• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salmonella gallinarum

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Characterization of Bacteriophages against Salmonella Gallinarum (Salmonella Gallinarum 박테리오파지의 특성)

  • Kim, Minjeong;Kwon, Hyuk-Moo;Sung, Haan-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2017
  • Bacteriophages are viruses that exclusively infect bacterial cells, and lytic bacteriophages can be used as a safe alternative to antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of animal diseases. In this study, we attempted to isolate and characterize bacteriophages for Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (Salmonella Gallinarum), the causative agent of fowl typhoid in chickens. Ten bacteriophages were isolated from samples of sewage from seven poultry slaughterhouses. One of these isolate, designated as $SG{\Phi}-YS$ SP and classified in the family Myoviridae, produced plaques with seven Salmonella Gallinarum strains. However, no plaques were produced with any of the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strains tested, suggesting that this bacteriophage is Salmonella Gallinarum specific. To assess the lytic ability of $SG{\Phi}-YS$ SP against Salmonella Gallinarum, bacterial growth rates following inoculation of the bacteriophage were compared with the control. The $SG{\Phi}-YS$ SP treatment, with a multiplicity of infection of 10, reduced the growth of Salmonella Gallinarum by 2.21 log cfu/mL at 6 h, and 2.13 log cfu/mL at 9 h, suggesting that this bacteriophage isolate could be used for the prevention or treatment of Salmonella Gallinarum infection in chickens.

Establishment of a live vaccine strain against fowl typhoid and paratyphoid

  • Cho, Sun-Hee;Ahn, Young-Jin;Kim, Tae-Eun;Kim, Sun-Joong;Huh, Won;Moon, Young-Sik;Lee, Byung-Hyung;Kim, Jae-Hong;Kwon, Hyuk Joon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2015
  • To develop a live vaccine strain against fowl typhoid and paratyphoid caused by Salmonella serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (Salmonella Gallinarum) and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis), respectively, several nalidixic acid resistant mutants were selected from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rough strains of Salmonella Gallinarum that escaped from fatal infection of a LPS-binding lytic bacteriophage. A non-virulent and immunogenic vaccine strain of Salmonella Gallinarum, SR2-N6, was established through in vivo pathogenicity and protection efficacy tests. SR2-N6 was highly protective against Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Enteritidis and safer than Salmonella Gallinarum vaccine strain SG 9R in the condition of protein-energy malnutrition. Thus, SR2-N6 may be a safe and efficacious vaccine strain to prevent both fowl typhoid and paratyphoid.

Comparative Study on the Resistance of Three Commercial Strains and Balady (Local) Breed of Chickens to Infection With Salmonella gallinarum

  • Alshawabkeh, K.;Tabbaa, M.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.96-100
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    • 2001
  • Three commercial strains bred in the US (Hubbard), Holland (Lohman), and Canada (Shaver) and Balady breed of chickens were orally infected with $10^6$ cfu of Salmonella gallinarum per chick. Chicks were compared for weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality rate and contamination of the liver, spleen and intestine with Salmonella gallinarum on the day of slaughter. The Balady chicks had significantly the lowest mortality rate (p<0.01) and weight gain (p<0.001) and poorest feed conversion ratio (p<0.001). Salmonella gallinarum could be shed from the liver, spleen and intestine with alternative rates in all strains. Lohman was the most resistance over the other two commercial strains, while Hubbard had the highest susceptibility. The Balady chicks were the most resistance. However, they may serve as a possible reservoir of Salmonella gallinarum and it may play a role of spreading the infection to the commercial farms in Jordan.

Effect of Dietary Lactobacillus, Medicinal Plants Extract, Herb Extract on the Laying Performance, Cecal Microflora, Relative Organs Weight, Leucocyte Profiles in Laying Hens against Salmonella gallinarum (Salmonella gallinarum에 대한 Lactobacillus, Medicinal Plants Extract, Essential Oil 급여가 산란계의 생산성, 맹장 내 미생물 균총, 조직중량 및 백혈구 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hwan Ku;Park, Seong Bok;Kim, Hyun Soo;Jeon, Jin Joo;Park, Ki-Tae;Kim, Chan Ho;Hong, Eui Chul;Kim, Sang Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.183-191
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    • 2018
  • The study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus, medicinal plants extract, and essential oil on laying performance, cecal microflora, relative organic weight, leucocyte profiles in laying hens against Salmonella gallinarum. A total of 100 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 65 weeks of age were assigned into 5 dietary treatments supplemented with no antibiotic (negative control), antibiotic (positive control), Lactobacillus 0.1% (LB), medicinal plants extract 100 ppm (MPE), herb extract 100 ppm (EO). After 7 days of treatment, the 20 hens in each treatment group were divided into challenge group (n=10) and non-challenge group (n=10) for oral administration of Salmonella gallinarums, and were maintained in the same dietary treatments for two additional weeks. Laying hens were selected 20 by each treatment, splitting up into oral Salmonella group and nontreated group. The feeding trial lasted for one weeks and Salmonella gallinarum was orally administered for two weeks. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were calculated and cecal microflora, relative organ, and blood were collected at the end of experiment. Compared with the control, laying hens fed Lactobacillus, medical plant extract, and essential oil were not observed to change of laying performance. Salmonella count increased significantly when Salmonella gallinarum was orally administered (P<0.05) but coliform bacteria and Lactobacillus counts were not affected. The relative organs weight was not different in hens with oral administration of Salmonella gallinarum and also in hens fed Lactobacillus, medical plant extract, and essential oil. H/L ratio was not significantly different, but total leucocyte level was somewhat increased in the treatment with oral administration of Salmonella gallinarum and more leucocyte increased in laying hens fed Lactobacillus, medical plant extract, and essential oil than control.

Comparison of Polymorphisms of Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum Using DNA Amplified Fingerprinting (DNA Amplified Fingerprinting 기법을 이용한 Salmonella pullorum과 Salmonella gallinarum의 다형성 비교 분석)

  • Kim, Yeon-Soo;Kim, Sang-Kyun;Song, Won-Chul;Hwang, Eui-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.357-365
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    • 2001
  • This study was performed to detect the Salmonella genus-specific DNA marker for comparing of polymophisms between S pullorum and S gallinarum by using PCR amplified techniques. A total of ten primers were used to detect DNA polymorphisms from S pullorum and S gallinarum. The number of DAF bands detected per each primer varied from 26 to 45, with an average of 32.7 using 10 primers. A total of 327 DAF bands were generated and among them 123 bands were polymorphic(37.6%). These DNA amplified fingerprinting(DAF) specific bands for S pullorum and S gallinarum were observed from all primers. For S pullorum, GEN 60-04, GEN 70-04 and GEN 70-03 primers showed a high level of polymorphism with 0.79, 0.70 and 0.57, respectively. But GEN 60-05 primer did not show a level of polymorphism. For S gallinarum, GEN 70-03, 60-04, 60-07, 70-05 and 70-04 primers showed a higher a low level of polymorphism from 0.16 to 0.28. Each five strains of S pullorum and S gallinarum were isolated from chickens showed typical clinical signs related with infection of pullorum disease or fowl typhoid at commercial chicken farms. DNA markers of these strains produced by GEN 70-04, GEN 70-05 and GEN 70-08 showed significant difference of band patterns between S pullorum and S gallinarum. These DNA markers could be used for comparison of DNA marker polymorphism between S pullorum and S gallinarum as well as rapid diagnosis of fowl typhoid and pullorum disease of domestic fowls.

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Studies on characteristic analysis of Streptomyces fradiae isolated from soil and effect against to Salmonella gallinarum (토양에서 분리한 Streptomyces fradiae의 특성 분석 및 Salmonella gallinarum 항균효과에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hong-Jib
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.135-139
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    • 2009
  • Streptomyces (S.) fradiae is a microbe with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, isolated from soil. In the present study, antibacterial effects of S. fradiaea against Salmonella (S.) gallinarum was determined. S. fradiae inhibited growing of S. gallinarum in Luria-Bertani media agar. Moreover, ingestion of S. fradiae markedly inhibited mortality of chickens experimentally infected with S. gallinarum. There is no side effect by S. fradiaeon, in safety of chickens and antibiotic material residues in chicken meat. Taken together, S. fradiae have the antibacterial effects against S. gallinarum. Therefore, we concluded that S. fradiae might be a good microbial candidate for treatment or control of fowl typhoid in chickens.

Antimicrobial Activity of Specific IgY against Salmonella gallinarum (Salmonella gallinarum에 대한 specific IgY의 항균력)

  • Kim, Mi-Hyun;Rho, Jeong-Hae;Kim, Young-Boong;Shon, Dong-Hwa;Jung, Soon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.552-557
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of anti-Salmonella gallinarum-specific IgY separated from egg yolk obtained from layers immunized by S. gallinarum. The comparison tests of vaccination, content of IgY and innoculation number were examined by microscopic observation, turbidity, and pH. The results show that the ratio of anti-S. gallinarum IgY in the total IgY was 23%. Also, the anti-S. gallinarum IgY had selectivity only to S, gallinarum. The 0.3% addition of anti-S. gallinarum-specific IgY resulted in agglutinating clusters of S, gallinarum cells, but the agglomeration didn#t occur in IgY from layers not immunized nor in the control group. Microscopic observation indicated agglomerative cells when IgY was added at 0.2% or higher, and the pH and turbidity examinations revealed that a suppression effect was remarkable in IgY at more than 0.1%. These results suggest the possibility that IgY extracted from eggs and obtained from layers immunized by S. gallinarum can be used to prevent fowl typhoid.

Antigenic-types of Salmonella pullorum and Salmonella gallinarum isolated from poultry in Korea (우리나라의 닭에서 분리한 Salmonella pullorum과 Salmonella gallinarum의 항원형)

  • Woo, Yong-ku;Kim, Bong-hwan
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.777-783
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    • 1998
  • Antigenic types of 114 Salmonella pullorum and 152 Salmonella gallinarum field isolates were evaluated. All 3 antigenic types were identified among field isolates of S pullorum by factor-serum analysis but the majority of them were standard type(90.4%). Of the 114 S pullorum isolates, only eight(7.0%) were intermediate type and 3(2.6%) were variant type. Using the ammonium sulfate precipitation(ASP) test, one-hundred and three(90.4%) S pullorum isolates were standard type, while intermediate and variant types were 8.4% and 1.4%, respectively. One-hundred and fifty-two S gallinarum isolates were identified as standard type by ASP test and serological analysis. According to the random amplified polymorphisms of DNA(RAPD) patterns, most of S pullorum isolates were differentiated with 3 types in their fragment-patterns. No correlations were found between SDS-PAGE profiles and antigenic types of S pullorum isolates.

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Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of commercial S. gallinarum 9R vaccine (국내 시판 Salmonella gallinarum 9R vaccine의 안전성 및 면역원성 비교)

  • Hwang, Jei Kiun;Lee, Young Ju
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.49 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2009
  • Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar gallinarum (S. gallinarum) is the agent of fowl typhoid, and the 9R vaccine is a commercial live vaccine for the prevention of fowl typhoid. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and immunogenicity of different brands of S. gallinarum 9R vaccine used in commercial laying chickens in Korea. All 9R strains originated from three different brands showed the same pattern in the biochemical and serological properties, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile. But, there was a difference in rhamnose fermentaion, agglutination with Salmonella group $D_1$ antiserum and PFGE pattern between 9R vaccine strain and field S. gallinarum isolates. In laboratory and field trials for assesment of safety and immunogenicity of 9R vaccine, all of the three 9R vaccines showed the same safety in commercial laying chickens. In addition, there was a significant difference between the vaccinated and unvaccinated control groups in mortality and the re-isolation rate of the challenge strain from the tissues (p < 0.05), and no difference by the brands of 9R vaccine. The results from this study indicated that all three different brands of S. gallinarum 9R vaccine showed highly protection against mortality and organ invasion in commercial laying chickens exposed to virulent strains of S. gallinarum.

Differential protein expression in avian liver in response to invasion by Salmonella gallinarum

  • Lee, Gang-Deog;Cho, In-Hee;So, Hyun-Kyung;Koo, Yong-bum;Lee, Jun-heon;Choi, Kang-Duk
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.37-38
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    • 2004
  • Salmonella gallinarum is a pathogen that is capable of causing disease in Korean native chicken. Although Salmonella gallinarum is important world-wide pathogens of poultry, little is understood of the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Salmonella gallinarum in the chicken. This study was to investigate chicken liver proteins affected by infection of Salmonella gallinarum in Korean native chicken. The differentially expressed proteins of chicken livers were identified by using 2-dimensional electro- phoresis (2D-E) and mass spectrometry (MS). We detected more than 300 protein spots on silver stained 2D gels using pH 3∼10 gradients. Three differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS. The obtained MS and MS/MS data were searched against a protein database using the Mascot search engine. Further researches on the identified proteins can give valuable information of mechanism of pathogenesis in chicken.

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