• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salmonella

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Rapid Detection Kit for Salmonella typhimurium (살모넬라 식중독균 신속 검출용 간이 진단키트)

  • Kim, Gi-Young;Yang, Gil-Mo;Park, Saet-Byeol;Kim, Yung-Hwun;Lee, Kang-Jin;Son, Jae-Yong;Kim, Hyuck-Joo;Lee, Sae-Rom
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to develop a rapid test kit for pathogenic Salmonella in various samples. The rapid detection kit has been fabricated based on nitrocellulose lateral-flow strip. Colloidal gold and biotin conjugated Salmonella antibodies were used as a tag and a receptor, respectively. Manually spotted Salmonella antibody and Neutravidin on nitrocellulose membrane were used as test and control lines, respectively. Feasibility of the rapid kit to detect Salmonella typhimurium in samples were evaluated. The intensity of the color of the test line started to increase with the samples in which higher concentration of the cells were contained. The sensitivity of the sensor was $10^6$ cfu/mL Salmonella spiked in PBS. Also, the rapid test kit could detect $10^6$ cfu/mL of Salmonella in chicken meat extract.

Repressed Quorum Sensing by Overexpressing LsrR Hampers Salmonella Evasion from Oxidative Killing Within Macrophages

  • Choi, Jeong-Joon;Park, Joo-Won;Ryu, Sang-Ryeol
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1624-1629
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    • 2010
  • Bacterial cell-to-cell communication, termed quorum sensing (QS), leads to coordinated group behavior in a cell-density-dependent fashion and controls a variety of physiological processes including virulence gene expression. The repressor of the lsr operon, LsrR, is the only known regulator of LuxS/AI-2-mediated QS in Salmonella. Although lack of lsrR did not result in noticeable differences in Salmonella survival, the down-regulation of QS as a result of lsrR overexpression decreased Salmonella survival within macrophages. We found that impaired growth of Salmonella overexpressing lsrR within macrophages was due largely to its hypersensitivity to NADPH-dependent oxidative stress. This, in turn, was a result of decreased expression of genes involved in the oxidative stress response, such as sodA, sodCI, and sodCII, when lsrR was overexpressed. These results suggest that down-regulation of QS by excess LsrR can lower Salmonella virulence by hampering Salmonella evasion from oxidative killing within macrophages.

Development of the rapid detection kit for Salmonella spp. using immunochromatographic assay (면역크로마토그라피 기법을 이용한 Salmonella 속균 신속 검출킷트 개발)

  • Jung, Byeong-yeal;Jung, Suk-chan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.191-197
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    • 2005
  • An immunochromatographic (IC) strip for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in the enriched sample was developed. Affinity purified Salmonella polyclonal antibody was conjugated with 40 nm colloidal gold particles which were prepared by citrate method in our laboratory. The antigen-antibody-gold complex was captured by Salmonella antibody attached to test line of nitrocellulose membrane during the capillary migration of sample. Specificity of the IC strip was calculated to be 100% (12/12) and sensitivity was 97.6% (41/42) in the test with pure cultured bacteria. Salmonella was artificially inoculated into raw pork macerated with enrichment broth. And then it was 10-fold diluted from $5.2{\times}10^{8}CFU/ml$ to 5.2 CFU/ml. The IC strip could detect $5.2{\times}10^{6}CFU/ml$ before enrichment. However, the lowest limit of detection was 5.2 CFU/ml after overnight incubation. The results indicated that the IC assay was a rapid, economical and simple method with high specificity and sensitivity for the detection of Salmonella spp. without using any equipment.

Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella spp. isolated from different stages of commercial swine farms

  • Suh, Dong Kyun;Jung, Suk Chan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.179-183
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    • 2005
  • Epidemiological characteristics of a total of 48 swine herd with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea in Gyeongsang-do between 1999 and 2000 were performed to evaluate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., their serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns with respect to the different stages of swine production system. A total of 139 Salmonella spp. (21%) were isolated from 662 fecal samples and the overall herd prevalence of Salmonella spp. ranged from 12.5% to 88%. The average prevalence of Salmonella spp. from swine stages of suckling/nursery, grow/finisher and sow stage were 25.7%, 19.2% and 18.4%, respectively. Ten serotypes of Salmonella spp. were identified with a predominance of S. Typhimurium, S. Derby and S. Agona. Twenty-five isolates (18%) were found to be untypable. One hundred and two Salmonella isolates (73.4%) resistant to more than 1 antibiotic were characterized by 24 diverse resistance patterns, and their frequency of antibiotic resistance was highest in grow/finisher stage (83.3%). Resistance to tetracycline (TE; 67.6%), sulfamethoxazole (SU; 46.8%) and streptomycin (ST; 28%) was most common and the most common resistance patterns were TE SU (31.4%), TE (21.6%) and TE SU ST (20.6%) in order.

Risk Assessment for Salmonellosis in Chicken in South Korea: The Effect of Salmonella Concentration in Chicken at Retail

  • Jeong, Jaewoon;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyunsook;Song, Kwang-Young;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.1043-1054
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    • 2018
  • Salmonellosis caused by chicken consumption has been a critical issue in food safety worldwide, including in Korea. The probability of illness from consumption of chicken was simulated in study, based on the recipe of Dakgalbi, a commonly eaten chicken dish in Korea. Additionally, the processing stage at slaughterhouses to decrease Salmonella concentration in broilers was modeled to explore its effect on the likelihood of illness. A Monte Carlo simulation model was created using @RISK. Prevalence of Salmonella in chickens at the retail stage was found to be predominantly important in determining the probability of illness. Other than the prevalence, cooking temperature was found to have the largest impact on the probability of illness. The results also demonstrated that, although chlorination is a powerful tool for decreasing the Salmonella concentration in chicken, this effect did not last long and was negated by the following stages. This study analyzes the effects of variables of the retail-to-table pathway on the likelihood of salmonellosis in broiler consumption, and also evaluates the processing step used to decrease the contamination level of Salmonella in broilers at slaughterhouses. According to the results, we suggest that methods to decrease the contamination level of Salmonella such as chlorination had little effect on decreasing the probability of illness. Overall, these results suggest that preventing contamination of broiler with Salmonella must be a top priority and that methods to reduce the concentration of Salmonella in broilers at slaughterhouses hardly contribute to safe consumption of Salmonella-contaminated chicken.

Serotype Distribution and Virulence Profile of Salmonella enterica Serovars Isolated from Food Animals and Humans in Lagos Nigeria

  • Abraham, Ajayi;Stella, Smith;Ibidunni, Bode-Sojobi;Coulibaly, Kalpy Julien;Funbi, Jolaiya Tolulope;Isaac, Adeleye Adeyemi
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2019
  • Distribution of Salmonella enterica serovars and their associated virulence determinants is wide-spread among food animals, which are continuously implicated in periodic salmonellosis outbreaks globally. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the diversity of five Salmonella serovar virulence genes (invA, pefA, cdtB, spvC and iroN) isolated from food animals and humans. Using standard microbiological techniques, Salmonella spp. were isolated from the feces of humans and three major food animals. Virulence determinants of the isolates were assayed using PCR. Clonal relatedness of the dominant serovar was determined via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme, Xbal. Seventy one Salmonella spp. were isolated and serotyped into 44 serovars. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; 68) accounted for majority (95.8%) of the Salmonella serovars. Isolates from chicken (34) accounted for 47.9% of all isolates, out of which S. Budapest (14) was predominant (34.8%). However, the dominant S. Budapest serovars showed no genetic relatedness. The invA gene located on SPI-1 was detected in all isolates. Furthermore, 94% of the isolates from sheep harbored the spvC genes. The iroN gene was present in 50%, 100%, 88%, and 91% of isolates from human, chicken, sheep, and cattle, respectively. The pefA gene was detected in 18 isolates from chicken and a single isolate from sheep. Notably, having diverse Salmonella serovars containing plasmid encoded virulence genes circulating the food chain is of public health significance; hence, surveillance is required.

Detection of Salmonella species by polymerase chain reaction (Polymerase chain reaction에 의한 Salmonella 속균의 검출)

  • Park, Doo-hee;Kim, Won-yong;Kim, Chul-joong;Mah, Jum-sool
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.115-125
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    • 1994
  • In this study, we try to establish the rapid and specific detection system for Salmonella species. The PhoE gene of Salmonella species was amplified with two specific primers, ST5 and ST8c, using PCR. The probe prepared from the amplified PhoE gene was sequenced and applied for Southern blot analysis. After PCR with ST5 and ST8c primers for PhoE gene, DNA bands of expected size(365bp) from 7 different Salmonella species were detected, but not from 12 enterobacteriaceae and 3 gram positive bacteria. PCR was highly sensitive to detect up to 10fg of purified DNA template and to identify Salmonella species with only 320 heat-lysed bacterial cells. The inhibition of PCR amplification from stool specimen was occurred with 50-fold dilution but disappeared over 100 fold dilution of samples. It was confirmed that the PhoE genes were amplified and cloned with over 97% nacleotide sequence homology of PCR products compared with that of S. typhfmurium LT2. The DNA probe derived from S. typhimurium TA 3,000 showed highly specific and sensitive reaction with PCR products of all tested Salmonella species. These results indicate that PCR was rapid and sensitive detection method for Salmonella species and DNA probe prepared from S. typhimurium TA 3,000 was specific to identify PCR products of different Salmonella species.

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Protective effects of Bacillus subtilis against Salmonella infection in the microbiome of Hy-Line Brown layers

  • Oh, Ju Kyoung;Pajarillo, Edward Alain B.;Chae, Jong Pyo;Kim, In Ho;Kang, Dae-Kyung
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1332-1339
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis CSL2 (B. subtilis CSL2) administration before Salmonella challenge on the fecal microbiota and microbial functionality of Hy-line Brown (HLB) laying hens. Methods: Fecal samples were collected from control (CON), Salmonella-infected (SAL) and Salmonella-infected, probiotic-treated (PRO) groups before and after Salmonella challenge for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results: Infection with Salmonella led to decreased microbial diversity in hen feces; diversity was recovered with Bacillus administration. In addition, Salmonella infection triggered significant alterations in the composition of the fecal microbiota. The abundance of the phylum Firmicutes decreased while that of Proteobacteria, which includes a wide variety of pathogens, increased significantly. Bacillus administration resulted in normal levels of abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Analysis of bacterial genera showed that Salmonella challenge decreased the population of Lactobacillus, the most abundant genus, and increased populations of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera by a factor of 3 to 5. On the other hand, Bacillus administration caused the abundance of the Lactobacillus genus to recover to control levels and decreased the population of Pseudomonas significantly. Further analysis of operational taxonomic units revealed a high abundance of genes associated with two-component systems and secretion systems in the SAL group, whereas the PRO group had more genes associated with ribosomes. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that B. subtilis CSL2 administration can modulate the microbiota in HLB laying hens, potentially acting as a probiotic to protect against Salmonella Gallinarum infection.

Analysis of antimicrobial resistance and PFGE patterns of Salmonella spp. isolated from chickens at slaughterhouse in Incheon area (인천지역 닭 도축장에서 분리된 Salmonella spp.의 항생제 내성 및 PFGE 패턴분석)

  • Yang, Ha-Young;Lee, Sung-Mo;Park, Eun-Jeong;Kim, Jung-Hee;Lee, Jung-Goo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.325-334
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    • 2009
  • Salmonella spp. are the important pathogens both economically and clinically in animals as well as human. Some of them have highly zoonotic potentials even though they are asymptomatic in animals. Therefore, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in animals is highly concerned for human health. The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and PFGE patterns of Salmonella spp. isolated from chickens at slaughterhouse in Incheon area. The overall isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from cloaca and cecum specimens was 7.3 % (37/510). Thirty seven isolates of Salmonella spp. were identified to 5 serotypes; S. Enteritidis, S. Newport, S. Typhimurium, S. Gallinarum, and S. Derby with prevalence of 46.0%, 40.5%, 8.1%, 2.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. Resistance to nalidixic acid was found in 97.3% of Salmonella spp. isolated, followed by streptomycin (16.2%), tetracycline (16.2%), ampicillin (5.4%). Only 6 isolates (16.2%) showed resistance to more than two antimicrobials. In PFGE analysis of chicken and human isolates with Xba I, S. Enteritidis isolates from chicken showed very high similarity over 82.8% and also the similarity was very high in the comparison with human isolates. However, the higher similarity (100%) was observed among chicken isolates of S. Typhimurium. These results suggest the close genetic relatedness of Salmonella spp. isolated from chickens with human.

젖당과 사멸 살모넬라 함유 사료가 Salmonella typhimurium 인공 감염 육계 병아리의 생산성과 면역 반응에 미치는 영향

  • Choe, Jun-Yeong;Im, Jin-Taek;Park, In-Gyeong;Choe, Do-Yeol;Lee, Hye-Jeong;Lee, Beom-Gyu;Go, Tae-Song
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.78-79
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    • 2005
  • Effects of dietary lactose or killed Salmonella on the performance, immune response and anti-oxidant system was studied in chicks innoculated with Salmonella typhimurium. In 27 days of age broiler, dietary lactose decreased performance, while dietary lactose and killed Salmonella elevated plasma peroxidase activity and IL-1 level in supernatant of PBMC stimulated with LPS. When broiler chicks innoculated with Salmonella, performance, activities of erythrocyte MnSOD and plasma peroxidase were enhanced after 7 days of the innoculation. Dietary lactose and killed Salmonella increased activity of erythrocyte MnSOD, plasma peroxidase, proliferation of PBMC stimulated with LPS and IL-1 level in the supernatant after 15 days of the innoculation. The result indicated that dietary lactose and killed Salmonella have modulated innate immune response and antioxidant system in broiler chicks innoculated with Salmonella typhimurium.

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