• Title, Summary, Keyword: Scavenging

Search Result 6,065, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

A study on the scavenging characteristics in slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines (저속 2행정 디젤 기관의 소기 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 고대권;최재성
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
    • /
    • v.19 no.3
    • /
    • pp.24-32
    • /
    • 1995
  • The scavenging characteristics have a great influence on the performance of a diesel engine, especially slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines which are usually used as a marine propulsion power plant, and they are greatly affected by the conditions in the cylinder, intake and exhaust manifolds, and the opening and closing timing of scavenging ports or exhaust valves during the gas exchange process. Besides, there are many other factors to affect the scavenging characteristics and these factors interact each other very complicatedly. Therefore the simulation program of the gas exchange process is very useful to improve and predict the scavenging characteristics, due to the high costs associated with redesign and testing. In this paper it was attenpted to investigate the effect of the variation of the pressure ratio of intake to exhaust manifolds, and the variation of the opening and closing timing of a exhaust valve by using a computational program for a three-zone scavenging model which was developed by authors. The computed results showed that the scavenging efficiency and delivery ratio increased considerably, but the trapping efficiency decreased with increasing of the pressure ratio of intake to exhaust manifolds. The scavenging efficiency, trapping efficiency, and th conditions of the cylinder gases were affected by the opening timing of the exhaust valve, but the delivery ratio by the closing timing.

  • PDF

Antioxidant Studies on the Methanol Stem Extract of Coscinium fenestratum

  • Shirwaikar, Arun;Punitha, I.S.R.;Shirwaikar, Annie
    • Natural Product Sciences
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.40-45
    • /
    • 2007
  • The methanol extract of Coscinium fenestratum, commonly own as tree turmeric, which is widely used in the indigenous system of medicine was studied for its in vitro scavenging activity in different methods viz DPPH scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, iron chelation activity, superoxide scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation. The results were analyzed statistically by regression method. Its antioxidant activity was estimated by $IC_{50}$ value and the values are $57.1\;{\mu}g/ml$ for DPPH radical scavenging, $36.5\;{\mu}g/ml$ for iron chelating activity, $51.7\;{\mu}g/ml$ for nitric oxide scavenging, $53.63\;{\mu}g/ml$ for ABTS scavenging, $44.2\;{\mu}g/ml$ for superoxide scavenging, and $40\;{\mu}g/ml$ for lipid peroxidation. In all the methods, the extract showed its ability to scavenge free radicals in a concentration dependent manner. The results indicate that C. fenestratum has potent antiofidant activity.

Antioxidant Effects of Salicornia bigelovii Seed Extracts

  • Kim, Ran
    • KSBB Journal
    • /
    • v.32 no.2
    • /
    • pp.140-145
    • /
    • 2017
  • The objective of this study was to compare antioxidant effects of different extracts of Salicornia bigelovii seed. DPPH radical scavenging activity, chelating activity of ferrous, superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and contents of total polyphenol and flavonoid were measured for different extracts. Ethanol extract (10 mg/mL) was found to have the maximum DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities (65.26 and 62.36%, respectively). However, hot water extract (10 mg/mL) showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging and chelating activities (51.50 and 53.24%, respectively). Total phenolics and flavonoid contents in the ethanol extract were 522.8 and $480.35{\mu}g/mg$, respectively. They were 401.51 and $352.60{\mu}g/mg$, respectively, in the hot water extract. These results indicate that ethanol and hot water extracts of S. bigelovii seed have good potential to be used as a new source of antioxidants for functional foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Fermented Laminaria japonica Extracts

  • Park, Min-Jung;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.11 no.1
    • /
    • pp.10-16
    • /
    • 2006
  • Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Laminaria japonica and fermented its extracts were evaluated. Freeze-dried L. japonica was fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and extracted with distilled water. The extract solution was mixed with ethanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was ethanol soluble fraction, non-polysaccharide fraction (ESF), and residue was ethanol insoluble precipitation, polysaccharide fraction (EIP). ESF was subjected to sequential fractionation with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. To determine the radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of these, DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical scavenging activities and linoleic acid oxidation were tested. Among the extracts, ESF of fermented L. japonica showed the highest radical scavenging activity. The ESF showed DPPH radical scavenging activity of 64.33% at concentration of $50{\mu}g/mL$. It was higher than 57.70% of vit. C. Ethyl acetate and butanol fraction had high value of radical scavenging and antioxidant activities, especially butanol fraction of fermented L. japonica was 79.48 % of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity at concentration of $50{\mu}g/mL$. The fermented L japonica had radical scavenging and antioxidant activities higher than L. japonica. These results suggest that fermented L japonica is healthy food having radical scavenging and antioxidant activities.

Antioxidative Activities of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Heated Onion (Allium cepa)

  • Lee, Youn-Ri;Hwang, In-Guk;Woo, Koan-Sik;Kim, Dae-Joong;Hong, Jin-Tae;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
    • /
    • v.16 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1041-1045
    • /
    • 2007
  • Heated onion juice was partitioned using the solvents hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest scavenging effect on the ABTS radical. The antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate fraction from raw and heated onion (120, 130, and $140^{\circ}C$) were evaluated using radical scavenging assays. Radical and nitrite scavenging activities were higher in heated onion than raw onion, and the higher the temperature of heat treatment, the greater the radical and nitrite scavenging activities. Heated onion ($140^{\circ}C$, 2 hr) was more effective than raw onion, having higher DPPH radical scavenging (5.7-fold), hydroxyl radical scavenging (6.4-fold), superoxide radical scavenging (2.3-fold), hydrogen peroxide scavenging (11.8-fold), and nitrite scavenging (4.3-fold) activities. Onion increased its physiologically active materials after heating, and in this regard, heated onion can be used as biological material for the manufacture of health foods and supplements.

The Nitrite-Scavenging Effects by Component of Oolong and Black Tea Extracts (오룡차 및 홍차 추출물의 아질산염 분해작용)

  • 안철우;여생규
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.104-110
    • /
    • 1996
  • The present study was conducted to elucidate the functional property of tea extract obtained from tea extracts, semi-fermented tea(oolong tea) and fermented tea(black tea). Tea extracts exhibited remarkable nitrite-scavenging actions, and the action increased with the increased of the amount of tea extracts. The nitrite-scavenging actionof tea extracts showed pH dependent, highest at pH 1.2 and lowest at pH6.0. The nitrite-scavenging rate in tea extracts/amine/nitrite systems proved to be faster than that in amine/nitrite systems. To screen the nitrite-scavenging factors, tea extracts were fractionated into water-soluble, methanol-soluble, methanol-precipitate and crude catechin fraction. Among these fractions of tea extracts, the crude catechin fraction possessed greater nitrite-scavenging action than the other fractions. The nitrite-scavenging action of tea extracts increased with the contents of total phenols and an absorbance at 280nm, nitrite-scavenging factors were supposed to be and catechins in tea polyphenol compounds.

  • PDF

A Study on the Evaluation of Scavenging Efficiency in Two- Stroke Engines by Analysis of the In-Cylinder Pressure Data (연소실 압력을 이용한 2행정 엔진의 소기효율 측정연구)

  • 김영민
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
    • /
    • v.7 no.8
    • /
    • pp.66-75
    • /
    • 1999
  • In two-stroke engines, methods of evaluating scavenging effciency have been studied in parallel with trials for improvement of scavenging process. But simulating methods have a wide difference with difference with scavenging process in real engines and methods of evaluating scavening efficiency in real engines are very difficult and very expensive. This study shows that there is a possbility of evaluating scavenging efficiency in real engines very easily by analysis of in-cylinder pressure data. And as a characteristics two-stroke engines, the poly tropic indices in the process of compression are varies with degreeof scavenging and good representatives of scavenging efficiency.

  • PDF

Radical Scavenging Activities of Fruits of Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE Major. from Korea

  • Choi, You Jin;Hwang, Keum Hee
    • Natural Product Sciences
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.186-191
    • /
    • 2013
  • Screenings of potential antioxidant activities of Crataegus pinnatifida BUNGE Major. fruits extracted 80% methanol were performed using four antioxidant assays. Significant differences were observed both in total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging assay, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content in the extract were measured to be $224.4{\pm}0.52$ mg GAE/100 g and $12{\pm}0.25$ mg QE/100 g, respectively. When the tested concentration was $500{\mu}g/mL$, DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were 84.15% and 88.8%, respectively. The reducing power and nitric oxide scavenging activity were increased at the manner of dose-dependently. These results suggest that methanolic extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. fruits possess excellent radical scavenging activities and may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

Effect of Scavenging and Protein Supplement on the Feed Intake and Performance of Improved Pullets and Laying Hens in Northern Vietnam

  • Minh, Do Viet;Lindberg, Jan Erik;Ogle, Brian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.17 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1553-1561
    • /
    • 2004
  • Two feeding trials were conducted with 128 pullets from 4 to 20 weeks of age and 96 laying hens from 23 to 63 weeks of age to evaluate the effects of scavenging and type of protein supplement on the feed intake and performance of improved pullets and laying hens. The experiments had a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments and four replicates. Treatments were: Control (Cont), scavenging but with access to a balanced concentrate at night; confinement (CF) and given the control feed ad libitum; scavenging and supplemented at night with the control feed, but with soybean meal replaced by cassava leaf meal (CLM); scavenging and supplemented at night with the control feed, but with fishmeal replaced y soybean meal (SBM). The mean daily dry matter (DMI), metabolizable energy (MEI) and crude protein intakes (CPI) of the pullets and laying hens, respectively, were 28%, and 18% higher for the confinement treatment (CF) compared to the scavenging treatments (p<0.001). The DMI, MEI and CPI of the pullets were not significantly different among scavenging treatments (p>0.05), but for the layers DMI, MEI and CPI were significantly higher for the CLM and SBM treatments compared to the Cont treatment (p<0.001). In the growing period, the average daily weight gain (ADG), supplement feed conversion ratio (FCR) and supplement feed cost/kg eggs (FCS) were not significantly different for CF compared to Cont, and among scavenging treatments (p>0.05). In the laying period, the hen-day production was significantly lower, and supplement FCR and FCS significantly higher for the CF compared to the scavenging treatments (p<0.001). Egg weight, and yolk, albumen and shell percentage and shape index were not significantly different among the scavenging treatments (p>0.05). However, shell and yolk percentages were significantly lower for the CF compared to the Cont treatment (p<0.01). Mortality was significantly higher for the CF compared to the scavenging treatments for pullets, and was significantly lower for the CF compared to scavenging treatments for laying hens (p<0.001). It was concluded that scavenging pullets and layers were getting around 28% and 18%, respectively, of their nutrient requirements from scavenging activities, resulting in correspondingly lower supplement feed conversion ratios and feed costs. Daily gains of the pullets were not affected by scavenging or protein supplement, but egg production and mortality were lower for the confined hens.

Simulation of the Gas Exchange Process in a Two - Stroke Cycle Diesel Engine (2행정 사이클 디젤기관의 가스교환과정 시뮬레이션)

  • 고대권;최재성
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.104-112
    • /
    • 1994
  • The scavenging efficiency has a great influence on the performance of a diesel engine, especially slow two-stroke diesel engines which are usually used as a marine propulsion power plant. And this is greatly affected by the conditions in the cylinder, scavenging manifold and exhaust manifold during the gas exchange process. There are many factors to affect on the scavenging efficiency and these factors interact each other very complicatedly. Therefore the simulation program of the gas exchange process is very useful to improve and predict the scavenging efficiency, due to the high costs associated with redesign and testing. In this paper, a three-zone scavenging model for two-stroke uniflow engines was developed to link a control-volume-type engine simulation program for performance prediction of long-stroke marine engines. In this model it was attempted to simulate the three different regions perceived to exist inside the cylinder during scavenging, namely the air, mixing and combystion products regions, by modeling each region as a seperate control volume. Finally the scavenging efficiency was compared with three type of scavenging modes, that is, pure displacement, partial mixing and prefect mixing.

  • PDF