• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salmonella gallinarum

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Isolation, Identification and Cultural Condition of the Antagonistic Microorganism Against Salmonella gallinarum Causing Fowl Typhoid (가금티브스균 Salmonella gallinarum의 생육을 저해하는 길항미생물의 선발 및 동정)

  • 김진락;김상달
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.843-848
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    • 2003
  • Diarrllea and death of chicken have been brought about by fowl typhoid caused by Salmonella gallinarum, which causes a great loss of chicken farms. For the development of the probiotic which can control a fowl typhoid of S. gallinarum without any adverse effect of commercial existing antibiotics, we isolated antagonistic intestinal bacteria against S. gallinarum from a bowel of the chicken which was pastured in a chicken farm of Gumi, Kyoungbuk. An Y3 strain which had a strong antagonistic ability to S. gallinarum was selected as a candidate of chicken probiotic microorganism among isolated strains. It was identified as a Bacillus amyloliuefaciens by 98% similarity by the result of cultural, physiological, biochemical test and Biolog system$(Microlog^{TM} 4.0)$, and named as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Y3. The strain showed the strongest antagonistic activity and a good growth at pH 5-9, $37^{\circ}C.$

Virulence and Plasmid Profiles of Salmonella gallinarum Isolated from Chickens (닭에서 분리한 Salmonella gallinarum의 병원성 및 Plasmid Profile)

  • 오강희;김석환;이경현;하종수;박승춘;정규식;정종식;이근우;송재찬
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 2002
  • The present study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic resistance of 24 Salmonella gallinarum isolated from 48 chicken samples of diagnosed fowl typhoid cases during the period from November 1998 to November 1999. And the isolates of S gallinarum were also tested for their invasion abilities to experimental infection as one of virulence tests, and the presence of virulence-related plasmid in S gallinarum isolates. The results obtained through this study were summarized as follows; 1. All of isolates from 48 cases of 24 farms were identified S gallinarum by biochemical and serological tests.2. Antimicrobial drug resistance test against 24 isolates showed that the isolates were resistant to Colistin(95.8%), and Penicillin(79.2%), Polymyxin B(75.0%), Streptomycin (65.2%), Gentamycin(54.2%), and Tetracycline(33.3%). 3. Mortality in chicken following peroral inoculation of four isolates of S gallinarum during 14-days inoculation pecked at 5 days(40%) after inoculation and all of experimental chickens died within 13 days after inoculation.4. Based on the pattern and number of isolated plasmid from each isolate, plasmid profiles were divided into five groups; group I with 3 plasmids, group II to group IV with 4 plasmids and group V with 5 plasmids.

Antimicrobial resistance and pulsed -field gel electrophoresis patterns of Salmonella gallinarum isolated from broiler (육계에서 분리한 Salmonella gallinarum 의 약제내생 및 PFGE 양상)

  • Kim Seong-Guk;Kim Yeong-Hwan;Eom Hyun-Jung;Jang Seong-Jun;Jo Gwang-Hyeon;Lee Yang-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.297-308
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    • 2006
  • Fowl typhoid (FT) is a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella gallinarum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and pulsed -field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of S gallinarum isolated from broiler. During 1999 to 2004, there was isolated a total of 26 strains in liver and spleen. The biochemical characteristics of S gallinarum isolates was nonmotile, no production of $H_2S$, glucose gas, non-fermented rhamnose, indole-negative, fermentation of dulcitol, mannitol, maltose, and ornithine decarboxylase. At antimicrobial susceptibility, all of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amikacin, neomycin, kanamycin, and cephalothin. Twenty-six isolates were divided into 19 resistant patterns and 6 strains was 8-multi-drug resistance. PFGE of Xba I restriction fragments of S gallinarum isolates was 22 patterns.

Antimicrobial resistance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella Gallinarum isolated from chicken (닭에서 분리한 Salmonella Gallinarum의 약제내성 및 PFGE 양상)

  • Bae, Jong-Chul;Kim, Seong-Guk;Kim, Young-Hoan;Jo, Min-Hee;Lee, Young-Ju;Park, Cheong-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.155-163
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    • 2009
  • Fowl typhoid (FT) is a septicemic disease caused by Salmonella Gallinarum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of S. Gallinarum isolated from chicken. During 1999 to 2004, there was isolated a total of 100 strains in liver and spleen. The biochemical characteristics of S. Gallinarum isolates was nonmotile, no production of H$_2$S, glucose gas, non-fermented rhamnose, indole-negative, fermentation of dulcitol, mannitol, maltose, and ornithine decarboxylase. At antimicrobial susceptibility, all of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amikacin, neomycin, kanamycin, norfloxacin and enrofloxacin. One hundred isolates were divided into 54 resistant patterns and 37 strains was 6-multi drug resistance. PFGE of Xba I restriction fragments of S. Gallinarum isolates was 20 patterns.

The spy-gfp Operon Fusion in Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Gallinarum Senses the Envelope Stress (Salmonella Enteritidis와 Salmonella Gallinarum의 세균막 스트레스를 인식하는 spy-gfp 오페론 융합)

  • Kang, Bo Gyeong;Bang, Iel Soo
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.208-219
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    • 2018
  • Emergence of drug resistant strains of Salmonella enterica threatens milk processing and related dairy industries, thereby increasing the need for development of new anti-bacterials. Developments of antibacterial drugs are largely aimed to target the bacterial envelope, but screening their efficacy on bacterial envelope is laborious. This study presents a potential biosensor for envelope-specific stress in which a gfp reporter gene fused to spy gene encoding a periplasmic chaperone protein Spy (spheroplast protein y) that can sense envelope stress signals transduced by two major two-component signal transduction systems BaeSR and CpxAR in Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and S. Gallinarum. Using spy-gfp operon fusions in S. Enterititis and S. Gallinarum, we found that spy transcription in both serovars was greatly induced when Salmonella cells were forming the spheroplast and were treated with ethanol or a membrane-disrupting antibiotic polymyxin B. These envelope stress-specific inductions of spy transcription were abrogated in mutant Salmonella lacking either BaeR or CpxR. Results illustrate that induction of Spy expression can be efficiently triggered by two-component signal transduction systems sensing envelope stress conditions, and thereby suggest that monitoring the spy transcription by spy-gfp operon fusions would be helpful to determine if developing antimicrobials can damage envelopes of S. Enteritidis and S. Gallinarum.

Pathogenicity of Salmonella gallinarum isolated from chickens in Korea (국내 분리주 Salmonella gallinarum의 닭에 대한 병원성)

  • Lee, Hee-soo;Kim, Soon-jae;Kim, Ki-seuk;Mo, In-pil;Kim, Tae-jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.569-576
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    • 1997
  • Fowl typhoid(FT) caused by Salmonella gallinarum is an infectious, egg-transmitted disease and characterized by swollen bronze liver, greenish-yellow diarrhea and high mortality in growing and adult chickens. Since 1992 the outbreak of FT has been increased. Several problems have been occurred such as absence of appropriate vaccines and lack of useful therapeutic methods. In these studies we investigated the pathogenicity of S gallinarum isolated in chickens. To compare the pathogenicity among the species of chickens, all chickens were challenged intramuscularly or orally with $1{\times}10^7$ CFU of S gallinarum. The brown-colored layers were more susceptible and white leghone chickens were more resistant than other species. In the brown layer chickens orally challenged, lethal doses ($LD_{50}$) of the isolates were inoculated at 1 day, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks old chickens with amount of $10^{4.2}$, $10^{4.7}$, $10^{7.0}$ and $10^{7.6}$ CFU, respectively. The chickens which were intramuscularly challenged with the less amount than $10^2$ CFU showed higher mortality than that of the chickens orally inoculated with same dose. Also, we investigated the recovery rates of bacteria from various organs of survival chickens which were challenged orally with $5{\times}l0^7$ CFU of S gallinarum. The bacteria was more frequently and isolated earlier from the liver and spleen than from any other ogans. In the pathogenicity test, the white-leghorn chickens which were known as resistant-strain against Salmonella were artificially immunosuppressed using bursectomy and/or dexamethasone treatment. Mortality of chickens with both bursectomized and treated with dexamethasone was higher(90%) than that of the control group(10%), the bursectomized chickens(10%) and the dexamethasone only treated group(20%). It was suggested that the protective mechanism in chickens against S gallinarum may be required both the functions of B-cells and T-cells.

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Study on Immunological Response on Salmonella gallinarum in Immunosuppressed Chickens (면역억압계군에서 Salmonella gallinarum 감염에 대한 면역반응)

  • Kim, Gye-Yeup;Lim, Jae-Hyang;Koh, Hong-Bum;Cho, Kyoung-Oh;Kim, Tae-Youl;Oh, Myoung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.335-349
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    • 2002
  • The immune response against Salmonella gallinarum infection was investigated in immunosuppresed chickens. Newly hatched chickens were treated with cyclophosphamide at the first and second day after birth and were challenged intraperitoneally with S gallinarum ($1{\times}10^7CFU/m{\ell}$) on day 6. Group 1, Immunosuppresed and Challenged group, was treated with cyclophaiphamide and challenged with S gallinarum; group 2, Immunosuppressed group, was only treated with cyclophsphamide; group 3, Challenged group, was only challenged with S gallinarum; group 4, Control group. In each group, the localization of lymphocytes of the lymphoid organs and intestine was immunohistochemically compared using a variety of monoclonal antiboies ($CD4^+$, $CD8^+$, and B lymphocyte). Also, S gallinarum were assessed by Maccallum-Goodpasture stain and immunohistochemical analysis in the paraffin-embedded intestinal tissues. In S gallinarum challenged chickens, $CD4^+$ and $CD8^+$ lymphocytes of the intestinal organs such as duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon were increased. However, in cyclophophamide treated chickens, $CD4^+$ and $CD8^+$ lymphocytes and especially B lymphocytes of the lymphoid organs such as thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were dramatically decreased. These results suggest that cyclophsophamide is an immunosuppressive agent that especially causes depletion of B lymphocytes, suppress humoral immunity and eventually suppresses avian immune responses. Its protection against S gallinarum infection is mainly dependent on both cell-mediated mechanism and the humoral immune response.

Biochemical characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Gallinarum detection in chickens and rapid diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction (닭에서 분리한 Salmonella Gallinarum의 생화학적 특성, 약제감수성과 polymerase chain reaction을 이용한 신속진단)

  • Chu, Keurn-Suk;Lee, Jeong-Won;Song, Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.43-48
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    • 2009
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum is the causative agent of fowl typhoid (FT) and Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum is pullorum disease (PD), a severe systemic disease of chick and it has the same antigenic fomula, the close relation but distinct pathogen. The traditional bacteriologic and serologic methods routinely used but tedious, time consuming. some of biochemical differences are helpful in differentiating the two organisms, however variation in the characteristics of some strains can be observed. During 2006 to 2008, there was isolated 30 strains. The biochemical characteristics of S. Gallinarum was nonmotile, fermentation of dulcitol, maltose but positive arginine (6.6%), lysine (83.3%) and arabinose (20.0%). The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed 100% sensitive to amikacin, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and florfenicol, but resistant to penicillin (100%) and erythromycin (60.0%). This PCR method can be applied in the diagnosis between S. Gallinarum and S. Pullorum.

Therapeutic Effect of a Sodium Salt Mixture Against Salmonella gallinarum Infection in Broiler (복합나트륨염의 Salmonella gallinarum 감염 육계에 대한 치료효과)

  • Lee, Yeo Eun;Cha, Chun Nam;Son, Song Ee;Yoo, Chang-Yeul;Park, Eun-Kee;Kim, Suk;Lee, Hu Jang
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.17-21
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    • 2013
  • The objectives in the present study were to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a sodium salts mixture against Salmonella gallinarum infection in broiler. Of this study, sixty broilers at two weeks of age (body weight, $450{\pm}35$ g) were used to estimate the efficacy of a sodium salts mixture (3.25 mg sodium azide, 2.45 mg sodium cyanide, 0.8 g sodium chlorate) against Salmonella gallinarum infection in broiler with drinking water. Broilers challenged with S. gallinarum were administered with ${\times}$ 1(group I) and ${\times}$ 2(group II) sodium salt mixture for seven days, and cecal content samples were collected at the gate of treatment and on 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th day after administration. Changes in body weight and cecal shedding of S. gallinarum were monitored during the experimental period. All groups treated with the sodium salt mixture slightly increased body weight compared to control group but there is no significant difference. At 7th day after administration, the number of S. gallinarum in group I and II was significantly decreased compared to control group (p < 0.001). In the hematological and blood biochemical analysis, values of parameters were not significantly different between the treated groups and control group. From results of the present study, the sodium salt mixture had therapeutic effect on S. gallinarum infection in broilers.

Using Dietary Propionic Acid to Limit Salmonella gallinarum Colonization in Broiler Chicks

  • Alshawabkeh, K.;Tabbaa, M.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.243-246
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary propionic acid on inhibitory effect of Salmonella gallinarum. Day-old 144 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four dietary treatments, three replicates per treatment. The four dietary treatments consisted of 0.0, 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8% dietary propionic acid. Chicks were challenged orally on three days of age with $10^6$ cfu Salmonella gallinarum. Sample of crop and cecal contents were obtained on Days 1, 8 and 15 post-inoculation. The pH of crop contents decreased significantly (p<0.01) for groups of chicks provided 1.2 and 1.8% propionic acid in the diet as compared with those provided 0.6% propionic acid and control group. The pH of cecal contents decreased significantly (p<0.01) for groups of chicks provided with 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8% of propionic acid as compared with control group. The number of Salmonella gallinarum positive culture in the crop and ceca of chicks, decreased significantly (p<0.01) from the groups provided with 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8% of propionic acid in the diet at day 1, 8 and 15 post-inoculation. The addition of 1.8% propionic acid in the diet provided a high level of protection against colonization than did 0.6 and 1.2%. These results indicate that the addition of propionic acid in a concentration of 1.2 or more to the diet of newly hatched chicks significantly decreases crop and cecal colonization by Salmonella gallinarum.