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The Contribution of Innovation Activity to the Output Growth of Emerging Economies: The Case of Kazakhstan

  • Smagulova, Sholpan;Mukasheva, Saltanat
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to analyse the state of the energy industry and to determine the efficiency of its functioning on the basis of energy conservation principle and application of innovative technologies aimed at improving the ecological modernisation of agricultural sectors of Kazakhstan. The research methodology is based on an integrated approach of financial and economic evaluation of the effectiveness of the investment project, based on calculation of elasticity, total costs and profitability, as well as on comparative, graphical and system analysis. The current stage is characterised by widely spread restructuring processes of electric power industry in many countries through introduction of new technical installations of energy facilities and increased government regulation in order to enhance the competitive advantage of electricity market. Electric power industry features a considerable value of creating areas. For example, by providing scientific and technical progress, it crucially affects not only the development but also the territorial organisation of productive forces, first of all the industry. In modern life, more than 90% of electricity and heat is obtained by Kazakhstan's economy by consuming non-renewable energy resources: different types of coal, oil shale, oil, natural gas and peat. Therefore, it is significant to ensure energy security, as the country faces a rapid fall back to mono-gas structure of fuel and energy balance. However, energy resources in Kazakhstan are spread very unevenly. Its main supplies are concentrated in northern and central parts of the republic, and the majority of consumers of electrical power live in the southern and western areas of the country. However, energy plays an important role in the economy of industrial production and to a large extent determines the level of competitive advantage, which is a promising condition for implementation of energy-saving and environmentally friendly technologies. In these circumstances, issues of modernisation and reforms of this sector in Kazakhstan gain more and more importance, which can be seen in the example of economically sustainable solutions of a large local monopoly company, significant savings in capital investment and efficiency of implementation of an investment project. A major disadvantage of development of electricity distribution companies is the prevalence of very high moral and physical amortisation of equipment, reaching almost 70-80%, which significantly increases the operating costs. For example, while an investment of 12 billion tenge was planned in 2009 in this branch, in 2012 it is planned to invest more than 17 billion. Obviously, despite the absolute increase, the rate of investment is still quite low, as the total demand in this area is at least more than 250 billion tenge. In addition, industrial infrastructure, including the objects of Kazakhstan electric power industry, have a tangible adverse impact on the environment. Thus, since there is a large number of various power projects that are sources of electromagnetic radiation, the environment is deteriorated. Hence, there is a need to optimise the efficiency of the organisation and management of production activities of energy companies, to create and implement new technologies, to ensure safe production and provide solutions to various environmental aspects. These are key strategic factors to ensure success of the modern energy sector of Kazakhstan. The contribution of authors in developing the scope of this subject is explained by the fact that there was not enough research in the energy sector, especially in the view of ecological modernisation. This work differs from similar works in Kazakhstan in the way that the proposed method of investment project calculation takes into account the time factor, which compares the current and future value of profit from the implementation of innovative equipment that helps to bring it to actual practise. The feasibility of writing this article lies in the need of forming a public policy in the industrial sector, including optimising the structure of energy disbursing rate, which complies with the terms of future modernised development of the domestic energy sector.

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A Study on the Effectiveness and Possibility of General Chemistry Experiment Lecture with Flipped Classroom (거꾸로 교실을 적용한 일반화학실험 강좌의 효과 및 가능성 탐색 연구)

  • Yoon, Jihyun;Son, E Nok;Kang, Seong-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.62 no.2
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    • pp.124-136
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we applied the flipped-classroom to the general chemistry experiment lecture of the domestic university with strong teacher-led, and explored the effects and possibilities of the course. For this purpose, 30 students who were enrolled in the Science Education Department of the College of Education in the metropolitan area were randomly assigned to two groups, namely, the flipped-classroom group and the traditional class group. Then, we developed a general chemistry experiment lessons based on the flipped-classroom along with visual materials and we applied the lessons for 15 weeks. After all the classes, we conducted a survey to see the students' perception of the general chemistry experiment lecture by flipped classroom. As a result of analysis, the students of the flipped-classroom group were more positive than the students of the traditional class group in terms of the usefulness of the class activity, the importance of each activity element for the successful learning, the learning level, and the intention for another lesson. As a result of analyzing students' perceptions in terms of general chemical experiment activities such as conducting experiments or writing reports and understanding the contents of experiments, the average score of the flippedclassroom group was higher than the traditional class group, and the main cause of this result was the video material provided by prior learning activities. In addition, as a result of analyzing students' perceptions in terms of interactions and self-directed learning in class, the average score of the flipped-classroom group was generally higher than the traditional class group. In particular, students' interactions and self-directed learning were statistically significant differences between the two groups. And the students' perception of video material was very positive, and it was analyzed that the video that the instructor directly explained experiment theory and method was the most favorite videos of students. We discussed educational implications of these findings.

[ ${\ulcorner}$ ]Standard Principles for the Designing of Prescriptions - The Theory for Monarch, Minister, Adjuvant and Dispatcher${\lrcorner}$ ("방제구성의 표준적 규격 - 군신좌사(君臣佐使)")

  • Kim Do-Hoy;Seo Bu-il;Kim Bo-Kyung;Kim Gyeong-Cheol;Shin Soon-Shik
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 2003
  • The Theory for Monarch, Minister, Adjuvant and Dispatcher (or the Theory of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant and Guiding Korean Oriental Herbal Medicines) has served as a standard principle for newly developed prescription formulas as well as established ones. Despite its significance, however, this theory hasn't been thoroughly studied and covered in the academic journals of Korean Oriental Herbal Medicines (KOHM) yet. This paper inquires into the origin of the theory while presenting the definitions and functions of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM. In the end, the recommended doses and number of the KOHM comprising each of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM are suggested. The compatibility theory of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM can be traced back to the Warring States Period during which it was recorded in the treatise of the various schools of thoughts and their exponents. The theory was firmly established as a full system in ${\ulcorner}Shinnong's\;Pharmacopoeia{\lrcorner}\;and\;{\ulcorner}Yellow\;Emperor's\;Cannon\;of\;Internal\;Medicine{\lrcorner}$. While ${\ulcorner}Shinnong's\;Pharmacopoeia{\lrcorner}$ focuses on the classification of the properties of KOHM, ${\ulcorner}Yellow\;Emperor's\;Cannon\;of\;Internal\;Medicine{\lrcorner}$ mainly deals with the principles for writing prescriptions. In this regard, it is ${\ulcorner}Yellow\;Emperor's\;Cannon\;of\;Internal\;Medicine{\lrcorner}$ that systemized the Theory of Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant, and Guiding KOHM in a real sense. Principal KOHM aims at the causes of diseases and treat main symptoms. The doses are greater than Assistant, Adjuvant and Guiding KOHM. With their comprehensive effects, Principal KOHM is a leading ingredient of any prescription formula. Assistant KOHM are similar to Principal KOHM in its natures and flavors. Although its natures, flavors as well as efficacies may slightly differ from those of Principal KOHM, Assistant KOHM strengthens the therapeutic effects, jointly working with Principal KOHM. They mainly treat accompanying diseases and symptoms. Adjuvant KOHM is divided into two types: facilitator and inhibitor. Facilitators with the similar properties to those of Principal and Assistant KOHM help strengthen the therapeutic effects. Since they usually treat accompanying symptoms or secondary accompanying symptoms (minor accompanying symptoms), there are two kinds of facilitators. (1) The first kind of facilitators assists Principal KOHM, targeting accompanying symptoms. (2) The second ones supporting Assistant KOHM are for accompanying or secondary accompanying symptoms (or minor accompanying symptoms). Inhibitors counteract and thereby complement Principal and Assistant KOHM. Some of them inhibit the side effects or toxicity of Principal KOHM for the sake of the safety of the whole prescription formula while the others generate induced interactions. Guiding KOHM can be used for two purposes: guiding and mediating. The Guiding KOHM for the former purpose leads the other KOHM in a prescription formula to the lesion. But, the Guiding KOHM for mediating coodinate and harmonize all the ingredients in a prescription formula. The number of KOHM for those Principal, Assistant, Adjuvant and Guiding KOHM and their doses are different, depending on the types of prescriptions: classical prescriptions, prescriptions after ${\ulcorner}$Treatise of Cold-Induced Diseases${\lrcorner}$ and prescriptions of Sasang Constitutions Medicines. In the case of the prescriptions after ${\ulcorner}$Treatise of Cold-Induced Diseases${\lrcorner}$, it is highly recommended to follow the view of ${\ulcorner}$Thesaurus of Korean Oriental Medicine Doctors in Chosun Dynasty${\lrcorner}$ for the number of KOHM to be used. For the doses, however, ${\ulcorner}$Elementary Course for Medicine${\lrcorner}$, is found to be more accurate. The most appropriate number of KOHM per prescription is 11-13. To be more specific, for one prescription formula, it is recommended to administer one kind of KOHM for Principal KOHM, 2-3 for Assistant KOHM, 3-4 for Adjuvant KOHM and 5 for Guiding KOHM. As for the proportion of the doses, when 10 units are to be administered for Principal KOHM in a formula, the doses for the other three should be 7-8 units for Assistant KOHM, 5-6 for Adjuvant KOHM and 3-4 for Guiding KOHM. The doses of the KOHM added to or taken out of the prescription correspond to those of Adjuvant and Guiding KOHM.

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A Study of Introduction Process of the Bauhaus Formative Art Education in Korea (한국에 있어서의 바우하우스조형교육의 도입과정에 관한 연구 -1930년대 조선총독부 산하에 있어서 소학교의 교육시스템과의 관계에 관하여)

  • 손영범;백금남
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.67-76
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    • 2002
  • This study is mainly based on the introduction process of formative art education method of Korean Bauhaus which was brought in this CQuntry through Japan. The introduction routes into Korea of Bauhaus education method by way of the United States through Germany have been disclosed since 1945, including Korean students studying in the United States as well as Scandinavian countries. Those introduction of Bauhaus method by Korean students into Korea had influenced the domestic university education. However, it was worth notice that Park Hui-rak pointed out through his writing that Bauhaus education method had already existed in the CQuntry before 1945 when korea was liberated from 35 years of Japanese colonial rule. Park hinted in his book of "Korean Design History,199B" that the curriculum of primary school, then affiliated with Taegu Education College had been possibly influenced from Composition Education" idealogy led by Japanese Kawakita Rensichiro. In Japan, Bauhaus education method had been independently introduced by civilians like primary school teachers of Kawakita. However, the possible introduction of the informative art education in the country by way of Japan leaves a lot of things to be considered. Because, the introduction was carried out by Choson governor-General which took charge of colonial rule of korea. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to make full explanation on the introduction of formative art education and on the types. For that purpose, examinations on various materials and information released by many educational institutes as well as by choson Governor-General were included. As the result, it was possible to find out a trace of "Composition Education : Japanese Bauhaus Formative Art Education" in 1937, one year earlier pointed out. And it was remarkable that two interested books were found out, which mainly dealt with Spanung of Composition and Dynamic sense. Finally, through examinations in many aspects, five drawing education books written in 1930s, such as Drawing Guide Details and indication, were proved to be equal to Bauhaus Composition Education in terms of terminology and contents. Moreover, it has been made clear that Composition education Choson was made mostly under the control and management of Choson Governor-General in the of books on education systems in then education college.

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A Study on the Job Activities of the Emergency Nurses (응급실 근무 간호사의 업무분석)

  • 김광주;이향련;김귀분
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.709-728
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    • 1995
  • The job related activities of sixty nine nurses, working in the emergency rooms of three university hospitals, were analyzed for six days according to preestablished checklist of nursing activities ; the frequency of these activities and the amount of time spent in each specific nursing activity. The established checklist was monitored every five minutes for the duration of the duty autu, thus producing 414 items of data. The data were not gathered on consecutive days but over the period of one month from May 6, 1994 to June 5, 1994. The following conclusions are derived from analysis of the data : 1. Twelve categories of nursing activities were obtained : The primary activity was communication related to the patient and all information pertaining to the patient. Other activities included maintaining the patient's record, observation and assessment of the patient, cooperation with other medical personnel, management of equipment and drugs, procedure and treatment, specimen collection, consultation and education for the patient, including drug management and personal hygiene and any other relevant education to the patient's condition. 2. The average frequency of categorized nursing activity can be classified as follows : communication related to patient was the highest at 17.6 times. The next was maintaining the patient's record at 17.3 times. The observation and assessment occurred 16.9 times. Consultation and education for patients and family, 8 times, medication, 5.7 times, and procedures and treatments, 6 times. 3. The average time required for each activity was as follows : 230.1 minutes (or maintaining the patient's record, 204.9 minutes for communication related to the patient, 199.2 minutes for observation and assessment, 71.2 minutes for medication, 66 minutes for consultation and education of the patient and family, and 51.8 minutes for procedures and treatment. 4. The most demanding nursing activity in the emergency room for the nurse was answering questions from the patient's family, maintaining communication between the medical staff, maintaining and reviewing the patient's charts, writing prescriptions and monitoring 1. V. infusion rates. 5. The most time consuming nursing activities for the emergency room nurse include maintaining and following the patient's charts, communication between the medical staff, answering questions from the patient's family, observation of the patient and relaying all of the appropriate patient information to the incoming nurses during a shift change. 6. The F-test was administered to measure the required time for the categorized nursing activities according to day, evening, and night-shift nurses. There were significant differences (p<.05) in specimen collection, observation and assessment, cooperation between medical staffs, personal hygiene, communication related to patient, education and re-search. Posterior multiple comparison test showed that specimen collection, cooperation between medical staffs and personal hygiene were mostly done by the evening-shift nurses. Also most observations and assessments were done by the night-shift nurses. Education and communication to patients were done by day-shift nurses. Thus there were significant difference between shifts for the main nursing activities. So there should considev a reallocation of the duty of nurses on each shift. 7. The F-test also indicated that there wes a similarity in time duration for procedures and treatments and for cooperation between medical staff and nurses in all three hospitals. However, the remaining categories of nursing activities also showed a significant difference between the three hospitals. This indicated that there were differences in each emergency room that influence time for each categorized nursing activities and this should be given more consideration. Recommendations : 1. A seasonal difference should be considered in the activities of nurses in the emergency room and a comparative analysis should be carried out to deter-mine seasonal differentiation. 2. A study on more objectively measurable nursing activities should be administered as well as one determining the subjective responds towards nursing activities in the emergency room.

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Landscape Gardening Culture in Late Joseon Dynasty Depicted in 'Ahoi-do' Paintings (아회도(雅會圖)에 나타난 조선후기 원림문화)

  • Lim, Eui-Je;So, Hyun-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2014
  • This study contemplated the gardening culture from the pictures, which the scholars of late Joseon Dynasty, the aspects of garden landscapes and garden use behaviors are drawn as follows. 1. The yard by the detached house for men and guest in front of the premises(Sarang Madang) and backyard were the major places for Ahoi(social gatherings of the scholars). The mansions had interests in the management of the outer garden beyond the house wall with building structures like the pavilions on the high walls and side gates. This management and the selection of location anticipating in advance of the management are noteworthy. 2. Only house gardens had plant pots with flowers and the small flower bed(Hwa-O) at Sarang Madang occasionally had plant pots without flowers and oddly shaped stone pots and equipped pine branch eaves and traditional awnings made of plant material like a trellis. 3. The oddly shaped stones were significant landscape elements in the gardens of houses and villas. Some of them were depicted as the Taihu stone and this draws attention to the question of whether the Taihu stone was actually used in the garden of late Joseon Dynasty. 4. The gardens in villas accommodated the borrowed scenery with various materials like wooden fences, bamboo or reed fences, mud walls. They also had the artificial gardens with some odd shaped stones, old pines, bamboos, Japanese apricots, willows, paulownia trees, lotuses and plantains in the secured Madangs. 5. Gyeong Hwa Sa Jog(The scholars of the ruling class adapted to the 18th century's new historical aspect) of late Joseon Dynasty built the villas at the beautiful scenery closed to the their houses. 6. The Gardens around pavilions were located high closed to the mountain streams with nature like beautiful forests, oddly formed rocks, precipitous cliffs and viewing stones. The back side of the pavilion was enclosed by bamboo forests and the front had pines, ginkgoes and willows as shade trees. 7. The beautiful scenery which was preferred as the place for Ahoi was basically with fantastic peaks and precipitous cliffs which forms the distant view harmonized with a waterfall. Broad and flat rocks at the summit of a mountain which commands a bird's-eye view or on a mountain streamside with pine forest, willows and plum trees were chosen as the optimal places for Ahoi. 8. Pine trees were presumed to be more preferable than other species in the garden, especially an single planted old pine tree accented symbolism. 9. Portable tea braziers for boiling tea were adopted in all four types of the gardens. 10. The gardens mixed with auspicious landscape elements were the places of the arts for an unworldliness Ahoi through GeumGiSeoHwa(enjoying strings, go, writing and painting) and boiling tea.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2014 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2014년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.380-394
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    • 2015
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2014. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the flow inside building rooms, and smoke control on fire. Research issues dealing with duct and pipe were reduced, but flows inside building rooms, and smoke controls were newly added in thermal and fluid engineering research area. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results for thermal contact resistance measurement of metal interface, a fan coil with an oval-type heat exchanger, fouling characteristics of plate heat exchangers, effect of rib pitch in a two wall divergent channel, semi-empirical analysis in vertical mesoscale tubes, an integrated drying machine, microscale surface wrinkles, brazed plate heat exchangers, numerical analysis in printed circuit heat exchanger. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, non-uniform air flow, PCM applied thermal storage wall system, a new wavy cylindrical shape capsule, and HFC32/HFC152a mixtures on enhanced tubes, were actively studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on solar water storage tank, effective design on the inserting part of refrigerator door gasket, impact of different boundary conditions in generating g-function, various construction of SCW type ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for closed cooling water heat recovery were performed. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried out in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration and modelling and controls including energy recoveries from industrial boilers and vehicles, improvement of dehumidification systems, novel defrost systems, fault diagnosis and optimum controls for heat pump systems. It is particularly notable that a substantial number of studies were dedicated for the development of air-conditioning and power recovery systems for electric vehicles in this year. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, seventeen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the evaluation of work noise in tunnel construction and the simulation and development of a light-shelf system. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving of office building applied with window blind and phase change material(PCM), a method of existing building energy simulation using energy audit data, the estimation of thermal consumption unit of apartment building and its case studies, dynamic window performance, a writing method of energy consumption report and energy estimation of apartment building using district heating system. The remained studies were related to the improvement of architectural engineering education system for plant engineering industry, estimating cooling and heating degree days for variable base temperature, a prediction method of underground temperature, the comfort control algorithm of car air conditioner, the smoke control performance evaluation of high-rise building, evaluation of thermal energy systems of bio safety laboratory and a development of measuring device of solar heat gain coefficient of fenestration system.

A Study on the Regimen thought of Baopuzi inner chapters (『포박자내편(抱朴子內篇)』의 양생사상 연구)

  • Shin, Jin Sik
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.43
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    • pp.231-266
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    • 2014
  • The main contents of Baopuzi inner chapters becomes the basis for the claim "to be achieved Xian the way people can be" named and Shenxian theory that is deployed in the center of the universe body theory with a focus on Xuan and YI and Tao and a problem of "demonstration of Shenxian exist", or ancient science that describes the Chinese alchemy and Taoism spell in other words, inner chapters are writing and how to get prescription way of Shenxian, of medicine to become a predecessors, elephant of some of the changes in the ghost apparition, the longevity, how to avoid the epidemic out of the evil. Inner chapters are presented a regimen thought, the rationale for its mystical religion and philosophy of Monasticism ship on the basis of the theory Shenxian so. Baopuzi Inner chapters is presented in detail how to reach a comprehensive and realistic Shenxian long life in prison without the pre-Qin dynasty Taoism and Qinhan dynasty and times across the Weijin dynasty Shenxian ideas. And is presented in a typical Waidan and Neidan Taoism exercise this system and that in Taoism (Regimen) Thought the important position. Thought of Regimen is very important right information Inner chapters which constitutes the establishment of an important theoretical basis Shenxian Taoism of Gehong this research right in that you can see at a glance the thought of Regimen of Inner chapters is the desperate need for this requirement. It aims to illuminate the entire look of Regimen ever appeared immediately in Inner chapters this paper. After the analysis of the body Tao theory, The theory of the body and the spirit, The theory of Xingming, The theory of Shenxian theoretical foundations of thought appeared in Inner chapters Based on this, the first one conducted regulating the qi flowing in the channels method, Daoyin method, Pranayama, Closed breath, I saw one at the specifics of regimen method such, art of controlling and swallowing breath from the mouth, Convinced, Tuna breathing, Sishenshouyi method, Jinehuandan method, Fangzhongshu. And reporting features found Inner chaptersfinally saw the spirit of Regimen weigh its value.

『황제내경소문(黃帝內經素問)·칠편대론(七篇大論)』 왕빙 주본(注本)을 통(通)한 운기학설(運氣學說) 관(關)한 연구(硏究)

  • Kim, Gi-Uk;Park, Hyeon-Guk
    • The Journal of Dong Guk Oriental Medicine
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    • v.4
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    • pp.109-140
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    • 1995
  • As we considered in the main subjects, investigations on the theory of 'Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' through 'Wang Bing's Commentary(王氷 注本)' of 'The seven great chapters in The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic Su Wen' ("黃帝內經素問 七篇大論") are as follows. (1) In The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' Wang Bing supplement theory and in the academic aspects as a interpreter, judging from 'forget(亡)' character. expressed in the 'The missing chapters("素問遺篇")', 'Bonbyung-ron("本病論")' and 'Jabeob-ron(刺法論)', 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' must be supplementary work by Wang Bing. Besides, he quoted such forty books as medical books, taoist books, confucianist books, miscellaneous books, etc in the commentary and the contents quoted in the 'Su Wen(素問)' and 'Ling Shu("靈樞")' scripture nearly occupy in the book. As a method of interpreting scripiure as scripture, he edited the order of 'Internal Classic("內經")' ascended from the ancient time and when he compensated for commentary, with exhaustive scholarly mind and by observing the natural phenomena practically and writing the pathology and the methods of treatment. We knew that the book is combined with the study of 'Doctrine on five elements motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' (2) When we compare, analyze the similar phrase of 'The seven great chapters in The Yellow Emperor's Internal Classic Su Wen'("黃帝內經素問ㆍ七篇大論") through 'Wang Bing's Commentary(王氷 注本)', he tells abouts organized 'five elements(五行)' and 'heaven's regularly movement(天道運行)' rather than 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")' in 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")'. Also the 'Ohanunhangdae-ron("五運行大論")' because the repeated sentences with 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")' is long they are omitted. And in the 'Youkmijidae-ron("六微旨大論")', 'Cheonjin ideology(天眞四象)' based on the 'Sanggocheonjin- ron("上古天眞論")', 'Sagijosindae-ron("四氣調神大論")' is written and in the 'Gigoupyondae-ron("氣交變大論")', the syndrome and symptom are explained in detail rather than 'Janggibeobsi-ron("藏氣法時論")', 'Okgijinjang-ron ("玉機眞藏論")' and in the 'Osangieongdae-ron("五常政大論")', the concept of 'five element(五行)' of the 'Gemgwejineon-ron("金櫃眞言論")' is expanded to 'the five elements' motion concept(五運槪念)' and in the 'Youkwonjeonggidae-ron("六元正紀大論")', explanations of 'The five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣)' function are mentioned mainly and instead systematic pathology is not revealed rather than 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")'. And in the 'Jijinyodae-ron("至眞要大論")', explanations of the change of atmosphere which correspond to treatment principle by 'The three Yin and Yang(三陰三陽)' as a progressed concepts are revealed. Therefore there are much similarity between the phrase of 'Emyangengsangdae-ron("陰陽應象大論")' and 'chapters of addition(補缺之篇)'. Generally, the doctrine which 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' are added by Wang Bing(王氷) is supported because there are more profound concepts rather than the other chapter in 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")'. (3) When we study Wang Bing's(王氷) 'Pattern on five elements motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣格局)' in 'The seven great chapter("七篇大論")', in the 'Cheonwongi-dae-ron("天元紀大論")', With 'Cheonjin ideology(天眞思想)' and the concepts of 'Owang(旺)'${\cdot}$'Sang(相)'${\cdot}$'Sa(死)'${\cdot}$'Su(囚)'${\cdot}$'Hu(休)' and 'Cheonbu(天符)'${\cdot}$'Sehwoi(歲會)' are measured time-spacially to the concept of 'Three Sum(三合)' the concept of 'Taeulcheonbu(太乙天符)' is explained. In the 'Ounhangdae-ron("五運行大論")', 'The calender Signs five Sum(天干五合)' is compared to the concepts of 'couples(夫婦)', 'weak-strong(柔强)' and in the 'Youkmijidae-ron("六微旨大論")', 'the relationship of obedience and disobedience(順逆關係)' which conform to the 'energy status(氣位)' change and 'monarch-minister(君相)' position is mentioned. In the 'Gikyobyeondae-ron("氣交變大論")', the concept of 'Sang-duk(相得)', 'Pyungsang(平常)' is emphasized but concrete measurement is mentioned. In the 'Osangieongdae-ron("五常政大論")', the detailed explanation with twenty three 'systemic of the five elements' motion(五運體系)' form and 'rountine-contrary treatment(正治. 反治)' with 'chill-fever-warm-cold(寒${\cdot}$${\cdot}$${\cdot}$凉)' are mentioned according to the 'analyse and differentiate pathological conditions in accordance with the eight principal syndromes(八綱辨證)'. In the 'Youkwonjeonggidae-ron("六元正紀大論")', Wang Bing of doesn't mention the concepts of 'Jungwun(中運)' that is seen in the original classic. In the new corrective edition, as the concepts of 'Jungwun, Dongcheonbu, Dongsehae and Taeulcheonbu(中運, 同天符, 同歲會, 太乙天符)' is appeared, Wang Bing seems to only use the concepts of 'Daewun, Juwun, and Gaekwun(大運, 主運, 客運)'. In the 'Jijinyodaeron("至眞要大論")', Wang Bing added detailed commentary to pathology and treatment doctrine by explaining the numerous appearances of 'Sebo, sufficiency, deficiency(歲步, 有餘, 不足)' and in the relation of 'victory-defeat(勝復)', he argued clearly that it is not mechanical estimation. (4) When we observe the Wang Bing's originality on the study of 'the theory of Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)', he emphasized 'The idea of Jeongindogi and Health preserving(全眞導氣${\cdot}$養生思想)' by adding 'Wang Bing's Commentary(王氷 注本)' of 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")' and explained clearly 'The theory of Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' and simpled and expanded the meaning of 'man, as a microcosm, is connected with the macrocosm(天人相應)' and with 'Atmosphere theory(大氣論)' also explained the meaning of 'rising and falling mechanism(升降氣機)'. In the sentence of 'By examining the pathology, take care of your health(審察病機 無失氣宜)'. he explained the meaning of pathology of 'heart-kidney-water-fire(心腎水火)' and suggested the doctrine and management of prescription. In the estimation and treatment, by suggesting 'asthenia and sthenia(虛實)' two method's estimation, 'contrary treatment(反治)' and treatment principals of 'falling heart fire tonifyng kidney water(降心火益腎水)', 'two class of chill and fever(寒熱二綱)' were demonstrated. There are 'inside and outside in the illness and so inner and outer in the treatment(病有中外 治有表囊)'. This sentence suggests concertedly. 'two class of superfies and interior(表囊二綱)' conforming to the position of disease. Therefore Wang Bing as an excellent theorist and introduced 'Cheoniin ideology(天眞思想)' as a clinician and realized the medical science. With these accomplishes mainly written in 'The theory of Doctrine on five elements' motion and six kinds of natural factors(運氣學說)' of 'The seven great chapters("七篇大論")', he interpreted the ancient medical scriptures and expanded the meaning of scriptures and conclusively contributed to the development of the study 'Korean Oriental Medicine(韓醫學)'.

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Impact of Semantic Characteristics on Perceived Helpfulness of Online Reviews (온라인 상품평의 내용적 특성이 소비자의 인지된 유용성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yoon-Joo;Kim, Kyoung-jae
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.29-44
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    • 2017
  • In Internet commerce, consumers are heavily influenced by product reviews written by other users who have already purchased the product. However, as the product reviews accumulate, it takes a lot of time and effort for consumers to individually check the massive number of product reviews. Moreover, product reviews that are written carelessly actually inconvenience consumers. Thus many online vendors provide mechanisms to identify reviews that customers perceive as most helpful (Cao et al. 2011; Mudambi and Schuff 2010). For example, some online retailers, such as Amazon.com and TripAdvisor, allow users to rate the helpfulness of each review, and use this feedback information to rank and re-order them. However, many reviews have only a few feedbacks or no feedback at all, thus making it hard to identify their helpfulness. Also, it takes time to accumulate feedbacks, thus the newly authored reviews do not have enough ones. For example, only 20% of the reviews in Amazon Review Dataset (Mcauley and Leskovec, 2013) have more than 5 reviews (Yan et al, 2014). The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the usefulness of online product reviews and to derive a forecasting model that selectively provides product reviews that can be helpful to consumers. In order to do this, we extracted the various linguistic, psychological, and perceptual elements included in product reviews by using text-mining techniques and identifying the determinants among these elements that affect the usability of product reviews. In particular, considering that the characteristics of the product reviews and determinants of usability for apparel products (which are experiential products) and electronic products (which are search goods) can differ, the characteristics of the product reviews were compared within each product group and the determinants were established for each. This study used 7,498 apparel product reviews and 106,962 electronic product reviews from Amazon.com. In order to understand a review text, we first extract linguistic and psychological characteristics from review texts such as a word count, the level of emotional tone and analytical thinking embedded in review text using widely adopted text analysis software LIWC (Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count). After then, we explore the descriptive statistics of review text for each category and statistically compare their differences using t-test. Lastly, we regression analysis using the data mining software RapidMiner to find out determinant factors. As a result of comparing and analyzing product review characteristics of electronic products and apparel products, it was found that reviewers used more words as well as longer sentences when writing product reviews for electronic products. As for the content characteristics of the product reviews, it was found that these reviews included many analytic words, carried more clout, and related to the cognitive processes (CogProc) more so than the apparel product reviews, in addition to including many words expressing negative emotions (NegEmo). On the other hand, the apparel product reviews included more personal, authentic, positive emotions (PosEmo) and perceptual processes (Percept) compared to the electronic product reviews. Next, we analyzed the determinants toward the usefulness of the product reviews between the two product groups. As a result, it was found that product reviews with high product ratings from reviewers in both product groups that were perceived as being useful contained a larger number of total words, many expressions involving perceptual processes, and fewer negative emotions. In addition, apparel product reviews with a large number of comparative expressions, a low expertise index, and concise content with fewer words in each sentence were perceived to be useful. In the case of electronic product reviews, those that were analytical with a high expertise index, along with containing many authentic expressions, cognitive processes, and positive emotions (PosEmo) were perceived to be useful. These findings are expected to help consumers effectively identify useful product reviews in the future.