The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between paternal self-esteem, child-rearing behaviors and child's self-esteem. The secondary purpose was to examine whether there were significant relational differences according to child's sex. 272 dyads consisting of fifth and sixth grade children in elementary school and their measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory (for children), the Self-Esteem Scale (for fathers), and the Iowa Parent Behavior Inventory: Father form. Pearson's r., F-test, and Ducan's multiple range test were used for data analysis. Paternal self-esteem was significantly associated with 'parental involvement', 'reasoning guidance', and 'intimacy'. Paternal self-esteem was positively correlated with girl's self-esteem. Child's self-esteem was positively related to 'parental involvement', 'limit setting', 'responsiveness', 'reasoning guidance' and 'intimacy'. In sex differences, only boy's self-esteem wasn't related to paternal 'limit setting'. Boys' self-esteem was strongly related to 'parental involvement', and girls' self-esteem was strongly related to 'reasoning guidance'.
The objective of this study was to clarify the relations among mothers' self-esteem and facilitative communication, to children's self-esteem, and facilitative communication and then to inquire into how these relationships relatively contribute to children's self-esteem. Subjects were 206 elementary school children and their mothers in Anjang. Two types of instruments were used in this study. To measure the children's and mothers' self-esteem, SEI(Self-Esteem Inventory) was to used. To measure mothers' facilitative communication levels, "Mothers' Facilitative Communication Scales" was constructed by the researcher. The statistical procedures used for collected data analyses were correlation, one-way ANOVA, multiful regression. The findings are as following: 1. A significant static correlation was found between mothers' self-esteem and children's self-esteem. 2. Also, a significant static correlation was revealed between mothers' facilitative communication level and children's self-esteem. 3. The level of mothers' facilitative communication discloses a significant difference depending upon the mothers' self-esteem. 4. Mothers' level of facilitative communication affected children's self-esteem rather than the mothers' self-esteem.
The purpose of this study was 1) to identify gender differences in appearance management behavior and influencing variables(media involvement, body satisfaction and self-esteem), 2) the effects of influencing variables on appearance management behavior, and 3) to analyze the relationships among influencing variables. The data were collected ken 458 fifth and sixth grade girls and boys of five elementary schools ill Seoul, Korea via self-administered questionnaires, and were analyzed by factor analysis, t-test, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this study were as follows: Regarding the gender differences in research variables, preteen girls showed more interest in clothing/hair style management, weight management, TV involvement and celebrity imitation than preteen boys. Girls showed lower level of satisfaction than boys. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the effects of media involvement, body satisfaction and self-esteem on appearance management behavior. For boy group, clothing/hair style interest was influenced by celebrity imitation, and weight management by TV involvement, body satisfaction and school self-esteem, and height management by celebrity management and school self-esteem. For girl group, clothing/hair style management was influenced by celebrity imitation and general self-esteem, and weight management by body satisfaction, general self-esteem, celebrity imitation and TV involvement, and height management by school self-esteem, TV involvement, time spent watching TV and general self-esteem. From the results of analyzing relationships among influencing variables, it was found that media involvement influenced self-esteem; TV involvement and celebrity imitation influenced school self-esteem; body satisfaction had the effect on all three sub dimensions of self-esteem in boy group. For female group, TV involvement had the effect on body satisfaction, and celebrity imitation on general self-esteem, the family self-esteem and school self-esteem, and body satisfaction on all three sub dimensions of self-esteem.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine self esteem, self efficacy and critical thinking disposition of college students. Method: A descriptive survey method was used in this study. Data were collected from May to August, 2008, from 486 college students. The survey sheet was composed of questions on self esteem, self efficacy, and critical thinking disposition. Result: The average score of self esteem, self efficacy, and critical thinking disposition was 2.99, 2.80, and 3.99 respectively. There were positive correlations between self esteem and critical thinking disposition, between self efficacy and critical thinking disposition, and between self esteem and self efficacy. Self esteem and self efficacy were significant predictors of critical thinking disposition. Conclusion: In order to help college students adopt to a rapidly changing society, the university should make efforts to develop a curriculum and program for improving self esteem, self efficacy and critical thinking disposition.
This study was conducted to investigate a correlation of factors that have an influence on the happiness of college students, and to investigate the effect of factors on happiness of college students by analyzing the structure of influencing factors of happiness. To this end, 430 freshmen in college were selected and tested on character, self-esteem, self-leadership, and happiness. The measurement tools used in this study were the 30 questions of Character Scale that Choi Min-Soo and Im Eun-Young(2013) developed and modified by Im Eun-Young(2015), a Self-Leadership Scale of Manz(1998) classified into behavioral strategy and cognitive strategy that Wang Ji-Seon(2011) translated and modified. a Self-Esteem Scale(SES) of Rosenberg(1986) that the researcher modified and used, and The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire of Hills and Argyle(2002) that Choi Yo-Won(2002) translated and the researcher modified. According to the research result, for correlation with happiness, self-esteem was .86, self-leadership was .74, and character was .66, and for correlation with self-leadership, character was .70, self-esteem was .66, and correlation between character and self-esteem was .57. Secondly, for direct effect on happiness, self-esteem was .62, character as .20, self-leadership was .19, and for direct effect on self-leadership, character was .49 and self-esteem was .38. Thirdly, indirect effect of character on happiness through self-leadership was .94 and indirect effect of self-esteem on happiness through self-leadership was .73. Through these research results, it was identified that character, self-esteem, and self-leadership of college students are the influencing factors on happiness, and that self-esteem is the biggest influencing factor on happiness of college students among the three variables. The results of this study suggested that university students' personality had a positive relationship with self-esteem and that university students' personality, self-esteem, and self-leadership altogether had a direct influence on happiness. Moreover, both personality and self-esteem of university students had an indirect influence on happiness through their self-leadership.
This study of the characteristics and the relationships of children's emotional intelligence (EQ) and self-esteem had a sample of 1060 5th grade children. The rank order of four EQ factors from highest to lowest was "perception of emotion", "other-regulation and self-expression", "self-regulation and emotion utilization", and "empathy". Among self-esteem factors, "general self-worth" had the highest correlation with overall self-esteem; "physical appearance" was most strongly correlated with "general self-worth". Relationships between EQ and self-esteem showed that higher EQ was associated with higher self-esteem. Among EQ factors, "other-regulation and self-expression" was the strongest predictor of "behavioral conduct." The next strongest predictor of self-esteem among EQ factors was "self-regulation and utilization of emotion". Other self-esteem factors well predicted by EQ were "general self-worth", and "scholastic competence".
Purpose: This study was conducted to identify the relationships of self-esteem, health status and self-care, and compare them between the rural and urban elderly. Method: The subjects were 126 persons with age over 65: rural(69 persons) and urban(57 persons). The data was collected from 1st Sep to 10th Oct, 2004 by questionnaires, and was analyzed with t-test, ANOVA, Least Significant Difference and Pearson's correlation coefficient in the SPSS-Win 10.0. Results: The level of self-esteem, health status and self-care of the elderly in rural were lower than those of the elderly in urban. The higher group self-esteem in the rural elderly shows more health status and self-care than the lower group. Significant differences between two groups in the urban elderly were not found. Self-esteem, health status and self-care were positively correlated each other in the rural elderly. Significant correlations were found between self-esteem and health status, and between self-esteem and self-care in the rural elderly. Conclusion: Self-esteem forms the foundation of psychosocial health and provides a measure for the quality of life of the elderly in long term care. As nursing is in a unique position to promote self-esteem, the nurse can plan and provide nursing intervention with the consideration of characteristics of the rural and urban elderly to promote the self-esteem, health status and self-care of the elderly.
The purpose of this study was to find out the difference between high self-esteem and low self-esteem about the product. The study used the questionnaire method to find out the control effect of self-esteem on apparel brand types. The survey data was analyzed by SPSS Hangul 10.0 Statistic Package. 16 apparel brands that had been selected by a preliminary study were surveyed by using. Brand Mapping was performed in each group for brand classification, and ANOVA was conducted in order to compare the variables depending on brand types. The self-esteem was surveyed by using the self-esteem scale by Rosenberg was used. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify brand preference, product involvement according to purchase intention and the interactive effects of the brand types that are divided into familiarity and control recognition. For the purpose of the study was to compare searched the results of the high self-esteem comparison with the low self-esteem. The results of the study found the differences on perception about the brand between the high self-esteem and the low self-esteem on the preference. People with high self-esteem liked the brand that was perceived obedience. But the low self-esteem liked the brand that was perceived control.
This study analyzes the factors influencing self-esteem of the gifted children. The factors are divided into the environmental ones and innate ones. The purposes of this study is presented as follows. 1) To analyze the environmental factors influencing self-esteem of the gifted children (1) whether the education period affects self-esteem of the gifted children? (2) what influences do the manners of parental child-rearing behavior make? (3) what influences do peer relationships make on self-esteem of the gifted children? 2) To analyze the innate factors influencing self-esteem of the gifted children (1) does the gender make a difference to self-esteem of the gifted children? (2) does the level of intelligence make a difference to self-esteem of the gifted children? (3) what influences does the locus of control make on the self-esteem of the gifted children? To solve these questions 120 gifted children were selected, who were taking a special education program at C Korea Academy of Gifted Education located at Yangjae-dong Seocho-gu. They were 1st to 3rd grades at elementary school. We used Hare Self-Esteem Scale developed by Bruce R. Hare in 1985, the Index of Peer Relations developed by Hudson in 1986, and Nowicki & Strickland Locus of Control Scale developed by Nowicki and Strickland in 1973. At the other hand the nursing behaviors of 120 mothers of the gifted, were also investigated, based on the Korean Maternal Behavior Inventory, developed by Sungyeon Park in 1989 with some modifications. For statistical analysis we adopted SPSS, a computer software, and calaulated the coefficient of internal appropriateness and the frequencies and percentages of general aspects of the cases. We analysed the factors influencing the self-esteem of the gifted children by way of Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression analysis and Duncan for ex-post-facto approval. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. 1) Influences of the environmental factors on the self-esteem of the gifted children: (1) The duration of education period had a significant effect on the self-esteem; the longer the duration were, the higher self-esteem they possessed. (2) Of parental child-rearing behaviors, active involvement had positive influence on the self-esteem; on the contrary, authoritarian control and overprotection had negative influences on the self-esteem. (3) An acceptable peer relationship had a positive influence on the self-esteem of the gifted children. 2) Influences of individual innate characteristics on the self-esteem of the gifted children: (1) The gender made no difference on the self-esteem of the gifted. (2) The intelligence did not have a statistically significant effect on the self-esteem of the gifted. (3) When the locus of control was external, the self-esteem of the gifted tended to be low.
The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among university students' self-differentiation, self-esteem and mental health. The subjects were 400 students of four universities in Busan and Gyungnam area. A questionnaire survey was done. The results of this study are as follows : First, the levels of university students' self-differentiation and self-esteem were high. Second, university students' self-differentiation and self-esteem were correlated positively. Third, the levels of university students' depression and anxiety were relatively low. It showed that the subjects' mental health of this study were not bad. Fourth, depression had no significant difference by gender. However, female students had higher anxiety than male students had. Fifth, university students' self-differentiation and self-esteem had negative correlation with depression and anxiety, and self-esteem played a role of mediating variable between self-differentiation and mental health. Sixth, family projection, family regression and self integration of self-differentiation had indirect influence upon the students' mental health through self-esteem, while cognitive-emotional function had direct influence upon mental health and had indirect influence upon mental health through self-esteem as well. In this study, university students' self-differentiation and self-esteem were found to be important variables having influence upon mental health, and self-differentiation had indirect influence upon mental health through self-esteem. Counselling intervention strategies should be established considering self-differentiation and self-esteem of the students who complained about their maladjusted emotion and human relation problems at schools. Also, programs enhancing self-differentiation and self-esteem of university students should be developed and the execution of these programs will be needed to help the university students who experienced mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and so on.
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