• Title, Summary, Keyword: STD-NMR

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Discrimination of JNK3 bound small molecules by saturation transfer difference NMR experiments

  • Lim, Jong-Soo;Ahn, Hee-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2012
  • The small molecule binding to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) was examined by the measurements of saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. The STD NMR experiment of ATP added to JNK3 clearly showed the binding of the nucleotide to the kinase. The STD NMR spectrum of dNTPs added to JNK3 discriminated the kinase-bound nucleotide from the unbound ones. After the five-fold addition of ATP to the dNTPs and JNK3 mixture, only signals of the cognate substrate of JNK3, ATP, were observed from the STD NMR experiment. These results signify that by the STD NMR the small molecules bound to JNK3 can be discriminated from the pool of the unbound molecules. Furthermore the binding mode of the small molecule to JNK3 can be determined by the competition experiments with ATP.

Quercetin Directly Interacts with Vitamin D Receptor (VDR): Structural Implication of VDR Activation by Quercetin

  • Lee, Ki-Young;Choi, Hye-Seung;Choi, Ho-Sung;Chung, Ka Young;Lee, Bong-Jin;Maeng, Han-Joo;Seo, Min-Duk
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2016
  • The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily. The VDR binds to active vitamin $D_3$ metabolites, which stimulates downstream transduction signaling involved in various physiological activities such as calcium homeostasis, bone mineralization, and cell differentiation. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in nature that is known to enhance transactivation of VDR target genes. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying VDR activation by quercetin is not well understood. We first demonstrated the interaction between quercetin and the VDR at the molecular level by using fluorescence quenching and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. The dissociation constant ($K_d$) of quercetin and the VDR was $21.15{\pm}4.31{\mu}M$, and the mapping of quercetin subsites for VDR binding was performed using STD-NMR. The binding mode of quercetin was investigated by a docking study combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Quercetin might serve as a scaffold for the development of VDR modulators with selective biological activities.

Mutagenic Analysis of hPNMT Confirms the Importance of Lys57 and the Inhibitor Binding Site

  • Jeong, Ki-Woong;Kang, Dong-Il;Lee, Jee-Young;Kim, Yang-Mee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.455-458
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    • 2011
  • In previous report, with the aid of receptor-oriented pharmacophore-based in silico screening, we characterized three novel hPNMT inhibitors (YPN010, YPN016, and YPN017) and proposed that the hydrogen bonding interaction between inhibitors and side chain of Lys57 is very important to inhibitory activity of hPNMT. To confirm the importance of Lys57, mutant with substitution of Lys57 with Ala was cloned and binding study was performed for a K57A mutant of hPNMT using STD-NMR and fluorescence experiments. The binding constants for three novel inhibitors with mutant hPNMT were dramatically decreased compared to those with wild-type protein. K57A mutant-induced conversion of noradrenaline to adrenaline was suppressed about 95 % compared to wild-type hPNMT. Mutagenic analysis using a K57A mutant confirmed the importance of the Lys57 residue in binding of the inhibitor candidate to hPNMT as well as enzymatic activity of hPNMT, implying that these results are consistent with our binding model.

Binding Model of Fisetin and Human c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase 1 and Its Anti-inflammatory Activity

  • Jnawali, Hum Nath;Lee, Eunjung;Jeong, Ki-Woong;Heo, Yong-Seok;Kim, Yangmee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.2629-2634
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    • 2013
  • Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid with some anti-cancer and anti-inflammation capabilities. In this study, we perform docking studies between human c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK 1) and fisetin and proposed a binding model of fisetin and JNK 1, in which the hydroxyl groups of the B ring and oxygen at the 4-position of the C ring play key roles in binding interactions with JNK. Fluorescence quenching and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments showed that fisetin exhibits good binding affinity to JNK, $1.32{\times}10^8M^{-1}$. The anti-inflammatory activity of fisetin was also investigated. Fisetin significantly suppressed tumor necrosis factor, the NO production, and macrophage inflammatory cytokine release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. We found that the anti-inflammatory cascade of fisetin was mediated through the JNK, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathways. Our findings suggest the potential of fisetin as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Structure-Activity Relationship of the N-terminal Helix Analog of Papiliocin, PapN

  • Jeon, Dasom;Jeong, Min-Cheol;Kim, Jin-Kyoung;Jeong, Ki-Woong;Ko, Yoon-Joo;Kim, Yangmee
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2015
  • Papiliocin, from the swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, shows high bacterial cell selectivity against Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, we designed a 22mer analog with N-terminal helix from $Lys^3$ to $Ala^{22}$, PapN. It shows outstanding antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria with low toxicity against mammalian cells. In this study, we determined the 3-D structure of PapN in 300 mM DPC micelle using NMR spectroscopy and investigated the interactions between PapN and DPC micelles. The results showed that PapN has an amphipathic ${\alpha}$-helical structure from $Lys^3$ to $Lys^{21}$. STD-NMR and DOSY experiment showed that this helix is important in binding to the bacterial cell membrane. Furthermore, we tested antibacterial activities of PapN in the presence of salt for therapeutic application. PapN was calcium- and magnesium-resistant in a physiological condition, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, implying that it can be a potent candidate as peptide antibiotics.

Binding model for eriodictyol to Jun-N terminal kinase and its anti-inflammatory signaling pathway

  • Lee, Eunjung;Jeong, Ki-Woong;Shin, Areum;Jin, Bonghwan;Jnawali, Hum Nath;Jun, Bong-Hyun;Lee, Jee-Young;Heo, Yong-Seok;Kim, Yangmee
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.46 no.12
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    • pp.594-599
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    • 2013
  • The anti-inflammatory activity of eriodictyol and its mode of action were investigated. Eriodictyol suppressed tumor necrosis factor (mTNF)-${\alpha}$, inducible nitric oxide synthase (miNOS), interleukin (mIL)-6, macrophage inflammatory protein (mMIP)-1, and mMIP-2 cytokine release in LPS-stimulated macrophages. We found that the anti-inflammatory cascade of eriodictyol is mediated through the Toll-like Receptor (TLR)4/CD14, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway. Fluorescence quenching and saturation-transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments showed that eriodictyol exhibits good binding affinity to JNK, $8.79{\times}10^5M^{-1}$. Based on a docking study, we propose a model of eriodictyol and JNK binding, in which eriodictyol forms 3 hydrogen bonds with the side chains of Lys55, Met111, and Asp169 in JNK, and in which the hydroxyl groups of the B ring play key roles in binding interactions with JNK. Therefore, eriodictyol may be a potent anti-inflammatory inhibitor of JNK.

In Silico Screening of a Novel Inhibitor of β-Ketoacyl Acyl Carrier Protein Synthase I

  • Lee, Jee-Young;Jeong, Ki-Woong;Lee, Ju-Un;Kang, Dong-Il;Kim, Yang-Mee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.1645-1649
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    • 2011
  • [ ${\beta}$ ]Ketoacyl acyl carrier protein synthase I (KAS I) is involved in the elongation of unsaturated fatty acids in bacterial fatty acid synthesis and a therapeutic target of designing novel antibiotics. In this study, we performed receptor-oriented pharmacophore-based in silico screening of E. coli KAS I (ecKAS I) with the aim of identifying novel inhibitors. We determined one pharmacophore map and selected 8 compounds as candidates ecKAS I inhibitors. We discovered one antimicrobial compound, YKAe1008, N-(3-pyridinyl) hexanamide, displaying minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 128-256 ${\mu}g/mL$ against MRSA and VREF. YKAe1008 was subsequently assessed for binding to ecKAS I using saturation-transfer difference NMR spectroscopy. Further optimization of this compound will be carried out to improve its antimicrobial activity and membrane permeability against bacterial cell membrane.

Anti-Endotoxin 9-Meric Peptide with Therapeutic Potential for the Treatment of Endotoxemia

  • Krishnan, Manigandan;Choi, Joonhyeok;Choi, Sungjae;Kim, Yangmee
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2021
  • Inflammatory reactions activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria can lead to severe septic shock. With the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria and a lack of efficient ways to treat resulting infections, there is a need to develop novel anti-endotoxin agents. Antimicrobial peptides have been noticed as potential therapeutic molecules for bacterial infection and as candidates for new antibiotic drugs. We previously designed the 9-meric antimicrobial peptide Pro9-3 and it showed high antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacteria. Here, to further examine its potency as an anti-endotoxin agent, we examined the anti-endotoxin activities of Pro9-3 and elucidated its mechanism of action. We performed a dye-leakage experiment and BODIPY-TR cadaverine and limulus amebocyte lysate assays for Pro9-3 as well as its lysine-substituted analogue and their enantiomers. The results confirmed that Pro9-3 targets the bacterial membrane and the arginine residues play key roles in its antimicrobial activity. Pro9-3 showed excellent LPS-neutralizing activity and LPS-binding properties, which were superior to those of other peptides. Saturation transfer difference-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to explore the interaction between LPS and Pro9-3 revealed that Trp3 and Tlr7 in Pro9-3 are critical for attracting Pro9-3 to the LPS in the gram-negative bacterial membrane. Moreover, the anti-septic effect of Pro9-3 in vivo was investigated using an LPS-induced endotoxemia mouse model, demonstrating its dual activities: antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria and immunosuppressive effect preventing LPS-induced endotoxemia. Collectively, these results confirmed the therapeutic potential of Pro9-3 against infection of gram-negative bacteria.