• Title, Summary, Keyword: Seawater & freshwater flooding

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Effects of Dried Days on Properties of Seawater and Freshwater Flooded CSPE in NPPs

  • Jeon, Hwang-Hyun;Lee, Jeong-U;Jeon, Jun-Soo;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Shin, Yong-Deok
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.1162-1168
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    • 2015
  • Accelerated thermal aging of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) was performed for 0 days, 80.82 days, and 161.63 days at 100℃, which is equivalent to 0 y, 40 y, and 80 y of aging, respectively, at 50℃. After freshwater flooding, the volume electrical resistivity of CSPE was highest after 180 days of drying, and its insulating property recovered when dried for more than 300 days. The dielectric constant of the CSPE was not measured after seawater flooding. The dielectric constant of the accelerated thermally aged CSPE was higher after freshwater flooding than that before seawater flooding. The bright, open pores of CSPE were converted into dark, closed pores after seawater flooding, and the dark, closed pores of the accelerated thermally aged CSPE samples were partly converted into bright, open pores after freshwater flooding. The apparent density of CSPE increased slightly whereas its elongation at break (EAB) decreased until 80 y of accelerated thermal aging before seawater flooding. The peak binding energies of oxygen in the non-accelerated and accelerated thermally aged CSPE for 40 y and 80 y were shifted by more than 1.0 eV after seawater and freshwater flooding. The CH2 content in the non-accelerated and accelerated thermally aged CSPE for 40 y and 80 y after seawater flooding for 5 days was lower than that before seawater flooding whereas atoms such as Cl, O, Pb, Al, Si, Sb, and S that are related to conducting ions such as Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, SO4 2-, and K+ were relatively increased.

Effects of Freshwater Flooding on the Properties of the Accelerated Thermally Aged CSPE (가속열화 된 CSPE의 특성에 미치는 담수침지의 영향)

  • Kang, Myeong-Gyun;Lee, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Jeon, Jun-Soo;Kim, In-Yong;Shin, Yong-Deok
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.63 no.3
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    • pp.367-370
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    • 2014
  • The accelerated thermal aging of a CSPE were carried out for 0, 80.82, 161.63 days at $100^{\circ}C$, which are equal to 0, 40 and 80 years, respectively. The volume electrical resistivities of the non-accelerated thermally aged CSPE and the accelerated thermally aged CSPE for 40y and 80y were $9.620{\times}10^{12}{\sim}1.246{\times}10^{13}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$, $5.066{\times}10^{12}{\sim}7.576{\times}10^{12}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$ and $7.195{\times}10^{12}{\sim}9.208{\times}10^{12}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$ at room temperature, respectively. The dielectric constant of the non-accelerated thermally aged CSPE and the accelerated thermally aged CSPE for 40y and 80y were 3.355~4.030, 2.996~3.963 and 3.020~4.776 at room temperature, respectively. After seawater and freshwater flooding, the volume electrical resistivity of the CSPE trend slightly upward according to drying day at room temperature. After seawater flooding, the dielectric constant of the accelerated thermally aged CSPE were not measured. After seawater flooding, bright open pores of the accelerated thermally aged CSPE were partly transferred to dark close pores due to salinity. After freshwater flooding, dark close pores of the accelerated thermally aged CSPE were partly transferred to bright open pores because salinity of them is decreased. An insulation property of a cable in NPPs was decreased because of the seawater flooding, and an insulation property of them was recovered through the freshwater flooding. As a result, it is considered that an insulation property of a contaminated cable through Tsunami can be recovered if it is cleaned quickly.

Variation in Properties of Seawater Flooded and Non-Flooded CSPE (해수범람 전·후의 CSPE 특성변화)

  • Lee, Jeong-U;Kim, In-Yong;Ji, Seong-Hyun;Jeon, Hwang-Hyun;Shin, Yong-Deok
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.64 no.12
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    • pp.1724-1729
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    • 2015
  • Chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) was not flooded seawater and flooded seawater & freshwater for 5 days, respectively, and these samples are referred to as BSF(before seawater flooding) and ASFF(after seawater & freshwater flooding), respectively. The apparent density, dissipation factor, relative permittivity, melting temperature, dielectric breakdown time and increased time of applied voltage are higher than those of BSF, but the insulating resistance, dielectric strength, percent elongation and glass transition temperature of ASFF are lower than those of BSF. The differential temperature of those is $0.026{\sim}0.028(^{\circ}C)$ after AC and DC voltage is applied to ASFF, respectively, and the differential temperature of those is $0.013{\sim}0.037(^{\circ}C)$ after AC and DC voltage is applied to BSF, respectively. In the case AC and DC voltage is applied to ASFF as well as BSF, the variations in temperature of AC voltage are higher than those of DC voltage. It is investigated that dielectric loss due to dissipation factor ($tan{\delta}$) is related to electric dipole conduction current. It is certain that the ionic (electron or hole) leakage current was increased by conducting ions such as $Na^+$, $Cl^-$, $Mg^{2+}$, $SO_4^{2-}$, $Ca^{2+}$ and $K^+$, those are related to cured atoms of O and S that relatively increased after seawater flooding.

Effects of Freshwater Flooding on Properties of CSPE with Number of Dried-Days (건조일수에 따른 CSPE의 특성에 미치는 담수침지의 영향)

  • Kang, Myeong-Kyun;Lee, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Seung-Hoon;Jeon, Jun-Soo;Park, Young;Park, Ki-Yub;Jeong, Kyu-Won;Shin, Yong-Deok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.597-601
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    • 2013
  • The accelerated thermal aging of a CSPE were carried out for 0, 80.82, 161.63 days at $100^{\circ}C$, which are equal to 0, 40 and 80 years of aging at $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. The volume electrical resistivities of the seawater and freshwater flooding were measured through 3-terminal circuit diagram. The volume electrical resistivities of the 0y, 40y and 80y were $2.454{\times}10^{13}{\sim}1.377{\times}10^{14}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$, $1.121{\times}10^{13}{\sim}7.529{\times}10^{13}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$ and $1.284{\times}10^{13}{\sim}8.974{\times}10^{13}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$ at room temperature, respectively. The dielectric constant of the 0y, 40y and 80y were 2.922~3.431, 2.613~3.285 and 2.921~3.332 at room temperature, respectively. It is certain that the ionic ($Na^+$, $Cl^-$, $Mg^{2+}$, ${SO_4}^{2-}$, $Ca^{2+}$, $K^+$) conduction current was formed by the salinity of the seawater. The volume electrical resistivity of the cleaned CSPE via freshwater trends slightly upward with the number of dried days at room temperature. As a result, the $CH_2$ component of thermally accelerated aged CSPE decreased after seawater and freshwater flooding for 5 days respectively, whereas the atoms such as Cl, O, Pb, Al, Si, Sb, S related with the conducting ion ($Na^+$, $Cl^-$, $Mg^{2+}$, ${SO_4}^{2-}$, $Ca^{2+}$, $K^+$) component increased relatively.

Temporal-spatial Variations of Water Quality in Gyeonggi Bay, West Coast of Korea, and Their Controlling Factor (한국 서해 경기만 연안역에서 수질환경의 시.공간적 변화 특성과 조절 요인)

  • Lim, Dhong-Il;Rho, Kyoung-Chan;Jang, Pung-Guk;Kang, Sun-Mi;Jung, Hoi-Soo;Jung, Rae-Hong;Lee, Won-Chan
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.135-153
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    • 2007
  • Temporal (seasonal) and spatial distributions and variations of various physico-chemical factors (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, COD, SPM, POC, silicate, DIP, DIN) in surface and bottom waters were studied in the coastal environment with typical macro-tidal range and monsoonal weather condition, Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea. Spacial distribution patterns of these factors were generally similar to each other, and appeared to be inversely related to the distribution pattern of salinity, suggesting that water quality of the study area was primarily controlled by the physical mixing process of Han-River freshwater with nearby coastal seawater. During flooding season, silicate- and nitrogen-rich Han River water directly flowed into offshore as far as $20\sim30\;km$ from the river mouth, probably causing serious environmental problems such as eutrophication and unusual and/or noxious algal bloom, etc. Except the surface water during summer flooding season, high concentrations of nutrients appeared generally in dry season, whereas low values in spring, possibly because of the occurrence of spring phytoplankton bloom. On the other hand, nutrient flux through the estuary seems to be primarily depending on river discharge, sewage discharge and agricultural activities, especially during the rainy season. Also, nutrients in this coastal waters are considered to be supplied from the sediments of tidal-flats, which developed extensively around the Han-River mouth, especially during fall and winter of dry and low discharge seasons, possibly due to the stirring of tidal flat sediments with highly enriched pore-water nutrients by storm. And also, COD and DIN concentrations in the study area consistently increased during the last 20 years, probably because of agricultural activities and increasing discharge of industrial and domestic wastes.