is optimal for schedules with minimal expected mean flow time when all the jobs arrive to be scheduled and their expected processing times are known. However, SPT sequencing according to the expected processing time may not be optimal for the minimization of the mean flow time when the actual processing times of jobs are known. This study evaluates the complexity of SPT sequencing through a comparison of the mean flow times of schedules based on the expected processing times and actual processing times of randomly generated jobs. Evaluation results show that SPT sequencing according to the expected flow time exhibits chaotic variation to the optimal mean flow time. The relative deviation from the optimal mean flow time increases as the number of jobs, processing time, or coefficient of variation increases.

Effects of Seongpung-tang on the NO Production of Primary Microglial Cell (성풍탕이 미세아교세포의 NO 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 성강경;임창용;이상관
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.91-98
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    • 2000
  • The water extract of Seongpungtang(SPT) has commonly been used for treatment of ischemic brain damage in Oriental traditional medicine. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the water extract of SPT rescues brain cells from ischemic damage. To elucidate the protective mechanism of ischemic induced cytotoxicity, the regulation of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and PMA (phobol-12-myristate-13-acetate) induced iNOS expression in microglial cells was investigated. LPS and PMA treatment for 48 hr in microglial cells markedly induced nitric oxide (NO), but treatment of the cells with the water extract of SPT decreased nitrite formation. In addition, LPS and PMA treatment for 48 hr induced severe cell death in microglial cells. However treatment of the cells with the water extract of SPT did not induce significant changes compared to the control cells. Furthermore, NO production was markedly decreased by treatment of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-kB) inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate(PDTC). According to the above results, it is suggested that the protective effects of the water extract of SPT against ischemic brain damage may be mediated by regulation of iNOS during ischemic condition.

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Influence of Sopung-Tang on the Blood Pressure Response of the Rat (소풍탕이 흰쥐의 혈압에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Young-Hee;Chung, Myung-Hyun;Jhoo, Heung-Kyu;Lim, Dong-Yoon;Yoo, Ho-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 1990
  • This study was attempted to examine the effect of Sopung-Tang(SPT) on the arterial blood pressure in rats and to elucidate its mechanism of action. SPT given into a femoral vein produced a dose-related vasopressor responses followed by vasodepressor responses. SPT-induced hypotension was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with atropine or propranolol while was not affected by chlorisondamine, Prazosin and cyproheptadine. SPT-evoked hypertensive activity was markedly blocked by pretreatment with prazosin but was not influenced by atropine, chlorisondamine, propranolol and cyproheptadine. Infusion of SPT(15.0 mg/kg/30min) did not affect norepinephrine-induced pressor responses. These experimental results suggest that SPT causes biphasically initial hypertensive activity followed by hypotensive activity, and that this hypertension may be due to the stimulation of peripheral adrenergic alpha-receptors and hypotension may be elicited through stimulation of peripheral cholinergic muscarinic receptors and adrenergic beta-receptors.

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Radiologic Findings in Extrapancreatic Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor with Aggressive Behavior: a Case Report

  • Choi, Hye Won;Park, Hyun Jeong;Hong, Soon Auk;Park, Sung Bin;Lee, Eun Sun;Ahn, Hye Shin;Lee, Jong Beum;Choi, Byung Ihn
    • Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.2079-2084
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    • 2017
  • Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is a low grade malignant tumor in the pancreas, and extrapancreatic SPT is extremely rare. We report a case of a 61-year-old woman who complained abdominal pain with diffuse tenderness. She was diagnosed with extrapancreatic SPT with extensive peritoneal dissemination and hepatic metastases. Although a few cases have reported imaging findings of extrapancreatic SPT, there have been no reports of extrapancreatic SPT with aggressive tumor behavior and dismal prognosis. Although imaging features closely resembled those of classical pancreatic SPTs, malignant transformation of extrapancreatic SPT should be considered when focal discontinuity of the tumor capsule with ill-defined margin and invasion of adjacent structures were identified.

A Study of Correlation between SPT N-value and Exerted Electrical Energy Required for Ground Drilling II : Application Study (Field Pilot Test) (지반굴착에 소요되는 전기에너지와 표준관입시험 N값과의 상관관계 연구 II : 적용성 평가(현장시험시공))

  • Choi, Changho
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 2012
  • In this application study, field pilot tests were performed to evaluate the validity of a proposed formula between the exerted electrical energy and SPT N-value based on the result of the basic study. Measurement sensors and recording system were developed to obtain exerted motor current and drilling depth in a field. By using the correlation formula proposed in the basic study, the measured motor current and boring speed were applied to predict SPT N-value and the predicted N-values were compared to SPT N-value of site exploration. From the comparisons it is verified that the exerted electrical energy to bore ground might be used to predict SPT N-value and pile tip location.

The advancing techniques and sputtering effects of oxide films fabricated by Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) with Ar and $O_2$ gases

  • Jung Cho;Yury Ermakov;Yoon, Ki-Hyun;Koh, Seok-Keun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.216-216
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    • 1999
  • The usage of a stationary plasma thruster (SPT) ion source, invented previously for space application in Russia, in experiments with surface modifications and film deposition systems is reported here. Plasma in the SPT is formed and accelerated in electric discharge taking place in the crossed axial electric and radial magnetic fields. Brief description of the construction of specific model of SPT used in the experiments is presented. With gas flow rate 39ml/min, ion current distributions at several distances from the source are obtained. These was equal to 1~3 mA/$\textrm{cm}^2$ within an ion beam ejection angle of $\pm$20$^{\circ}$with discharge voltage 160V for Ar as a working gas. Such an extremely high ion current density allows us to obtain the Ti metal films with deposition rate of $\AA$/sec by sputtering of Ti target. It is shown a possibility of using of reactive gases in SPT (O2 and N2) along with high purity inert gases used for cathode to prevent the latter contamination. It is shown the SPT can be operated at the discharge and accelerating boltages up to 600V. The results of presented experiments show high promises of the SPT in sputtering and surface modification systems for deposition of oxide thin films on Si or polymer substrates for semiconductor devices, optical coatings and metal corrosion barrier layers. Also, we have been tried to establish in application of the modeling expertise gained in electric and ionic propulsion to permit numerical simulation of additional processing systems. In this mechanism, it will be compared with conventional DC sputtering for film microstructure, chemical composition and crystallographic considerations.

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The Protective Effects of Sopung-tang on Brain Damage in Photothrombotic Ischemia Mouse Model (뇌경색 마우스의 뇌손상에 대한 소풍탕(疎風湯)의 보호효과)

  • Jang, Seok-O;Choi, Ji-Hye;Lee, John Dong-Yeop;Choi, Yong-Jun;Lee, In;Moon, Byung-Soon
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.612-623
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The water extract of Sopung-tang (SPT) has been traditionally used in the treatment of acute stroke in Oriental Medicine. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a critical role in the onset of post-ischemic inflammatory cascades. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of SPT on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a photothrombotic ischemia mouse model. Methods : After SPT oral administration to the mice for five days, with using Rose Bengal and cold light, photothrombotic ischemia lesion was induced in stereotactically held male BALB/c mice. Also, results including, gross finding lesion size, histopathological finding changes, and inflammatory cytokine expression changes from the photothrombotic ischemia mouse model were observed. Results : The photothrombotic ischemia lesion was decreased by the oral injection of SPT. Also, SPT inhibited the expression of TNF-$\alpha$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, the active form of caspase-3 protease, and transglutaminase-2 in the photothrombotic ischemia lesion. Conclusions : These results suggest that SPT protects the ischemic death of brain cells through suppression of the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and catalytic activation of caspase-3 protease in the photothrombotic ischemia mouse model.

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The Ground Investigation Technique of Railway Using Pagani Cone Test (Pagani Cone Test를 이용한 철도노반 조사 기법 연구)

  • Cho, Eun-Kyung;Cho, Kook-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.792-801
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    • 2016
  • Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetration Test (CPT) are widely used in geotechnical investigation methods for railway roadbed. However, SPT can not be used on the Railway track, since the equipment may contact to the electric lines. However, a portable equipment can be used for geotechnical investigation without electrical hazard. Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) is one of representative portable equipments. A normal portable DCP has usually not enough driving energy and the rigidity of cone-rod, so it is impossible to investigate the required investigate penetration depth. In this study, The adaptability of Pagani cone test which is one of portable dynamic cone penetrometer is studied and compared with SPT-N data. As a result of this study, the proposed correlation factors between Pagani cone test and SPT-N values after corrections is 1.48 for sandy soil and 1.33 for clayey soil.

New Method to Quantify Re-call Compliance during Supportive Periodontal Therapy (유지치주치료 환자에서 재내원 협조도를 수량화 시키는 새로운 방법)

  • Jung, Su-Hyeon;Jo, Seung-Gi;Chang, Hee-Yung;You, Hyung-Keun;Pi, Sung-Hee
    • The journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.57 no.12
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    • pp.736-746
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    • 2019
  • Supportive periodontal therapy(SPT) is essential for the long-term success of periodontal treatment. A patient's compliance with SPT is one of the most important factors affecting periodontal status. There are few studies quantifying compliance with SPT. The aim of this study is to quantify patient's compliance using new method and evaluate tooth loss depending on patient's supportive periodontal treatment compliance index(SPTCI) with SPT. This study included subjects diagnosed with generalized moderate to severe chronic periodontitis, who had completed active periodontal treatment and had SPT over 5 years in Wonkwang university dental hospital. Chart review and radiography analysis were performed. To quantify compliance, SPTCI representing average of gap between recommended schedules and actual visits has been used and evaluated with tooth loss. Mean period of SPT was 8.9 years and mean SPTCI was about 120. In statical analysis, patients who have higher SPTCI with SPT are more likely to have higher rate of tooth loss. Under SPTCI of 120, there were no significant co-relation between SPTCI and tooth loss. Patients diagnosed with moderate chronic periodontitis have significant co-relation between SPTCI and tooth loss, whereas patients diagnosed with severe chronic periodontitis have no co-relation. SPTCI, new method of quantifying compliance in this study, affected to tooth loss. This study suggests that using SPTCI could be helpful for prediction of tooth loss and be used to determine the interval of visit.

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