• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salmonella

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A Case Study on the Effective Liquid Manure Treatment System in Pig Farms (양돈농가의 돈분뇨 액비화 처리 우수사례 실태조사)

  • Kim, Soo-Ryang;Jeon, Sang-Joon;Hong, In-Gi;Kim, Dong-Kyun;Lee, Myung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study is to collect basis data for to establish standard administrative processes of liquid fertilizer treatment. From this survey we could make out the key point of each step through a case of effective liquid manure treatment system in pig house. It is divided into six step; 1. piggery slurry management step, 2. Solid-liquid separation step, 3. liquid fertilizer treatment (aeration) step, 4. liquid fertilizer treatment (microorganism, recirculation and internal return) step, 5. liquid fertilizer treatment (completion) step, 6. land application step. From now on, standardization process of liquid manure treatment technologies need to be develop based on the six steps process.

Effect of Solvent Fractions from Doenjang on Antimutagenicity, Growth of Tumor Cells and Production of Interleukin-2 (된장 분획물의 항돌연변이 및 암세포 증식 억제효과와 interleukin-2 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Kwang-Hyuk;Park, Kun-Young;Lee, Sook-Hee;Lim, Sun-Young
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.791-797
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    • 2007
  • We studied the inhibitory effect of solvent fractions from doenjang on mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 in Ames test. We also investigated the effect of solvent fractions from doenjang on the growth of tumor cells and the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2). The treatment of dichlorormethane and ethylacetate fractions (2.5 mg/assay) from doenjang to Ames test system inhibited aflatoxin B$_1$ (AFB$_1$) induced mutagenicity by 96% and 97%, respectively, and showed a higher antimutagenic effect than other solvent fractions. In case of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguamidine (MNNG) induced mutagenicity, the ethylacetate fraction showed the highest inhibitory effect (by 75%) among the other sol-vent fractions, although the inhibitory effect was not stronger compared to AFB$_1$ induced mutagenicity. The treatment of dichloromethane and ethylacetate fractions markedly inhibited the growth of Yac-1 (by 80% and 94%, respectively) and sacroma-180 cancer cells (by 60% and 96%, respectively) after 4 days of incubation at 37${\circ}$C. To elucidate the immunological mechanism of antitumor activity of doenjang, spleen cells of Balb/c mouse were exposed to the dichloromethane and ethyl-acetate fractions for 24 hours at 37${\circ}$C . The culture supernatants following the treatment of djchloromethane and ethylacetate factions to spleen cells increased the production of IL-2. These results indicated that the anticarcinogenic effect of doenjang was mediated by the production of IL-2.

Microbiological Evaluation of Foods and Kitchen Environments in Childcare Center and Kindergarten Foodservice Operations (보육시설과 유치원 급식의 식품 및 환경 미생물의 오염도 평가)

  • Seol, Hye-Rin;Park, Hyoung-Su;Park, Ki-Hwan;Park, Ae-Kyung;Ryu, Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.252-260
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    • 2009
  • Whereas the numbers of childcare centers and kindergartens are increasing rapidly, systematic management to control the food safety of foodservice operation is not yet well established. Samples from 12 centers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province were collected to assess the microbiological quality of 32 raw materials, 24 cooked foods, 76 food-contact surfaces (knives, cutting boards, dish towels and gloves), 17 employees' hands and 12 air-borne bacteria. The microbiological analyses were performed for aerobic plate counts (APC), Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli and 7 pathogens (B. cereus, C. jejuni, C. perfringens, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., S. aureus, and V. parahaemolyticus). Among raw materials, E. coli ($1.39{\sim}2.08\;\log\;CFU/g$) were detected in 4 out of 6 meats and 7.46 log CFU/g of APC in tofu. High enterobacteriaceae levels of 4.23, 5.14 and 4.19 log CFU/g were found in cucumber salad, steamed spinach with seasonings and steamed bean sprout with seasonings, respectively. No pathogens were found in all samples except for C. perfringens detected from raw spinach and raw lotus root. Only APC and enterobacteriaceae were found in food-contact surfaces. Two of the 23 knives and three of the 24 kitchen boards showed over 500 CFU/$100\;cm^2$ of APC; also, APC levels (5.03 to 5.44 log CFU/g) were detected in 4 of the 12 dish towels. Only one glove showed Enterobacteriaceae (2.44 log CFU/glove) contamination. Enterobacteriaceae were found in 2 employees' hands ($2.37{\sim}4.44\;\log\;CFU$/hand) among the 16 employees. The contamination levels of air-borne bacteria were shown unacceptable in two (2.25 and 2.30 log CFU/petri-film/15 min) out of the 12 kitchen areas. These results suggest that the microbiological hazards in some foods and environments are not well controlled and thus a guideline should be provided to ensure the food safety in childcare center and kindergarten foodservice operations.

A comparison study of hygiene status in meals for poorly-fed children through microbiological analysis (결식아동이 이용하는 도시락의 미생물 검사를 통한 위생 상태 비교.분석)

  • Yu, Ok-Kyeong;Kim, Hyun-Suk;Byun, Moon-Sun;Kim, Mina;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess hygiene status of meals for poorly-fed children through microbiological quality. Methods: Meals were provided by two social enterprises, one franchise, and one convenience store. There were a total of six meal samples; two samples (social enterprise meal 1; SEM 1, social enterprise meal 2; SEM 2) from two social enterprises, respectively, two samples (franchise meal 1; FM 1, franchise meal 2; FM 2) from one franchise, and two samples (convenience store meal 1; CSM 1, convenience store meal 2; CSM 2) from one convenience store. Microbiological analysis and assessment were performed by Korean food standards codex (KFSC). Results: General bacteria and E. coli in SEM 1 were detected, but the levels were not over KFSC, and Coliform less than $9.2{\times}10$ CFU/g was also detected in seasoned bean sprouts of SEM 1. General bacteria was detected at $1.6{\times}10^6$ CFU/g in cabbage kimchi of SEM 2. Coliform was detected in cabbage kimchi, squid cutlet, stir-fried pork, and fried chicken of FM1 and 2, but the levels were not over KFSC. In addition, S. aureus was detected in cabbage kimchi and seasoned dried white radish of FM 1 and 2 ($9.8{\times}10^2$ CFU/g, $9.4{\times}10^3$ CFU/g respectively), thus was over KFSC. B. cereus was detected in stir-fried pork and fried chicken ($1.2{\times}10^3$ CFU/g, $1.5{\times}10^3$ CFU/g respectively) of FM 1 and 2, thus was over KFSC. Finally, S. aureus was detected in stir-fried dried squid, seasoned spicy chicken, and stir-fried kimchi of CSM 1 and 2, and was over KFSC too ($9.5{\times}10^4$ CFU/g, $2.4{\times}10^2$ CFU/g, $1.3{\times}10^3$ CFU/g respectively). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that systemic management of hygiene is necessary to safely providing meals to poorly-fed children.

Change of Harmful Micnoorganisms in Pickling Process of Salted Cabbage According to Salting and Washing Conditions (배추김치의 절임공정 조건에 따른 위해미생물 변화)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Lee, Yu-Keun;Yang, Ji-Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2011
  • Salted Cabbage products purchased from different companies at 4 different districts in South Korea were detected in this study. Cabbage and salt are the main materials for kimchi manufacture. The results of general bacteria contaminated in the samples were $1.4{\times}10^5$, $6.4{\times}10^5$, $1.7{\times}10^7$, $3.6{\times}10^7$ CFU/g in cabbage and $2.7{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in salt, respectively. The results of coliforms were detected as $2.4{\times}10^4$ CFU/g, and there was no Escherichia coli in any sample. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in cabbage as $9.9{\times}10^2$, $8.0{\times}10^1$, and $3.0{\times}10^3$ CFU/g, Bacillus cereus was also found in cabbage as $4.1{\times}10^3$ and $1.0{\times}10^1$ CFU/g. The results of Campylobacter jejuni and Vibrio paraheamolyticus were $2.4{\times}10^6$ and $1.0{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in cabbage, respectively. $1.0{\times}10^3$ CFU/g for Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in salt. In case of Listeria monocytogenes, the results were $1.5{\times}10^1$, $1.1{\times}10^2$, and $4.5{\times}10^1$ CFU/g in cabbage. Total batcteria ranged from $1.4{\times}10^1$ to $4.4{\times}10^5$ CFU/g were detected in salting solution, from $1.5{\times}10^4$ to $1.2{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage, from $9.4{\times}10^4{\sim}1.3{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in minced salted-cabbage. The results of E. coli in samples from different companies were different from one to anther. The results of the contamination of S. aureus and B. cereus showed positive in salting solution and dehydrated salted-cabbage at a portion of companies. V. paraheamolyticus was detected in salting solution. The contamination of Y. enterocolitica ranged from $9.5{\times}10^2$ to $1.8{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in salting solution, from $1.7{\times}10^1$ to $2.7{\times}10^2$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage, from $1.2{\times}10^2$ to $1.3{\times}10^8$ CFU/g in minced salted-cabbage. The contamination of L. monocytogenes ranged from $8.0{\times}10^2$ to $1.7{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in salting solution, from $2.8{\times}10^2$ to $1.2{\times}10^4$ CFU/g in dehydrated salted-cabbage. During the manufacture processing of Kim chi, microorganisms were detected in cabbages salted in different concentrations of salt solution at 8%, 10%, 12% and 15% for 5-20 hours. As the results, $3.5{\times}10^5-1.7{\times}10^6$, $3.4{\times}10^5-2.5{\times}10^6$, $5.4{\times}10^5-2.3{\times}10^6$, $4.0{\times}10^5-2.3{\times}10^6$ CFU/g were detected for E. coli in samples at different treatment conditions. $1.9{\times}10^4-4.1{\times}10^4$, $4.1{\times}10^3-2.8{\times}10^4$, $1.5{\times}10^3-7.8{\times}10^3$, $2.2{\times}10^4-6.6{\times}10^4$ CFU/g were detected for S. aureus in samples at different treatment conditions. Salmonella typhimurium was detected in salted cabbage with various salt concentration after salting for 5 hrs, the result ranged from $2.5{\times}10^5$ to $3.8{\times}10^6$ CFU/g, and change of microorganism was the smallest in salted cabbage under the concentration of salting solution at 10% for 15 hours. The cabbage salted in 10% salting solution for 15 hours were washed with water for 2 and 3 times, with chlorine for 3 times, and with acetic acid for 3 times. E. coli was detected in the samples washed with water for 2 and 3 times, washed with chlorine for 3 times. The contamination of S. aureus was $3.0{\times}10^5$ CFU/g in the samples washed with water for 2 times, $5.6{\times}10^3$ CFU/g in the samples washed with acetic acid for 3 times, $3.6{\times}10^5$ CFU/g in the samples washed with water for 3 times and same amount in the samples washed with chlorine for 3 times. According to the results, the contamination of S. aureus was $5.6{\times}10^3$ CFU/g lower in samples washed with chlorine and acetic acid than that in samples washed with water. In case of S. typhimurium, it has been detected in samples washed with water and chlorine, $3.0{\times}10^1$ CFU/g as the lowest concentration among all the samples was measured in the samples washed with acetic acid for 3 times.