• Title, Summary, Keyword: Seed imbibition

Search Result 59, Processing Time 0.03 seconds

Plant responses to nano and micro structured carbon allotropes: Water imbibition by maize seeds upon exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon

  • Dasgupta-Schubert, N.;Tiwari, D.K.;Francis, E. Reyes;Martinez Torres, P.;Villasenor Cendejas, L.M.;Lara Romero, J.;Villasenor Mora, C.
    • Advances in nano research
    • /
    • v.5 no.3
    • /
    • pp.245-251
    • /
    • 2017
  • Multiwalled carbon-nanotubes (MWCNT) and micro-structured carbon, such as biochar or activated carbon (AC), have been seen to significantly increase the growth indices of certain plant species such as maize (Zea mays L.). Seed imbibition is the stage where environmental factors that affect water transport across the seed coat barrier, make a large impact. This work explores the effect on water imbibition by maize seeds when the aqueous environment surrounding the seed is diluted by small concentrations (10 and 20 mg/l) of pristine MWCNT (p-MWCNT), carboxylate functionalized MWCNT (COO-MWCNT) and AC. The degree of sensitivity of the process to (i) large structural changes is seen by utilizing the nano (the MWCNT) and the micro (the AC) allotropic forms of carbon; (ii) to small changes in the purity and morphology of the p-MWCNT by utilizing 95% pure and 99% pure p-MWCNTs of slightly differing morphologies; and (iii) to MWCNT functionalization by using highly pure (97%) COO-MWCNT. Water imbibition was monitored over a 15 hour period by Near Infrared Thermography (NIRT) and also by seed weighing. Seed surface topography was seen by SEM imaging. Analysis of the NIRT images suggests rapid seed surface topological changes with the quantity of water imbibed. While further work is necessary to arrive at a conclusive answer, this work shows that the imbibition phase of the maize seed is sensitive to the presence of MWCNT even to small differences in the purity of the p-MWCNT and to small differences in the physicochemical properties of the medium caused by the hydrophilic COO-MWCNT.

Water Uptake, Cotyledon Damage after Imbibition and Hypocotyl Elongation in Soybean with Different Seed Size and Color (콩 종실크기 및 종피색에 따른 침종후 수분흡수특성, 자엽손상 및 배축 신장력의 차이)

  • Park, Keum-Yong;Kim, Seok-Dong;Ryu, Yong-Hwan
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.331-338
    • /
    • 1994
  • The experiment was conducted to determine if seed size and seed coat color of soybean might be effective in water uptake and cotyledon damage after imbibition, and hypocotyl elongation. Eight soybean cultivars were separated into two classes of large and small seed based on seed weight, and each class included two cultivars with yellow and black seed color, respectively. Small seed size group was superior in water uptake by seed for 24 hour in imbibition at $25^{\circ}C$ , but its differences decreased as soaking time increased. Small seed cultivars germinated faster and had better germination rate than large ones. However, cultivars with black seed coat showed more slow water uptake at initial time and faster germination than yellow seed, but in 24 hour after imbibition, cultivars with black seed coat had higher water uptake rate than yellow seeds. Small seed cultivar group showed no cotyledon damage in imbibition for 24 hour while large seed cultivars were damaged 78% of cotyledon, and black seed showed low cotyledon damage compared to yellow seed. Hypocotyl length was shorter in large seed rather than in small seed, but hypocotyl thickness in large seed was more thick than in small seed. In correlation coefficients, seed coat rate, embryo rate exhibited significantly negative association with seed weight, and the correlation of seed weight with water uptake in 3 hour after soaking was significantly negative, but in 24 hour showed positive correlation.

  • PDF

Responses of Soybeans to Water Stress During Germination III. Respiration of Soybean Seeds During Imbibition (토양수분조건에 따른 대두의 발아반응에 관한 연구 제3보 침종시간에 따른 대두종자의 호흡율 변이)

  • Y. W, Kim;H. C, Minor
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.167-173
    • /
    • 1981
  • Respiration of whole seeds and seed parts isolated from four soybean varieties Essex, Pickett, Wayne and Bonus as measured at $25^{\circ}C$ during germination. The average respiration rates of cotyledons were significantly higher than those of other parts. The values were 35.7, 28.0 and $23.9{\mu}hr^{-1}$ seed$^{-1}$ for cotyledons, embyros, and hila, respectively. Bonus showed a significantly lower respiration rate than the other varieties did. The interaction of variety x seed part was not significant source of variation for respiration. This suggests that seed part and variety independently contribute to soybean seed respiration during early imbibition. The effects of imbibition time and time x variety intereaction on whole seed respiration were significant, but the variety effect was not significant. The correlation coefficient between seed moisture content and respiration after 24 hours of imbibition was significant for Bonus, but not for the other varieties tested. This suggests that Bonus may require more water for respiration during imbibition than the other varieties. There as no significant correlation of whole seed respiration rate after 24 hours imbibition with seed weight or seedling length.

  • PDF

Effect of Seed Imbibition into Water and Acetic Acid Solution on its Floating Rate and Growth of Soybean Sprouts (수침(水浸)과 Acetic Acid 처리에 따른 콩나물의 생장과 형태 변화)

  • Jeon Byong-Sam;Hong Dong-Oh;Kim Hong-Young;Lee Chang-Woo;Kang Jin-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.204-208
    • /
    • 2006
  • Soybean sprout decay during its culture should be one of serious problems. The study was carried out to clarify the effect of water imbibition and acetic acid treatments on growth and morphological characters of the soybean sprouts. The soybean seeds of 3 cultivars (cv. Eunhakong, Pungsannamulkong and Junjery) imbibed in pure water or 0.l% acetic acid for 3 minutes before soaked for 6 hours into 1 ppm BA solution and aerated for 3 hours immediately before 6 day culture. On the 6th day, the sprouts were classified into 4 categories on the base of hypocotyl length; > 7cm, 4 to 7cm, > 4cm and not germinated and seed floating rate, their morphological characters, fresh fraction weights and productivity were measured. The best water imbibition for seed cleaning was to soak the seeds for 5 minutes and then to aerate soak them for 40 minutes. In Pungsannamulkong and Junjery, percentage of the sprouts with hypocotyls of longer than 4 cm was higher in water imbibition than in acetic acid treatment for seed disinfection although in Eunhakong there was no significant difference between the two treatments. Eunhakong and Junjery had greater lateral root formation rate and its number per sprout in water imbibition than in acetic acid treatment but Pungsannamulkong showed reverse result. Eunhakong and Pungsannamulkong, furthermore, had more total fresh weight in acetic acid treatment than in water imbibition but Junjery showed reverse result, although there was no significant difference between the two treatments in productivity of mass production system.

Effect of Fluorescent Light Treatment during Imbibition and Culture on Growth of Soybean Sprout

  • Kang, Jin-Ho;Park, A-Jung;Jeon, Byung-Sam;Yoon, Soo-Young;Lee, Sang-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.48 no.4
    • /
    • pp.292-296
    • /
    • 2003
  • The lateral root formation in soybean sprout culture declines its quality. This study was done to measure the effect of fluorescent light treatment during 24 hour imbibition and 6-day culture on seed germination and growth of soybean sprout. After 6 day culture, the sprouts were sorted as normal (>4cm), abnormal (<4cm) and non-germination by their hypocotyl lengths, and lateral roots, fresh and dry weights were measured. Lateral roots were less formed in the fluorescent light treatment lasted during the whole period of the imbibition than in the treatment for 50 minutes a day during the culture. The fluorescent light treatment during the imbibition mainly affected the germination and growth compared to the treatment done during the culture. Compared to the dark imbibition, the light treatment during the imbibition resulted in more normal sprouts, thicker diameters of hypocotyl and hook, and more fresh weights in cotyledon, hypocotyl, whole sprout, and economic yield. However, these results were reverse in lengths of hypocotyl and root, and fresh and dry weights of roots. It is concluded that the fluorescent lamp mainly irradiating red and blue lights can be used for the sprout production as an alternative light replacing blue and red lights treated during the imbibition because it blocked the lateral root appearance and stimulated growth of the sprout.

Light Quality during Seed Imbibition Affects Germination and Sprout Growth of Soybean

  • Kang, Jin-Ho;Park, A-Jung;Jeon, Byung-Sam;Yoon, Soo-Young;Lee, Sang-Woo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.47 no.4
    • /
    • pp.292-296
    • /
    • 2002
  • Soybean seeds were treated with blue, red and far-red lights for 0, 6, 12, and 24 hours during 24-hour imbibition before culture for 6 days. The soybean sprouts raised were classified by their hypocotyl lengths; normal (>4cm), abnormal (<4cm) and non-germination, and their lateral roots, hypocotyl diameters and component dry weights were measured. Red light treatment and dark imbibition reduced the abnormal soybean sprouts more than far-red and blue light treatments, meaning that the former treatments produced more commercial sprouts. The lateral roots were more formed in blue light and dark imbibition than the other light treatments, but were completely blocked by any light treatment lasted during the whole imbibition. Although any light quality treatment did not influence their primary root lengths, blue light one lengthened the hypocotyl more than the others treated during the imbibition, and far-red light enlarged its diameter. Despite this morphological change, component, total or economic yield was not significantly different among the light quality treatments during the imbibition.

Effects of Seed Treatments for Promoting Seedling Emergence of Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv. (입묘율 향상을 위한 더덕 종자의 처리 효과)

  • Kang, Jin-Ho;Shim, Young-Do;Jeong, Jong-Il
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.68-75
    • /
    • 2001
  • Reasonable seedling emergence is a prerequisite for successful crop cultivation especially in medicinal crops. The study was carried out to model the pretreatment or seed treatment of Codonopsis lanceolata seeds by evaluating the treatment effects of priming, $GA_3$, drying and water imbibition after drying on their germination and then their successive seed treatment on the basis of its seedling emergence. The priming using $Ca(NO_3)_2$ and $GA_3$ treatment under their different concentrations and light quality illuminated for 12 hours a day were separately done and the two best results from priming and $GA_3$ treatments were compared to determine the better one. The drying of imbibed seeds using the above best result and water imbibition of the dried seeds were successively done to measure the rates of germination and emergence. On the greatest germination rate of the first two individual treatments, priming was obtained at $Ca(NO_3)_2$ 150 mM under blue, red light or darkness for 2 days but $GA_3$ was done at 0.1 mM under blue light imposed for 3 days. However, the result of the latter $GA_3$ treatment was better than that of priming. $GA_3$ treated seeds were best desiccated under $35^{\circ}C$ and 4 hour red light illumination. A day water imbibition immediately before sowing increased the germination rate of seeds dried after $GA_3$ treatment. Seedling emergence tested after all 3 successive treatments, $GA_3$, drying and water imbibition before sowing was greater than the two others, only $GA_3$ treatment and the combination of $GA_3$ and drying, meaning that its pretreatment of seeds or seed treatment must follow the successive procedure of the above 3 ones.

  • PDF

Antioxidant Potentials and Quantification of Flavonoids in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds

  • Kim Dong-Kwan;Kim Jung-Bong;Chon Sang-Uk;Lee Ya-Seong
    • Plant Resources
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.122-129
    • /
    • 2005
  • Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is an increasingly important human food source, as well as a new functional agent, mainly due to its potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to determine antioxidant activity of fractions from mung bean seeds by measuring DPPH radical scavenging activity and to quantify the flavonoids by means of HPLC analysis. Vitexin and isovitexin were present in both ethanol and water extracts in highest amount. Flavonoids, vitexin and isovitexin were quantified from 195 germplasms of mung beans and their concentrations varied by 4.7 fold. Especially, the breeding line KM99004-4B-2 (Suwon28/KM94004), which has grown in Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research and Extension Services, showed the highest amount (15.88 mg/g) of total flavonoids. The vitexin portion was averaged $70.73{\pm}1.38\%$. High positive correlation $(r=0.96^{***})$ between vitexin and isovitexin contents showed. However, the flavonoid content showed very low correlation with the 24 growth and ecological characteristics. Seed coats of mung beans had the highest flavonoid amount, showing $50\~70$ times more than cotyledons. Flavonoid contents in the seed, the cotyledon, and the seed coat were decreased as the seed imbibition time increased.

  • PDF

Ecophysiology of Seed Germination in Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.)

  • Shim, Sang-In;Kang, Byeung-Hoa
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
    • /
    • v.49 no.1
    • /
    • pp.19-24
    • /
    • 2004
  • Germination and emergence habits of Chinese milk vetch (CMV) were examined to obtain the basic information for the effect of environmental conditions and cultural practices on the seedling density. Seed germination tests with different water potentials, temperatures, and soil and water depths showed the environmental effects on the characters related to seed germination in CMV. Imbibition under different temperatures reflects that initial velocity was rapid at higher temperature, however, the times to full imbibition were not different between 15 and $25^{\circ}$. The optimal germination temperature for CMV germination was ranged from 15 to 20 and the germination was highly affected by water potential of media at relatively high temperature above $20^{\circ}$. When the seeds were sown in flooded condition the germination was not proportionally affected by water depth. In addition, there was no correlation between water depth and oxygen concentration. The germination of seeds flooded by 2cm water depth were poorly germinated compared to other depths. Results indicated that the germination of submerged seeds was more highly influenced by flooding depth than the temperature, it was also affected more strongly at 10 than $20^{\circ}$. Emergence of CMV depending on the thickness of covered soil was poor when the soil layer was greater than 5cm. In the experiment with seeds collected between 22 days after flowering (OAF) and 52 DAF, the highest germination ability of CMV seeds was observed at 39 DAF and germinability was decreased subsequently as seeds became mature. The lower germinability may be due to the enhanced seed dormancy.

Comparison of Sodium Hypochiorite and Potassium Hydroxide as Seed Treatment for Stimulating Germination of Korean Lawngrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) Seed (한국잔디종자의 발아촉진을 위한 Sodium Hypochlorite와 Potassium Hydroxide 처리효과의 비교)

  • 구자형;원동찬;김태일
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.41-48
    • /
    • 1988
  • Research was conducted to obtain easy and secure methods for promoting germination of Korean lawngrass (Zoysia japonic a Steud.) seed. The effect of sodium hypochiorite (NaOCl) treatment on germination of seeds was compared with that of potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment under conditions of duration of seed storage after harvest and temperature of treatment. Emergence of seedlings from soil and micro-flora infection rate among seed treatments were investigated. 1. The promotion of germination was much more evident in seeds treated with 4% NaOCl for 8 and 10 hours than in seeds treated with 25% or 30% KOH for 30 and 40 minutes. Longer durations of storage before seed treatment in KOH than in NaOCl were required to initiate enough germination. 2. Differences in temperature of treatment with NaOCT did not have much influence on germination of seeds and treatment temperature of 15˚C was better than that of 200˚C and 300˚C for promoting germination. But seed treatment with KOH significantly promoted germination with increasing temperature of treatment from I 5˚C to 20˚C and 30˚C. 3. GA$_3$ treatment enhanced germination in NaOCl-pretreated seeds at early stage of imbibition and in-creased about 10% germination after 10 days of imbibition in KOH-pretreated seeds. 4. NaOC1 treatments significantly decreased the rate of the infection of microflora in seed samples and enhaced emergence of seedlings from soil compared with KOH treatment. 5. NaOC1 treatment had advantage over KOH treatment with respect to ease of preparing, securing and handling in stimulating germinating of Korean lawngrass seeds.

  • PDF