• Title, Summary, Keyword: Salmonella gallinarum

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Effects of Different Starter Cultures on the Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract from Fermented Chelidonium majus var. asiaticum (발효 애기똥풀 주정추출물의 항균 및 항산화활성에 있어 발효 균주의 효과)

  • Ham, Young-Joo;Shin, Young-Keun;Choi, Nag-Jin;Kang, Sang-Mo
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.467-476
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fermentation on biological activity of Chelidonium majus var asiaticum and to screen effective starter culture strains. Antibacterial activity against to Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella gallinarum and antioxidant activity as free radical scavenging activity by using DPPH were tested. Total six starter culture strains, two of Lactobacillus brevis, one of Lactobacillus plantarum and three of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used. Plant extract was prepared after fermentation by using ethanol. All strains showed normal growth in viable cell counts of fermented cultures and L. plantarum showed the highest cell growth significantly (p<0.05). In antibacterial activities of extracts, the activity was found only in the extract from the fermentation using L. plantarum. In antioxidant activity, the highest activity was shown in the fermentation using L. plantarum significantly (P<0.05). Newly produced spots in two of three elution systems on TLC-DPPH test were detected in the fermentation using L. plantarum.

Effect of Supplement of Various Antibiotics Alternatives on Performance, Organ Weight, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broilers (다양한 항생제 대체제의 첨가 급여가 육계의 생산성, 조직 중량, 장내 미생물 균총 및 혈액 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Eui-Chul;Kim, Dong-Wook;Kang, Hwan-Ku;Park, Ki-Tae;Jeon, Jin-Joo;Kim, Hyun-Soo;Park, Sung-Bok;Kim, Chan-Ho;Kim, Sang-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.113-122
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus, medicinal plant extracts, and plant extracts on growth performance, cecal microflora, relative organ weight, and lymphocyte profile in broiler chickens. One hundred broilers (5 wk old) were used and divided into five (treatment) ${\times}$ two (challenged Salmonella) groups containing 10 broilers. The treatments were as follows: no antibiotics group (NC), antibiotics group (PC), 0.1% lactic acid bacteria group (LB), 100 ppm medicinal plant extract group (MPE), and 100 ppm herb extract group (HE). A basal diet was formulated as 3,100 kcal/kg ME and 20% CP based on corn and soybean meal. Broilers were fed with the experimental diets with no challenge for 1 wk and with challenge of SG for 2 wk. SG were added in water as $1.0{\times}10^6cfu/L$. Final body weight and weight gain were significantly decreased following challenge with SG (P<0.05). However, with the addition of antibiotic alternatives, growth performance was improved and reduction of performance following challenge with SG was lowed compared with that of the NC treatment (P<0.05). Coliform bacteria and Salmonella but not lactic acid bacteria increased with the addition of antibiotic alternatives (P<0.05). Lactobacillus increased significantly with the addition of lactic acid bacteria compared with the NC and PC treatments (P<0.05). The weight of liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius increased with addition of antibiotic alternatives (P<0.05). WBC was highly reduced at 4 days after challenge with SG, but was normally maintained thereafter. There was no significant difference in coliform bacteria, Salmonella, organ weights, or WBC with the addition of antibiotic alternatives. Finally, Lactobacillus, medicinal plant extract, and herb extract can be used as antibiotic alternatives; but one alternative completely can't alternate as antibiotics. Therefore, further studies are needed to investigate the synergistic effects of two or more antibiotic alternatives.

A New Method of Producing a Natural Antibacterial Peptide by Encapsulated Probiotics Internalized with Inulin Nanoparticles as Prebiotics

  • Cui, Lian-Hua;Yan, Chang-Guo;Li, Hui-Shan;Kim, Whee-Soo;Hong, Liang;Kang, Sang-Kee;Choi, Yun-Jaie;Cho, Chong-Su
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.510-519
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    • 2018
  • Synbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, which lead to synergistic benefits in host welfare. Probiotics have been used as an alternative to antibiotics. Among the probiotics, Pediococcus acidilactici (PA) has shown excellent antimicrobial activity against Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) as a major poultry pathogen and has improved the production performances of animals. Inulin is widely used as a prebiotic for the improvement of animal health and growth. The main aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of inulin nanoparticle (IN)-internalized PA encapsulated into alginate/chitosan/alginate (ACA) microcapsules (MCs) for future in vivo application. The prepared phthalyl INs (PINs) were characterized by DLS and FE-SEM. The contents of phthal groups in the PINs were estimated by $^1H-NMR$ measurement as 25.1 mol.-%. The sizes of the PINs measured by DLS were approximately 203 nm. Internalization into PA was confirmed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The antimicrobial activity of PIN-internalized probiotics encapsulated into ACA MCs was measured by coculture antimicrobial assays on SG. PIN-internalized probiotics had a higher antimicrobial ability than that of ACA MCs loaded with PA/inulin or PA. Interestingly, when PINs were treated with PA and encapsulated into ACA MCs, as a natural antimicrobial peptide, pediocin was produced much more in the culture medium compared with other groups with inulin-loaded ACA MCs and PA encapsulated into ACA MCs.

Strain Selection and Optimization of Mixed Culture Conditions for Lactobacillus pentosus K1-23 with Antibacterial Activity and Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 58012 Producing Immune-Enhancing β-Glucan

  • Sekar, Ashokkumar;Kim, Myoungjin;Jeong, Hyeong Chul;Kim, Keun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.697-706
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    • 2018
  • Lactobacillus pentosus K1-23 was selected from among 25 lactic acid bacterial strains owing to its high inhibitory activity against several pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, S. gallinarum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium perfringens, and Listeria monocytogenes. Additionally, among 13 strains of Aureobasidium spp., A. pullulans NRRL 58012 was shown to produce the highest amount of ${\beta}$-glucan ($15.45{\pm}0.07%$) and was selected. Next, the optimal conditions for a solid-phase mixed culture with these two different microorganisms (one bacterium and one yeast) were determined. The optimal inoculum sizes for L. pentosus and A. pullulans were 1% and 5%, respectively. The appropriate inoculation time for L. pentosus K1-23 was 3 days after the inoculation of A. pullulans to initiate fermentation. The addition of 0.5% corn steep powder and 0.1% $FeSO_4$ to the basal medium resulted in the increased production of lactic acid bacterial cells and ${\beta}$-glucan. The following optimal conditions for solid-phase mixed culture were also statistically determined by using the response surface method: $37.84^{\circ}C$, pH 5.25, moisture content of 60.82%, and culture time of 6.08 days for L. pentosus; and $24.11^{\circ}C$, pH 5.65, moisture content of 60.08%, and culture time of 5.71 days for A. pullulans. Using the predicted optimal conditions, the experimental production values of L. pentosus cells and ${\beta}$-glucan were $3.15{\pm}0.10{\times}10^8CFU/g$ and $13.41{\pm}0.04%$, respectively. This mixed culture may function as a highly efficient antibiotic substitute based on the combined action of its anti-pathogenic bacterial and immune-enhancing activities.

Studies of the egg drop laying diseases from the mass zone layer (산란계 밀집지역의 산란저하성 질병에 관한 연구)

  • Lee Jeoung-Won;Eum Sung-Shim;Park In-Gyu;Bea Joung-Jun;Joung Dong-Suk;Song Hee-Jong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.121-146
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    • 2005
  • Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), low pathogenic avian Influenza (LPAI) and fowl typhoid (FT) have been known as egg drop laying diseases because of the serious layer damage from mass zone layer. In this study, such egg drop laying diseases were investigated. To access this study, we peformed to evaluate antibody titers in serum and isolated bacteria and virus from organs and feces on May, July and September in 2003. The distribution of ND from January to May, IB and LPAI from October to February of the next year, and FT from March to September were inspected by the question survey in 21 farms. ND revealed to be positive rates of 490 to 474 $(96.7\%)$ in May, 510 to 506 $(99.2\%)$ in July and 510 to 510 $(100\%)$ in September with hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The mean antibody titers were 10.2, 9.9 and 10.2, respectively. With regard to IB, 484 out of 490 samples $(98.7\%)$ in May, 508 of 510 $(99.6\%)$ in July and 509 of 510 $(99.8\%)$ in September showed positive results and the mean antibody titers were gradually increased with 8.2, 9.0 and 9.4, respectively. According to HI test of LPAI, the positive results were shown in 442 of 480 $(92.1\%)$, 394 of 494 $(79.8\%)$ and 402 of 483 $(83.2\%)$ in May, July and September, respectively The mean antibody titers were decreased with 4.6, 4.3 and 4.0. The distribution of LPAI also elicited the positive rates of 480 to 475 $(99.0\%)$ in May, 494 to 485$(98.2\%)$ in July, 483 to 472 $(97.7\%)$ in September as determined by ELISA and the mean S/P ratio were 2.319, 2.557 and 2.380, respectively. Compared ELISA results with HI test of LPAI the positive results were 480 to 422 $(92.1\%),\;475(99.0\%),\;494\;to\;394 (79.8\%),\;485 (98.2\%)\;and\;483\;to\;402(83.2\%),\;472(97.7\%)$. Therefore, the positive rate determined by ELISA was higher than that of HI test with 6.9, 18.4 and $14.5\%$, respectively. When performed RT-PCR for ND using organ and feces samples, the pathotypes were detected $5(15.6\%)\;in\;May,\; 2(5.3\%) in\;July,\;2(7.1\%)$ in September but there is no samples showing positive band for LPAI. In attempt to isolate Salmonella gallinarum, bacteria were obtained from 4 cases (12.5%) in May, 9 (23.6%) in July, 5 (17.8%) in September. Thus the highest rate for isolation revealed to be shown in July When evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility to 18 isolated strains of 5. gallinarum, bacteria were sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethox$(61.1\%),\;kanamycin\;(55.5\%),\;ampicillin\;(55.5\%)$ and amoxacillin/clavulanic acid $(55.5\%)$, cephalothin $(50.0\%)$, but resistant to penicillin $(88.9\%)$, streptomycin $(88.9\%)$, erythromycin $(83_4\%)$ and tetracycline $(61.1\%)$. According to HI test of ND and LPAI using captured 164 wild Korean tree sparrows (Passer nontanus), the positive rates were $47.6\%\;and\;57.3\%$, and the mean HI titers were 5.32 and 4.02, respectively. 71 $(43.2\%)\;and\;58(35.3\%)$ in captured sparrows also showed more than 4 titers for HI test to ND and LPAI, respectively However, the attempt for isolation of viruses failed in all samples.

The prevalence of pullorum disease-fowl typhoid in grand parent stock and parent stock in Korea, 2003 (2003년 국내 원종계 및 종계의 추백리-가금티푸스 감염실태)

  • Kim, Ae Ran;Kim, Jae Hong;Lee, Young Ju;Cho, Young Mi;Kwon, Jun Hun;Kwon, Yong Kuk;Lee, Youn Jeong;Choi, Jun Gu;Joh, Sung Jun;Kim, Min Chul;Lee, Eun Kyoung;Kim, Chang Seub;Yang, Hung Gu;Kwag, Sang Ick;Sung, Haan Woo;Moo, In Pil
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.347-353
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    • 2006
  • Serum samples of 30 chickens per flock from 6 grand parent stock (GPS) farms and 70 parent stock (PS) farms were collected for seroprevalent study of pullorum disease-fowl typhoid (PD-FT) infection by serum plate agglutination test (SPA). The incidence of PD-FT infection in GPS flocks and PS flocks were 0% and 15.7%, respectively. Especially PS flocks infected with PD-FT showed age dependent patterns that 22.2% of flocks between 20 to 30 weeks of age and 38.9% of flocks between 30 to 40 weeks of age were positive. The incidence of GPS flocks and PS flocks using Salmonella (S.) gallinarum 9R (SG9R) live vaccine were 33.3% and 58.6%, respectively. The sero-positive rate of 11 flocks were 6.7-83.3% by SPA and 2.9-55.6% by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ELISA showed more lower antibody levels than SPA. Furthermore, specific antibodies produced by SG9R vaccination were detectable by SPA using SG9R antigen without cross-reaction with the PD-FT infection.

Development of an Environmental Friend Additive Using Antibacterial Natural Product for Reducing Enteric Rumen Methane Emission (항균활성 천연물질을 이용한 반추위 메탄저감용 친환경 첨가제 개발)

  • Lee, A-Leum;Yang, Jinho;Cho, Sang-Buem;Na, Chong-Sam;Shim, Kwan-Seob;Kim, Young-Hoon;Bae, Gui-Seck;Chang, Moon-Baek;Choi, Bitna;Shin, Su-Jin;Choi, Nag-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.491-502
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    • 2014
  • The present study was conducted to investigate effective starter culture to improve biological activity of Asarum sieboldii. Antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and reduction of enteric rumen methane production were used as criterions for biological activity. Ground A. sieboldii was added in MRS broth at 10% (w/v) and fermented by different starter cultures. Weissella confusa NJ28, Weissella cibaria NJ33, Lactobacillus curvatus NJ40, Lactobacillus brevis NJ42, Lactobacillus plantarum NJ45 and Lactobacillus sakei NJ48 were used for starter culture strains. Each starter culture was inoculated with 1% (v/v) ratio and fermentation was performed at $30^{\circ}C$ with agitation (150 rpm) for 48 h. MRS broth for the control was employed without starter culture. Then the fermentation growth was dried and extracted using ethyl alcohol. The growth of starter culture was detected at NJ40, NJ42, NJ45 and NJ48. And the highest cell growth was found in NJ40. Antibacterial activity against to Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogens, Mannheimia haemolytica and Salmonella gallinarum were observed in the extract fermented by NJ40 and NJ45. All treatments showed antioxidant activities, however, there were no significant differences (p>0.05). In in vitro rumen fermentation, negative control (NC) and positive control (PC) were assigned to without extract and with non-fermented A. sieboldii extract. Significant suppression of gas productions were detected in positive control and treatments compared to negative control (p<0.05). However, total volatile fatty acid production was not suppressed. Significant methane reduction per total volatile fatty acid productions were found in positive control and NJ45 treatment (p<0.05). The present study suggested a fermentation of A. sieboldii using NJ45 strain could improve its biological activity and make possible for its use in bio additive for enteric rumen methane mitigation without suppression of animal productivity.

Prevalence Report of Transovarian Transmitted Diseases in the Breeder Chickens, Korea (국내 종계에서 난계대 전염병 감염 실태 보고)

  • Kwon, Yong-Kuk;Kang, Min-Soo;Oh, Jae-Young;Jung, Byeong-Yeal;Kim, Hye-Ryoung;Kim, Ha-Young;Shin, So-Yeon;Kwon, Jun-Hun;Chung, Gab-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 2010
  • A survey of transovarially transmitted diseases, including salmonellosis [(pullorum disease; PD)/(fowl typhoid; FT)], mycoplasmosis, avian infectious anemia (CIA), and fowl adenovirus infection was conducted in the breeder chickens from August to December in 2009. The numbers of flocks sampled out were: Grand Parents Stock (GPS), 45; Parents Stock (PS) 1,018, Baeksemi breeder (BSB) 54. The seroprevalence of salmonellosis (PD/FT) were 0% (GPS), 3.2% (PS), and 3% (BSB), respectively. A total of 983 chicken farms were affected with FT outbreaks between 2000 and 2008. The incidence of FT in commercial broilers, Baeksemi, commercial layers, native chickens, and broiler breeders was 44.3%, 26.2%, 15.7%, 12.6% and 1.08%, respectively. Of the affected broilers, over 90% birds were under 2 weeks of age, indicating it was possible that they were infected with S. gallinarum via vertical transmission. The sero-positive flocks against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) were 71.1% (GPS), 88.7% (PS), 88.7% (BSB), while the rates of positive flocks against Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) were 86.0% (GPS), 77.0% (PS), and 98.0% (BSB). In GP and parent farms, the detection rates on specific genes of CIA virus were 19/45 (42.2%), and 169/1039 (18.0%), respectively, whereas the seroprevalence of CIA were 86.0% in GPS and 93.7% in PS flocks. In addition, positive flocks of fowl adenoviruses were 4.4% (GPS), 2.7% (PS) and 9.35% (BSB), respectively. As the results, avian mycoplasmosis and CIA have been more prevailing in chicken breeder than avian salmonellosis and fowl adenovirus infection in Korea.

Effect of Microbial Phytase in Low Phosphorus and Calcium Level Diet on the Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Laying Hens (인과 칼슘의 수준이 낮은 산란계 사료 내 미생물 Phytase의 첨가가 생산성 및 영양소 소화율에 미치는 영향)

  • Min B.J.;Kwon O.S.;Lee W.B.;Son K.S.;Hong J.W.;Yang S.J.;Moon T.H.;Kim I.H.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2005
  • This Study was conducted to investigate the effects of microbial phytase in low phosphirus and calcium level diet on the performance and nutrient digestibility in laying hens. One hundred ninety two, 50 wks old, ISA brown commerical layers were used for 12 weeks feeding trial after 7-d adjustment period. Four dietary treatments included CON(control; Co.), P2 ($0.06\%$ Natuphos, BASF) and P3 ($0.06\%$ PHOSMAX, GENOFOCUS). Ca and available P concentrations of P1, P2 and P3 were 90 and $50\%$ of NRC recommecdations to accentuate difference in response to phytase availability. In whole period, egg production was not affected by treatments. At 12 weeks, egg weight was significantly increased in adding phytase treatments (P<0.05). Egg shell thickness was increased in P1, P2 and P3 treatments compared with control (P<0.05) at 9 weeks. Ca concentration of serum tended to decrease in P1 treatment without significant difference (P>0.05). Ca and P concentrations of tibia were higher in layers fed dietary phyrase than those fed control diet without significant difference (P>0.05). Digestibilities of DM, N and ash were improved in P1 treatment compared with P2 and P3 treatments (P<0.05). Ca and P digestibilities were the highest in P2 treatment (P>0.05), but was not significant difference between control and P1 treatments.