• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salmonella gallinarum

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Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Herbs against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella gallinarum. (Staphylococcus aureus와 Salmonella gallinarum에 대한 한약재의 항균활성)

  • Choi, Il;Jang, Hyung-Soo;Yoon, Young-Min;Um, Ju-Chul
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2002
  • The extracts from approximately 40 different Korean traditional medicines were prepared to investigate the antimicrobial activities against poultry disease-related bacteria. Among tested, the extracts of Schizandra chinensis (SC), Melia azedarach (MA), Caesalpinia sappan (CS) and Rhus javanica (RJ) exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against Salmonella gallinarum, whereas the extracts of Elsholtzia ciliata (EC), Myristica fragrans (MF), Alpinia katsumadai (AK), Poncirus trifoliata (PT), Prunella vulgaris (PV), CS and RJ exhibited antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of MA, CS and RJ extracts against S. gallinarum were 1.2 mg/ml, whereas MIC of RJ extract for S. aureus was 0.6 ㎎/ml, which was the lowest among tested. The antimicrobial activities of SC and RJ extracts against S. gallinarum were reduced, but those of AK and CS extracts against S. aureus were not affected by heating treatment. The antimicrobial activities of SC extract against S. gallinarum and those of EC, PT and RJ extracts against S. aureus were stable by acid treatment but unstable by alkaline treatment. those of CS extract was not effected by either acid or alkaline treatment. The growth of all bacteria was significantly inhibited within 24 hours by the addition of at least 100 ppm and 300 ppm of RJ and CS extracts, respectively, compared with the control group. In conclusion, these findings suggest that RJ and CS extracts may play important roles for antimicrobial activities against poultry disease-related bacteria.

Therapeutic Effects of Bacteriophages Against Salmonella gallinarum Infection in Chickens

  • Hong, Sung Sik;Jeong, Jipseol;Lee, Jinju;Kim, Suk;Min, Wongi;Myung, Heejoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.1478-1483
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    • 2013
  • In this study the isolation and characterization of three bacteriophages (ST4, L13, and SG3) infecting Salmonella gallinarum were carried out. They were further tested for their in vivo efficacy in phage therapy. All three phages belong to the Siphoviridae family with isometric heads and non-contractile tails. They have a broad host range among serovars of Salmonella enterica. The burst sizes were observed to be 1670, 80, and 28 for ST4, L13, and SG3, respectively. The in vivo efficacy of the phages was tested in chickens. Layer chickens were challenged with S. gallinarum, whereas contact chickens were cohabited without direct challenge. Each bacteriophage was orally inoculated in the form of feed additives. Mortality was observed and S. gallinarum was periodically re-isolated from the livers, spleens, and cecums of the chickens. Bacterial re-isolation from the organs and mortality decreased significantly in both challenged and contact chickens treated with the bacteriophages compared with untreated chickens serving as the control. The three bacteriophages may be effective alternatives to antibiotics for the control of fowl typhoid disease in chickens.

Using Varying Levels of Formic Acid to Limit Growth of Salmonella gallinarum in Contaminated Broiler Feed

  • Al-Natour, Mohammad Q.;Alshawabkeh, Khalil M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.390-395
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    • 2005
  • Reported here are the effects of added formic acid on inhibitory effect of Salmonella gallinarum in poultry feed. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the viability of S. gallinarum and pH of poultry feed using different dietary formic acid levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) on inhibitory effect of S. gallinarum in broiler feed. Experiment one was conducted to investigate the viability of S. gallinarum and pH of artificially contaminated diet at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment in vitro. Formic acid showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the viability for all treatments with time after treatment. Various formic acid levels in vitro showed a reduction in the pH of the diet depending upon the concentration of treated acid, and the diet remained acidic below the growth range of S. gallinarum. This meant that the bacterial cells were exposed to stressful conditions that made them unable to grow. Experiment two was conducted to find out the effect of dietary formic acid levels on S. gallinarum colonization and pH in the contents of crop, small intestine, large intestine and ceca and mortality rate of broiler chicks at 7, 14 and 21 days of age when fed artificially contaminated diet with S. gallinarum. The numbers of S. gallinarum re-isolated from all treated groups except in groups treated with 0.5% formic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the control group. The treatment significantly (p<0.05) lowered the pH of the crop, small intestine, large intestine and ceca contents in all groups except the groups treated with 0.5% formic acid compared with the control. All treated groups showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in overall mortality rate during the experimental period (3 to 21 days) compared with the control. The results indicate that addition of formic acid in a total concentration of 1.5% to the diet of newly hatched broiler chicks significantly decreases the contamination of diet with S. gallinarum.

Detection of Salmonella spp. by TaqMan real-time PCR and comparison of nucleotide sequences of ompC gene among Salmonella (TaqMan 실시간 중합 효소 연쇄반응에 의한 살모넬라속의 검출 및 ompC 항원단백 유전자의 비교)

  • Lee, Young-Sung;Choi, Kyoung-Seong;Kim, Myeong-Chul;Han, Jae-Cheol;Chae, Joon-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.513-522
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    • 2002
  • Antigenic ompC genes of S. gallinarum, S. pullorum and S. dublin were characterized among Salmonella spp. isolated from chickens and other animals to identify genetic variation. Salmonella ompC gene fragment (1,027 bp) was amplified by PCR and the amplicons were cloned for comparison of nucleotide sequences. The identity of the sequences between S. gallinarum and S. pullorum, S. gallinarum and S. dublin, S. pullorum and S. dublin was 99.8%, 97.6% and 97.8%, respectively. Also, we found that ompC has some diversity between S. gallinarum and S. pullorum, and other Salmonella spp. which may be useful to type the organisms. Similar to diagnosis in other organisms, the TaqMan PCR method can be applied to rapid and accurate diagnosis of salmonellosis in chickens and other animals. We designed PCR primers and TaqMan probe for flagellin gene (fliC) for detection of Salmonella spp. by TaqMan PCR. The TaqMan PCR method was 10,000 times more sensitive than conventional PCR.

Protection Against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum, and Salmonella Enteritidis Infection in Layer Chickens Conferred by a Live Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium Strain

  • Lee, John Hwa
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2015
  • In the present study, we investigated the protection conferred by a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) strain against Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Gallinarum (SG), and Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infection in layer chickens. Birds were orally primed with the attenuated ST strain at 7 days of age and then boosted at 4 weeks post prime immunization (PPI). Sequential monitoring of plasma IgG and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels revealed that inoculation with ST induced a significant antibody response to antigens against ST, SE, and SG. Moreover, significant lymphoproliferative responses to the 3 Salmonella serovars were observed in the immunized group. We also investigated protection against virulent ST, SE, and SG strain challenge. Upon virulent SG challenge, the immunized group showed significantly reduced mortality compared to the non-immunized group. The reduced persistence of the virulent ST and SE challenge strains in the liver, spleen, and cecal tissues of the immunized group suggests that immunization with the attenuated ST strain may not only protect against ST infection but can also confer cross protection against SE and SG infection.

Comparison of two diagnostic methods, allele-specific real-time PCR and 3'-tailed PCR to discriminate between Salmonella enterica serovars Gallinarum and S Pullorum (Salmonella enterica serovars Gallinarum과 S Pullorum의 감별을 위한 2가지 진단법: allele-specific real-time PCR과 3'-tailed PCR의 비교)

  • Lee, Se-Mi;Seo, Ja-Young;Lee, Jae-Il;Kim, Tae-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.485-492
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    • 2008
  • Salmonella enterica serovars Gallinarum(SG, causative agent of fowl typhoid) and S Pullorum(SP, causative agent of pullorum disease) are very important bacterial pathogens in poultry industry. They share some common antigenic properties though the characteristics of outbreaks are quite different. To discriminate between SG and SP, we developed two rapid diagnostic methods, allele-specific real-time PCR and 3'-tailed PCR over 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms ($237^{th}\;and\;598^{th}$). In both methods, $237^{th}$ allele was found to be a good target for differential diagnosis, while $598^{th}$ allele produced some non-specific reactions.

Immunogenicity of outer membrane protein extracted from Salmonella gallinarum in chickens (Salmonella gallinarum 분리주로부터 추출한 세포외막 단백질의 닭에 대한 면역원성)

  • Lee, Hee-soo;Kim, Soon-jae;Kim, Ki-seuk;Mo, In-pil;Woo, Yong-ku;Kwon, Yong-kuk;Kim, Tae-jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.555-568
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    • 1997
  • Fowl typhoid caused by Salmonella gallinarum has increased dramatically since 1992 and has caused a great economic losses in chicken industry by characterizing with high mortality. In these studies, we investigated the immunogenicity and protectivity in chickens which were immunized with outer membrane protein(OMP) extracted from isolates of S gallinarum against challenge with live microorganism. Outer membrane proteins were composed of various sizes of molecular weight including 14K, 22K, 31K, 36K, 40K and 55K and the most of them responded strongly against rabbit antisera in immunoblot analysis. The chickens vaccinated with OMP or vaccinated with whole-cell combined with OMP($200{\mu}g$/chickens) complex showed higher delayed type hypersensitivity(DTH) response than that of whole-cell vaccinated group. The protective rates of OMP or whole-cell combined with OMP complex group against challenge of S gallinarum were higher (above 75%) than those (45~50%) of whole-cell vaccinated group. All vaccines were safe and the body weight-gains of all vaccinated groups were not significantly different (p<0.05) from those of nonvaccinated control group. In vitro tests, OMP stimulated both the proliferation of lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes, and OMP-induced lymphocyte proliferation was higher in the cells of the immunized chickens with OMP than in those from the control chickens.

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Immunomodulation by Bioprocessed Polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes Mycelia Cultures with Rice Bran in the Salmonella Gallinarum-infected Chicken Macrophages (Salmonella Gallinarum 감염닭의 대식세포에서 표고버섯 균사체 발효 미강생물전환소재에 의한 면역조절효과)

  • Lee, Hyung Tae;Lee, Sang Jong;Yoon, Jang Won
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.383-388
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of bioprocessed polysaccharides (BPPs) from liquid culture of Lentinus edodes fungal mycelia containing rice bran (BPP-RB) on a chicken-derived macrophage cell line, HD-11, when infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, an etiological agent of fowl typhoid. Experimental results demonstrated water extract of BPP-RB did not show growth inhibitory effects on S. Gallinarum 277. Protein expression profiles were also not altered by its treatment. Nonetheless, it could (i) enhance phagocytic activity of HD-11 cells, (ii) activate transcriptional expression of Th1-type cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ and interleukin $(IL)-1{\beta}$, iNOS, as well as an immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and (iii) negatively regulate Th2-type cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-6. Together results suggest that BPP-RB may be applicable for preventing fowl typhoid or other Salmonella infections in poultry farms as a potential feed additive.

Protective efficacy of formalin-inactivated Salmonella Gallinarum whole cells vaccine using mastoparan V1 as adjuvant against fowl typhoid (가금티푸스 예방을 위한 adjuvant로서 mastoparan V1을 사용한 포르말린-불활화 Salmonella Gallinarum 사균체 백신의 효능 평가)

  • Moon, Ja-Young;Kwak, Kil Han;Ochirkhuyag, Enkhsaikhan;Kim, Seon-Min;Lee, Jun-Woo;Jo, Young-Gyu;Kim, Won-Kyong;Bang, Woo Young;Bae, Chang Hwan;Hur, Jin
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 2019
  • Mastoparan V1 was used as adjuvant of formalin-inactivated Salmonella Gallinarum whole cells vaccine against fowl typhoid in a chicken model. The 75 brown nick chickens were equally divided into 5 groups, and all chickens of each group were immunized at 6 weeks of age (0 WPPI; weeks prime post immunization), and at 9 weeks of age (3 WPPI) (except group B). Group A chickens were intramuscularly (IM) inoculated with 500 uL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and group B chickens were subcutaneously immunized with 0.2 ml containing 5×107 viable vaccine strain/bird. The chickens in groups C~E were IM inoculated with approximately 3×109 cells/0.5 mL of formalin-inactivated the S. Gallinarum whole cells, approximately 3×109 cells/0.5 mL of formalin-inactivated the S. Gallinarum whole cells with mastoparan V1 as adjuvant, and 0.5 mL of PBS, respectively. S. Gallinarum outer membrane proteins-specific serum IgG titers were considerably higher in groups B~D than in groups A and E. However, the levels of IFN-γ in groups B and D only than in groups A and E were significantly higher. Following oral challenge with virulent wild-type S. Gallinarum, no chicken in groups A (no challenge group) and B was dead, and only 30% of chickens in group D was dead. However, 70% of chickens in group C and all chickens in group E were dead after oral challenge. The results of this study demonstrated that IM immunization with approximately 3×109 of the formalin-inactivated S. Gallinarum whole cells containing mastoparan V1 induced robust antibody and cell-mediated immune responses in chickens. The whole cells also conferred protection against infection with wild-type S. Gallinarum.

Epidemiological characteristics on fowl typhoid outbreak in Kyongnam province and comparison of diagnostic methods for identification of salmonella gallinarum (경남지역에서 발생한 가금티푸스의 역학적 특성 및 진단방법에 대한 비교 시험)

  • 최유정;김도경;김용환
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.349-360
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    • 2000
  • An epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate fowl typhoid outbreaks in Kyungnam province of Korea. The causative agent, salmonella gallinarum was isolated from 68 chicken samples of tentatively diagnosed fowl typhoid cases occurred during the period from January 1996 to September 1999. Comparative studies were also carried out to evaluate the diagnostic methods for detection of S gallinam The results obtained were as follows; 1. Of the 68 cases of tentatively diagnosed fowl typhoid, 56 (82%) cases were determined as fowl typhoid by biochemical test and pathological findings. The other 12 (18%) cases were determined as paratyphoid. 2. Fowl typhoid outbreaks occur continuously all seasons in the year, however the incidence was remarkably increased from May to September. 3. The frequency of incidence of fowl typhoid in terms of regional distribution was relatively high in egg-laying hens facilities, and the mode of transmission is likely to be either egg-to-egg or lateral transfer by wild birds or rats. 4. All of 18 isolates from 56 cases were identified as S gallinarum by biochemical and serological test. 5. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility test against 18 isolates showed that the isolates were highly susceptible to ASH, CZ, CF and GM (above 90%), whereas those strains were 100% resistant to EM, NA and PC. 6. S gallinarum rfbS gene was targeted to be amplified by PCR for comparative detection of S gallinarum in the experimentally infected chickens. The amplified 720bp DNA fragment, which is specific in D serogroup strains of S enterica subspecies was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. 7. A comparison made between fecal culture and PCR-method revealed that later-method was relatively higher in detection rate than that of former method for S gallinarum. 8. Comparison of currently applied methods, rapid serum agglutination test (RST) and microplate agglutination test (MAT), with experimentally infected chickens were made to evaluate sensitivity of detection by neutralizing antibody titration. Both methods detected neutralizing antibodies from the challenged chickens of 5 day post infection. However, positive reactions were determined after 7 and 9 days post infection by MAT and RST, respectively.

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