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A Study on Dose Assessment by 18F-FDG injected into Patients (환자에게 주입된 18F-FDG 의한 선량 평가에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Chang-Ju;Kim, Jang-Oh;Jeong, Geun-Woo;Shin, Ji-Hey;Lee, Ji-Eun;Jeon, Chan-Hee;Min, Byung-In
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.467-475
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to assess doses to 18F-FDG, a radioactive drug, during PET examinations, to alleviate anxiety about radiation in patients and carers, to minimize the indiscriminate examination progress caused by medical institution personnel and space clearance problems, and health examination. The dose assessment was measured using a thermo-fluorescent dosimeter (TLD) and an electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) at the location of the cervical (hypothyroid), thorax (heart), and lower abdomen (breeding line) which are the three highest tissue areas of the radiation tissue weighting. In addition, spatial dose rates and radioactivity in urine were measured using GM counters and ion boxes. The results are as follows: First, the personal dosimeter TLD was measured 0.0425±0.0277 mSv in the cervical region, 0.0440±0.0386 mSv in the thorax and 0.0485±0.0436 mSv in the lower abdomen, with little difference in the heart dose depending on radiation sensitivity. The EPD was measured at 0.942±0.141 mSv/h immediately after the cervical position, and 0.192±0.031 mSv/h after 120 minutes. Immediately after the thorax position, 0.516±0.085 mSv/h, 120 minutes later 0.128±0.040 mSv/h. Immediately after the lower abdomen position, 0.468±0.091 mSv/h, and after 120 minutes 0.105±0.021 mSv/h were measured. The spatial dose rate at the GM counter was measured immediately at 0.041±0.005 mSv/h, 120 minutes later at 0.014±0.002 mSv/h. The radioactivity in urine using ion chamber was measured at 0.113±0.24 MBq/cc after 60 minutes and 0.063±0.13 MBq/cc after 120 minutes. As a result, 18F-FDG should be administered, dose re-evaluated two hours after the PET test is completed, and caregivers should be avoided. In addition, it is deemed necessary to provide patients and carers with sufficient explanations and expected values of exposure dose to avoid reckless testing. It is hoped that the data tested in this study will help patients and families relieve anxiety about radiation, and that the radiation workers' exposure management system and institutional improvements will contribute to the development of medical radiation.

Development of a split beam transducer for measuring fish size distribution (어체 크기의 자동 식별을 위한 split beam 음향 변환기의 재발)

  • 이대재;신형일
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.196-213
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    • 2001
  • A split beam ultrasonic transducer operating at a frequency of 70 kHz to use in the fish sizing echo sounder was developed and the acoustic radiation characteristics were experimentally analyzed. The amplitude shading method utilizing the properties of the Chebyshev polynomials was used to obtain side lobe levels below -20 dB and to optimize the relationship between main beam width and side lobe level of the transducer, and the amplitude shading coefficient to each of the elements was achieved by changing the amplitude contribution of elements with 4 weighting transformers embodied in the planar array transducer assembly. The planar array split beam transducer assembly was composed of 36 piezoelectric ceramics (NEPEC N-21, Tokin) of rod type of 10 mm in diameter and 18.7 mm in length of 70 kHz arranged in the rectangular configuration, and the 4 electrical inputs were supplied to the beamformer. A series of impedance measurements were conducted to check the uniformity of the individual quadrants, and also in the configurations of reception and transmission, resonant frequency, and the transmitting and receiving characteristics were measured in the water tank and analyzed, respectively. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. Average resonant and antiresonant frequencies of electrical impedance for four quadrants of the split beam transducer in water were 69.8 kHz and 83.0 kHz, respectively. Average electrical impedance for each individual transducer quadrant was 49.2$\Omega$ at resonant frequency and 704.7$\Omega$ at antiresonant frequency. 2. The resonance peak in the transmitting voltage response (TVR) for four quadrants of the split beam transducer was observed all at 70.0 kHz and the value of TVR was all about 165.5 dB re 1 $\mu$Pa/V at 1 m at 70.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz between -3 dB down points. The resonance peak in the receiving sensitivity (SRT) for four combined quadrants (quad LU+LL, quad RU+RL, quad LU+RU, quad LL+RL) of the split beam transducer was observed all at 75.0 kHz and the value of SRT was all about -177.7 dB re 1 V/$\mu$Pa at 75.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz between -3 dB down points. The sum beam transmitting voltage response and receiving senstivity was 175.0 dB re 1$\mu$Pa/V at 1 m at 75.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz, respectively. 3. The sum beam of split beam transducer was approximately circular with a half beam angle of $9.0^\circ$ at -3 dB points all in both axis of the horizontal plane and the vertical plane. The first measured side lobe levels for the sum beam of split beam transducer were -19.7 dB at $22^\circ$ and -19.4 dB at $-26^\circ$ in the horizontal plane, respectively and -20.1 dB at $22^\circ$ and -22.0 dB at $-26^\circ$ in the vertical plane, respectively. 4. The developed split beam transducer was tested to estimate the angular position of the target in the beam through split beam phase measurements, and the beam pattern loss for target strength corrections was measured and analyzed.

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Differential Diagnosis By Analysis of Pleural Effusion (흉수분석에 의한 질병의 감별진단)

  • Ko, Won-Ki;Lee, Jun-Gu;Jung, Jae-Ho;Park, Mu-Suk;Jeong, Nak-Yeong;Kim, Young-Sam;Yang, Dong-Gyoo;Yoo, Nae-Choon;Ahn, Chul-Min;Kim, Sung-Kyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.559-569
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    • 2001
  • Background : Pleural effusion is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with a variety of pulmonary diseases such as malignancy, tuberculosis, and pneumonia. However, there are no useful laboratory tests to determine the specific cause of pleural effusion. Therefore, an attempt was made to analyze the various types of pleural effusion and search for useful laboratory tests for pleural effusion in order to differentiate between the diseases, especially between a malignant pleural effusion and a non-malignant pleural effusion. Methods : 93 patients with a pleural effusion, who visited the Severance hospital from January 1998 to August 1999, were enrolled in this study. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis was done and a confirmational diagnosis was made by a gram stain, bacterial culture, Ziehl-Neelsen stain, a mycobacterial culture, a pleural biopsy and cytology. Results : The male to female ratio was 56 : 37 and the average age was $47.1{\pm}21.8$ years. There were 16 cases with a malignant effusion, 12 cases with a para-malignant effusion, 36 cases with tuberculosis, 22 cases with a para-pneumonic effusion, and 7 cases with transudate. The LDH2 fraction was significantly higher in the para-malignant effusion group compared to the para-pneumonic effusion group [$30.6{\pm}6.4%$ and $20.2{\pm}7.5%$, respectively (p<0.05)] and both the LDH1 and LDH2 fraction was significantly in the para-malignant effusion group compared to those with tuberculosis [$16.4{\pm}7.2%$ vs. $7.6{\pm}4.7%$, and $30.6{\pm}6.4%$ vs.$17.6{\pm}6.3%$, respectively (p<0.05)]. The pleural effusion/serum LDH4 fraction ratio was significantly lower in the malignant effusion group compared to those with tuberculosis [$1.5{\pm}0.8$ vs. $2.1{\pm}0.6$, respectively (p<0.05)]. The LDH4 fraction and the pleural effusion/serum LDH4 fraction ratio was significantly lower in the para-malignant effusion group compared to those with tuberculosis [$17.0{\pm}5.8%$ vs. $23.5{\pm}4.6%$ and $1.3{\pm}0.4$ vs. $2.1{\pm}0.6$, respectively (p<0.05)]. Conclusion : These results suggest that the LDH isoenzyme was the only useful biochemical test for a differential diagnosis of the various diseases. In particular, the most useful test was the pleural effusion/serum LDH4 fraction ratio to distinguish between a para-malignant effusion and a tuberculous effusion.

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Diagnostic Value of Serum Cytokeratin 8, 18 and 19 in Lung Cancer (폐암에서 혈중 Cytokeratin 8, 18, 19의 진단적 가치)

  • Choi, Chang Min;Kim, Woo Jin;Oh, Jin Young;Kang, Young Ae;Yoo, Chul Gyu;Lee, Choon Taek;Kim, Young Whan;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.388-394
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    • 2003
  • Background : Monoclonal antibodies directed against well-known epitopes on cytokeratin (CK) 8, 18 and 19 (Monototal) have been used in the development of a new diagnostic tool for lung cancer. In the mid-1990s, CK 19 fragments (Cyfra 21-1) became popular and widely used for such diagnosis. This is the first study specifically designed to compare these two markers. Method : The serum levels of CK 8, 18 and 19 were measured using two-site monoclonal/polyclonal immunoradiometric assay kit in 57 healthy adults and 289 patients who were admitted to Seoul National University Hospital from May to September, 2002. The lung cancer group comprised 129 primary lung cancer patients; 116 with non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) and 13 with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The control group comprised 160 non-malignant pulmonary lung disease patients and 57 healthy adults. A total of 166 twin Monototal and Cyfra 21-1 serum assays were obtained; 76 with lung cancer, 70 with non-malignant pulmonary lung disease and 20 healthy adults. Results : The mean serum value of Monototal was $412.47{\pm}455.45U/L$ in NSCLC, $237.08{\pm}145.15U/L$ in SCLC, $126.54{\pm}95.72U/L$ in non-malignant pulmonary lung disease, and $63.68{\pm}31.66U/L$ in healthy adults. The serum values of the lung cancer groups were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.01). Using a cut off value of 188U/L, sensitivity and specificity was 66.4% and 81.9% in NSCLC, and 43.8% and 81.9% in SCLC, respectively. The serum levels of CK 8, 18 and 19 were higher in advanced NSCLC than in early stage disease. Conclusion : The serum levels of CK 8, 18 and 19 may be useful in the diagnosis of NSCLC.

A Report on the Shigella Cultures Isolated in Korea(1971) (1971년(年) 한국(韓國)에서 분리(分離)한 이질균(痢疾菌)에 관(關)한 보고(報告))

  • Ryu, Young-Hat;Kim, Soon-Hee
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1972
  • The authors identified 45 Shigella cultures among 63 suspectable cultures obtained from the cases showing dysentery or the like symptoms in various parts of the country during the period from February to September, 1971. Of 45 cultures, 36 cultures belonged to Subgroup B, 7 cultures to Subgroup C and 2 cultures to Subgroup D. There was none of cultures belonging to Subgroup A in 1971, although the authors detected one culture of that among 41 identified Shigella in 1967. Of 36 cultures belonging to Subgroup B, 27 cultures were $B_{2a}$ and 3 cultures of each $B_{3c},\;B_{4a}$ and $B_y$ were serotyped, respectively. Of 7 cultures beloning to Subgroup C, one was $C_{11}$ and other six cultures were $C_{15}$ and all S. boydii were isolated in Seoul area. It might be possible to suggest that there was a tendency of decreasing prevalence of S. dysenteriae and of increasing prevalence of S. boydii in Korea, although the number of cultures. tested were very much limited to conclude, if it was compared with the results obtained by the authors in 1967 that the fourty-one identified Shigella were composed of one culture of S. dysenteriae, 36 cultures of S. flexneri, 4 cultures of S. sonnei and none of S. boydii. According to the results obtained from the biochemical tests, the positive ratio of Indol tests in Subgroup B was 31/36, which could be higher than 9/36 observed in 1961, but which was nearly correlated with the result published by Ewing and his colleagues in U.S.A. The positive rates of both sorbitol and raffinose were lower than that observed by Ewing and his colleagues in S. flexneri. Regarding with the sensitivity of Shigella cultures to the antibiotics being widely used in the country, 46.2% were sensitive to chloramphenicol, which was very much higher than that observed by Park, and 85.8% were sensitive to ampicillin, which would be the drug of choice according to the results from the In Vitro tests.

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An epidemiological study of human paragonimiasis by means of micro-ELISA (면역효소진단법을 이용한 폐흡충증 유행의 역학조사)

  • 조승열;이동근강신영김석일
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.246-256
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    • 1983
  • As epidemiological parameters of human paragonimiasis, the positive rates of intradermal test and the sputum/stool ekaminations have long been employed in population surveys. However, both the specificity of the intradermal test and the sensitivity of sputumjstool examination have been gradually declined as the endemicity was lowered; thus the gap between above two parameters widened. In such context, the development of a new epidemiologic parameter or tool which makes it possible to accurately discriminate the active paragonimiasis cases was necessary. In the present study, the detection rate of Paragonimus-speclac IgG antibody by micro-ELISA was evaluated as an indicator of epidemiologic status of human paragonimiasis in a population. A total of 4, 285 students and inhabitants living in Bukpyeong Myeon and Bukil Myeon, Haenam Gun, Jeonlanam Do was surveyed in October, 1983 by intradermal test first. Out of them, 244 cases (5.7%) were found positively reacted to VBS antigen of F. westermani. Out of 168 positive reactors, 7 cases (4.2%) were egg positive either by two times of sputum examination or by one stool examination. That indicated that only 0. 16% of total surveyed were confirmed as active paragonimiasis by egg detection. When sera collected from 239 positive reactors of Intradermal test were tested by micro-ELISA for their specific IgG antibody, 40 cases(16.7%) were found to be positive. All of 7 egg positive cases were again positive for specific IgG antibody. Among remaining 232 intradermal test positive cases, 33 cases were positive for IgG antibody. In contrast to those, none of 42 positive reactors to intradermal test for Cloncrchis and of 128 intradermal test negative cases showed positive for Paragcnimus-specIfic IgG antibody. The rate of specific IgG antibody as detected by micro-ELISA appeared to be increased with the wheal size of the intradermal test. When the wheal sixte was over 13mm in diameter, about 50% of them were positive for specific IgG antibody. Thirty-one specific antibody positive cases were clinically evaluated by laboratory examinations (repeated sputum examination, peripheral eosinophil count and chest roentgenogram) and by history taking. Out of them 24 cases were associated with one or more positive laboratory findings: thus considered as active paragonimiasis cases. Out of 7 lab. finding-free cases 3 revealed past history of typical paragonimiasis symptoms, suggesting that they were in chronic or in convalescent stages. The remaining 4 cases were considered as either mild or ectopic infection cases; the possibility of cross-reaction with other helminthiases could not be ruled out. From the above results, it was inferred that the detection of Paragonimus-specIfic IgG antibody by micro-ELISA was very much helpful in detecting the active cases as well as in proper evaluation of the endemicity of human paragonimiasis in a population. The convenience of mass haildling of sera in micro-ELISA was considered another superiority as an epidemiologic tool.

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DC Resistivity method to image the underground structure beneath river or lake bottom (하저 지반특성 규명을 위한 전기비저항 탐사)

  • Kim Jung-Ho;Yi Myeong-Jong;Song Yoonho;Cho Seong-Jun;Lee Seong-Kon;Son Jeongsul
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.139-162
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    • 2002
  • Since weak zones or geological lineaments are likely to be eroded, weak zones may develop beneath rivers, and a careful evaluation of ground condition is important to construct structures passing through a river. Dc resistivity surveys, however, have seldomly applied to the investigation of water-covered area, possibly because of difficulties in data aquisition and interpretation. The data aquisition having high quality may be the most important factor, and is more difficult than that in land survey, due to the water layer overlying the underground structure to be imaged. Through the numerical modeling and the analysis of case histories, we studied the method of resistivity survey at the water-covered area, starting from the characteristics of measured data, via data acquisition method, to the interpretation method. We unfolded our discussion according to the installed locations of electrodes, ie., floating them on the water surface, and installing at the water bottom, since the methods of data acquisition and interpretation vary depending on the electrode location. Through this study, we could confirm that the dc resistivity method can provide the fairly reasonable subsurface images. It was also shown that installing electrodes at the water bottom can give the subsurface image with much higher resolution than floating them on the water surface. Since the data acquired at the water-covered area have much lower sensitivity to the underground structure than those at the land, and can be contaminated by the higher noise, such as streaming potential, it would be very important to select the acquisition method and electrode array being able to provide the higher signal-to-noise ratio data as well as the high resolving power. The method installing electrodes at the water bottom is suitable to the detailed survey because of much higher resolving power, whereas the method floating them, especially streamer dc resistivity survey, is to the reconnaissance survey owing of very high speed of field work.

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Usefulness of Tuberculin Skin Test by Tuberculin PPD RT23 2 TU (Tuberculin PPD RT23 2 TU를 이용한 투베르쿨린 피부반응 검사의 의의)

  • Yang, Jong-Wuk;Jeon, Man-Jo;Kim, Sung-Jung;Lee, Hyang-Lim;Lee, Seung-Jun;Lee, Myoung-Goo;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Park, Myoung-Jae;Kang, Min-Jong;Hyoen, In-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.401-408
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    • 2002
  • Background : Tuberculin skin test is a method to examine M. tuberculosis infection and has been used all over the world. But various factors make it difficult to understand testing results. In 2000, the American Thoracic Society recommended that skin test results should be decided by considering risk factors of the tested. In Korea, high tuberculosis infection rate and BCG vaccination rate make it difficult to differentiate current infection, past infection, and no infection by the skin test. This study was attempted to examine a negative predictive value of the skin test to understand how the skin test acts on deciding administration of anti-tuberculosis drug. Methods : From Mar. 1 to Jul. 31 in 2001, the test was performed for patients hospitalized in Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chunchon, Korea by administering Tuberculin PPD RT23 2 TU (0.1 ml)to them that has been currently used in Korea based on Mantoux method. They were decided to be infected with tuberculosis bacilli by following diagnostic standard: 1) tuberculosis bacilli was cultured in sputum by microbiological diagnostic standard or Acid-fast bacilli was proven on a microscopic examination or 2) tuberculosis bacilli was not proven in the aforesaid microbiological test by clinical diagnostic standard, while there was opinion or symptom suitable for tuberculosis by radiographic or histological standard so the doctor decided to apply the tuberculosis treatment. Results : In this study, total 210 patients except 20 patients (8.7%) among 230 hospitalized patients were evaluated. Their average age was 60±16.8 years, and male-female rate was 1.28 : 1 (male: 118, female: 92). Number of patient, who was diagnosed and decided as tuberculosis, was 53(25.2%). Pulmonary tuberculosis was found in 45 patients (84.9%); 22 patients were decided to be positive in the Acid-fast bacilli smear test by microbiological examination (culture positive: 13, culture negative: 9), and 23 patients were decided to be tuberculosis patients by clinical diagnosis standard. Tuberculosis pleuritis was found in 8 patients (15.1%); 4 patients were diagnosed and decided by histological standard, and 4 patients were decided and treated by clinical standard. In differentiating patients into 'Negative' and 'Positive' by the skin test standard of the American Thoracic Society, negative predictive value 92.3%, positive predictive value 47.3%, sensitivity and specificity were 83%, 68.8%, respectively. Conclusion : In hospitalized respiratory patients, there was high negative predictive vlaue 92.3% by tuberculin skin test, therefore skin test would be a important factor for deciding administration of anti-tuberculosis drug on negative skin test patient.

Diagnostic Accuracy of $^{99m}Tc$-DISIDA Scintigraphy in Biliary Atresia (선천성 담도폐쇄증에서 $^{99m}Tc$ DISIDA 신티그라피의 진단정확성)

  • Hyun, In-Young;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Kyung-Han;Kim, Jong-Ho;Chung, June-Key;Suh, Jung-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul;Koh, Chang-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.357-363
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    • 1994
  • We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of $^{99m}Tc$-DISIDA scintigrauhy as a mean of differentiating biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis. $^{99m}Tc$-DISIDA scintigraphy was visually interpreted by assessing the presence or absence of radioactivity in the intestine or gall bladder. In patients without intestinal radioactivity, we measured the hepatic retention index and the hepatic uptake index. The hepatic retention Index was expressed as the amount of change of liver activity from 5 minutes to 30 minutes postinjection. The hepatic uptake Index was graded visually with 5 minute images using the following scoring scheme : grade 0(normal hepatic uptake), grade 1(decreased hepatic uptake), grade 2(hepatic uptake equal to cardiac uptake), and grade 3(hepatic uptake less than cardiac uptake). Age, total bilirubin, and hepatic uptake index were compared between the biliary atresia and the neonatal hepatitis group, between neonatal hepatitis patients with and without intestinal radioactivity, and between the biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis patients with absent intestinal radioactivity. The results were as follows ; 1) None of the 30 biliary atresia patients showed intestinal radioactivity, while 31/40 neonatal hepatitis patients showed intestinal radioactivity. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the presence of intestinal radioactivity ?or the diagnosis of biliary atresia was 100%, 78%, and 87%, respectively. 2) In patients with absent intestinal radioactivity the mean hepatic retention index was $1.5{\pm}0.6$ in the 16 biliary atresia patients, and $1.1{\pm}0.2$ in the 7 neonatal hepatitis patients(p<0.01). All 7 patients with hepatic retention index over 1.5 had biliary atresia. But there were 9 patients with biliary atresia below 1.5. 3) No significant differences were found in age, total bilirubin, or hepatic uptake Index between biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis patients. However there were differences in age, total bilirubin, and hepatic uptake index between neonatal hepatitis patients with and without intestinal radioactivity. The hepatic uptake index was significantly lower, age was old, and total bilirubin was low in the group with intestinal radioactivity compared the group without intestinal radioactivity(p<0.05). Relation between total bilirubin and the hepatic uptake index was that total bilirubin was relatively low at normal hepatic uptake index in biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis patients. 4) When hepatic uptake index and hepatic retention index were high it suggest that biliary atresia is more likely, considered relation between hepatic uptake Index and the hepatic retention index. Thus, we conclude that $^{99m}Tc$-DISIDA scintigraphy is accurate in the differential diagnosis of biliary atresia and neonatal hepatitis. In patients without intestinal radioactivity, the hepatic retention index and hepatic uptake index, along with the patient's age and total bilirubin level may supplement diagnosis and improve diagnostic accuracy.

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The Effect of Soil Acidification on the Distribution of Nutrients and Heavy metals in Forest Ecosystem near Ulsan Industrial Estate (울산(蔚山) 공단주변(工團周邊) 산림토양(山林土壤)의 산성화(酸性化)가 산림생태계(山林生態系)의 양료(養料)와 중금속(重金屬) 분포(分布)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Seung Woo;Lee, Soo Wook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.3
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    • pp.286-298
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of forest soil acidification on the distribution of exchangeable cations($Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Al^{3+}$) and heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd) in soil, and to understand the relation of the soil chemical properties and the distribution of nutrients and hear metals in fine root and foliage. The results through survey on the long - term change of soil pH and the contents of nutrient and heavy metal in soil, fine root and foliage by 2 sites near Ulsan - Onsan industrial estate and 2 sites in limited development district are summarized as follows : 1. The average forest soil pH(A horizon) in Ulsan had been proceeded down to 3.73 in deciduous forest and 3.86 in coniferous forest in 1994 from 4.45 and 4.78 in 1987, respectively, which indicated serious soil acidification. As comparing soil pH among sites, Dongcheon coniferous forest(pH 4.57) in limited development district showed the highest values and Dangwol deciduous forest(pH 3.19) near Onsan industrial estate showed the lowest values in 1994. 2. Contents of exchangeable calcium in forest soils of limited development district where showed much higher soil pH than industrial estate were 3.5 times more in deciduous forest soil and 11 times more in coniferous forest soil than in industrial estate, and contents of exchangeable magnesium were also 4.5 and 5 times more in limited development district than in industrial estate, respectively. However contents of exchangeable aluminium which had been supposed more in forest soil of industrial estate were more in limited development district. 3. Contents of calcium and magnesium in fine root of deciduous trees(A hirsuta. Q. acutissima) were 3.6 and 1.7 times more in limited development district than in industrial estate, respectively, and those of coniferous trees(P. rigida, P. thunbergii) were 4.6 and 1.5 times more in Limited development district than in industrial estate, respectively. Also contents of calcium and magnesium in foliage of deciduous trees were 1.1 and 2.2 times more in limited development district than in industrial estate, respectively, and those of coniferous trees were 1.8 and 3.3 times more in limited development district, respectively. And contents of aluminium in fine root and foliage were nearly as same as in soil. 4. Ca/Al molar ratios in soil and fine root, which could be related with the dgree of soil acidification and Al toxicity on trees, were Less than 1 in all sites except Dongcheon, suggesting that the soil and fine root in the sites have high sensitivity to soil acidification and the decrease in nutrient uptake and root enlargement. The Ca/Al molar ratios in soil and fine root in coniferous forest were highly correlated with the soil pH one another. 5. Contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in soil, fine root and foliage were more in industrial estate than in limited development district in both deciduous and coniferous forests, however, oppositely contents of Mn and Cd in soil were more in limited development district than in industrial estate.

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