• Title, Summary, Keyword: ST41

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The Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture at ST41 on Intestinal Hypomotility Induced with Loperamide in Rats (해계 유침과 전침이 loperamide로 저하된 흰 쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Mi;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2009
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of acpuncture and electro-acupuncture of low(EA(L)) and high(EA(H)) frequency at Haegye(ST41) on intestinal hypomotility induced with loperamide in rats. Methods : We made suppressed state of intestinal motility with loperamide in rats and carried out needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at ST41 in rats devided into pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. We fed charcoal to them after the treatment and measured the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestinal track to analyze which treatment is more effective in state of intestinal hypomotility. Results : None of acupuncture, EA(L) and EA(H) at ST41 had significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. Needle retention at ST41 did not significantly increase intestinal motility suppressed with loperamide in rats. Pre-treatment of EA(L) and EA(H) at ST41 significantly increased intestinal motility suppressed with loperamide in rats. Post-treatment of EA(L) and EA(H) at ST41 did not have significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. Conclusions : These results suggest that treatment of EA(L) and EA(H) at ST41 may be effective on gastric disorders such as intestinal hypomotility and its effect had more prevention than cure. Further study is necessary to know more effects of ST41 and electro-acupuncture of low and high frequency.

Effect of Traditional Acupuncture on Canine Gastric Motility

  • Jeong, Seong-Mok;Kim, Hui-Young;Nam, Tchi-Chou
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.397-400
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    • 2002
  • The effect of traditional acupuncture on gastric motility was investigated in dogs. Six healthy dogs, of mixed breed, were used in this study. The gastric motility was evaluated by electrogastromyograms (EGMG) of the smooth muscle of the pyloric region. The acupoints investigated were ST-36, ST-40, ST-41, ST-42, ST-45, BL-21 and CV-12. The gastric motility was increased by traditional acupuncture at ST-36 and BL-21 but decreased by traditional acupuncture at CV-12 However, there were no significant changes in the gastric motility after acupuncture at ST-40, ST-41, ST-42 and ST-45.

The Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture at ST41 on Experimentally-induced Intestinal Hypo-motility in Rats: Comparison between Pre-treatment and Post-treatment (해계(解谿)(ST41) 유침 및 전침의 전.후처치가 loperamide로 억제된 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, KyungMin;Lee, Hyun;Yim, YunKyoung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.20-32
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA) of low and high frequencies at Haegye (ST41) in rats. Methods: The intestinal motility of rats was experimentally suppressed with loperamide. Acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA were carried out before the loperamide administration in the pre-treatment group, and after the loperamide administration in the post-treatment group. The rats were fed charcoal and the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestinal track was measured to analyze the effect of acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA on the intestinal hypo-motility. Results: 1. None of acupuncture, low frequency EA or high frequency EA at ST41 showed significant influences on intestinal motility of rats in normal status. 2. Pre-treatment with acupuncture at ST41 showed no significant effect on the intestinal hypo-motility induced by loperamide in rats. 3. Pre-treatment with low frequency EA and high frequency EA at ST41 significantly reduced the suppression of intestinal motility by loperamide in rats. 4. Post-treatment of acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA at ST41 had no significant influences on the intestinal hypo-motility induced by loperamide in rats. Conclusions: These results suggest that low and high frequency EA at ST41 may be effective to prevent gastric disorders such as intestinal hypo-motility.

The Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture of Low and High Frequencies at $ST_{41}$ on Experimentally Induced Intestinal Hypermotility in Rats: Comparison between Pre-treatment and Post-treatment (해계 유침 및 전침의 전.후 처치가 실험적으로 항진된 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Joo-Young;Lee, Hyun
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.117-126
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of needle retention(NR) and electro-acupuncture of low(EA(L)) and high(EA(H)) frequencies at Haegye($ST_{41}$) on intestinal hypermotility induced with carbachol in rats Methods : We made over-activated state of intestinal motility with carbachol in rats and caried out needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at Haegye($ST_{41}$) or sham point in rat devided into pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. And we resulted as followings from measuring charcoal travel rate with observation of intestinal motility. Results : 1. None of acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at $ST_{41}$ had significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. 2. Pre-treated with acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture and post-treated with acupuncture and low frequency electro-acupuncture at $ST_{41}$ didn't significantly influences intestinal motility in rat which over-activated with carbachol. 3. Post-treated with high frequency electro-acupuncture at $ST_{41}$ suppressed intestinal motility in rat which over-activated with carbachol. Conclusions : These results suggest that treatment high frequency electro-acupuncture at ST41 may be effective on gastric disorders such as intestinal hypermotility and its effect had more cure than prevention.

Effect of ST 36-ST 41 Electro-acupuncture on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Normal Volunteers Evaluated by $^{99m}Tc$-ECD SPECT (족삼리-해계 전침치료가 정상인의 국소 뇌혈류에 미치는 영향 -Brain SPECT와 SPM을 이용하여-)

  • Moon, Sang-Kwan;Min, In-Kyu;Park, Sung-Uk;Jung, Woo-Sang;Park, Jung-Mee;Ko, Chang-Nam;Cho, Ki-Ho;Bae, Hyung-Sup;Kim, Young-Suk;Kim, Deok-Yoon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.130-137
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: So far it has been reported that acupuncture increases cerebral blood supply and stimulates the functional activity of brain nerve cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that frequently used electro-acupuncture (EA) therapies for stroke increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in normal volunteers. Though ST 36-ST 41 EA is another prevailing therapy for stroke, there had been no report about its effect on rCBF. This study was to evaluate the effect of ST 36-ST 41 EA on rCBF in normal volunteers using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Methods: In the resting state, $^{99m}Tc$-ECD brain SPECT scans were performed on 10 normal volunteers (5 males, 5 female, mean age $23.6{\pm}0.5$ years). On the other study day, 7 days after the resting examination, 15 minutesEA were applied at ST 36 and ST 41 on the right side of the subjects. Immediately after ST36-ST41 EA, the second SPECT images were obtained in the same manner as the resting state. Significant increases and decreases of rCBF after EA were estimated by comparing their SPECT images with those of the resting state using paired t statistics at every voxel, which were analyzed by SPM with a threshold of p = 0.01, uncorrected (extent threshold: k=100 voxels). Results: EA applied at the right ST36-ST41 significantly increased rCBF in the right inferior parietal lobule (Brodmann area [BA] 40), right retrosubicular area (BA 48), left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21), left fusiform gyrus (BA 37), left inferior parietal lobule (BA 39), left inferior temporal gyrus (BA 20), and left somatosensory association cortex (BA 7). However, right ST36-ST41 EA significantly decreased rCBF in the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 35), right cerebellum, left frontopolar area (BA 10), left orbitofrontal area (BA 11), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9), and left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that rightST36-ST41 EA increased rCBF prominently in both inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and right retrosubicular area (BA 48), which suggest that there be correlation between specific EA and corresponding rCBF.

Effect of Acupuncture ST36 on Skin Temperature, Galvanic Skin Response and Heart Rate in Humans (족삼리(足三里) 침자(鍼刺)가 인체(人體)의 Skin temperature, Galvanic skin response 및 Heart rate에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Youn Dae-Hwan;Na Chang-Su
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the Effect of Acupuncture Chok-samni(ST36) on Skin temperature(ST), Galvanic skin response(GSR) and Heart rate(HR) in humans. ST36 is used in uneasiness, high fever, stroke, paralysis on oriental medicine. Methods : Subjects were 18 healthy oriental medical students volunteers(15male, 3female, mean age-28). Under sequence of ST36 acupuncture, the first group was observed ST, the second group was observed GSR and the third group was observed HR. Skin temperature was measured on Haegye acupoint(ST41) before and after acupuncture stimulation. Each test took 15minutes. This test was performed twice in order to increase the statistical authenticity. Results : Our result indicates that acupuncture stimulation of ST36 statistically decreased skin temperature on ST41. Also statistically decreased in HR. The change of GSR after ST36 acupuncture was decreased, but there is no statistical. Conclusions : These results suggested that acupuncture stimulation of ST 36 has effect on ST and HR in human body, and may be used by treatment as control the nerve system.

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Prevalence of pili and enterotoxins of Escherichia coli associated with diarrhea in preweaning piglets (포유자돈 소장에서 분리된 대장균의 섬모항원과 장내독소 분포양상)

  • Ham, Hee-jin;Cheon, Doo-sung;Chae, Chan-hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.779-784
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    • 1997
  • A comprehensive study of 132 Escherichia coli isolates from 150 piglets with colibacillosis included detection of heat-labile enterotoxin, heat-stable enterotoxin, and identification of K88 (F4), K99 (F5), 987P (F6), and F41. Four pili were examined by haemagglutination and slide agglutination test. Heat-labile(LT) and heat-stable(ST) enterotoxin was determined by reverse passive latex agglutination and precipitation test, respectively. Among 132 E coli isolates, 26 had K88 (19.7%), 16 had K99 (12.1%), 3 had 987P (2.3%), and 2 had F41 (1.5%). Three had K88 and K99 (2.3%), 3 had K88 and 987P (2.3%), 2 had K99 and 987P (1.5%), 5 had K99 and F41 (3.8%), and 8 E coli strains had K88, K99 and F41 (6.1%) simultaneously. Among 132 E coli isolates, 5 produced LT only (3.8%), 55 produced heat-stable toxin ST only (41.7%), and 4 produced both LT and ST (3.0%). Three major pathotypes accounted for 27.9% of E coli isolates: $K99^+$ (8.3%), $K88^+ST^+$ (9%) and $K88^+$ (10.6%). Results of this study indicated that piliated enterotoxin-producing E coli was prevalent and was associated with diarrhea in preweaning piglets.

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Evaluation of ST2 and NT-proBNP as cardiac biomarkers in dogs with heartworm disease

  • Lee, Kiho;Park, Jun-Seok;Seo, Kyoung-Won;Song, Kun-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 2018
  • This study compared serum concentrations of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) between healthy and heartworm- infected dogs. Eighteen heartworm-infected dogs and five healthy dogs were included in the study. Dogs were diagnosed and categorized by history, clinical signs, and blood assay, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and commercial ELISA kit results. Serum samples were sent to the IDEXX reference laboratory for NT-proBNP measurement. ST2 was examined by using a canine interleukin 33 receptor ELISA kit with the quantitative sandwich ELISA method. The severely infected group showed significant elevation of NT-proBNP concentration over those of the control (P=0.03) and mildly infected (P=0.04) group. There were no significant difference in ST2 concentrations among the three groups. The usefulness of NT-proBNP as a cardiac biomarker in dogs with severe heartworm disease was confirmed by the results of this study. Further investigations to assess ST2 as a cardiac biomarker are warranted.