• Title/Summary/Keyword: Shank Skin Color

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A Major Locus for Quantitatively Measured Shank Skin Color Traits in Korean Native Chicken

  • Jin, S.;Lee, J.H.;Seo, D.W.;Cahyadi, M.;Choi, N.R.;Heo, K.N.;Jo, C.;Park, H.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1555-1561
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    • 2016
  • Shank skin color of Korean native chicken (KNC) shows large color variations. It varies from white, yellow, green, bluish or grey to black, whilst in the majority of European breeds the shanks are typically yellow-colored. Three shank skin color-related traits (i.e., lightness [$L^*$], redness [$a^*$], and yellowness [$b^*$]) were measured by a spectrophotometer in 585 progeny from 68 nuclear families in the KNC resource population. We performed genome scan linkage analysis to identify loci that affect quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. All these birds were genotyped with 167 DNA markers located throughout the 26 autosomes. The SOLAR program was used to conduct multipoint variance-component quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses. We detected a major QTL that affects $b^*$ value (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 47.5, $p=1.60{\times}10^{-49}$) on GGA24 (GGA for Gallus gallus). At the same location, we also detected a QTL that influences $a^*$ value (LOD = 14.2, $p=6.14{\times}10^{-16}$). Additionally, beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2), the obvious positional candidate gene under the linkage peaks on GGA24, was investigated by the two association tests: i.e., measured genotype association (MGA) and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT). Significant associations were detected between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and $a^*$ ($P_{MGA}=1.69{\times}10^{-28}$; $P_{QTDT}=2.40{\times}10^{-25}$). The strongest associations were between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and $b^*$ ($P_{MGA}=3.56{\times}10^{-66}$; $P_{QTDT}=1.68{\times}10^{-65}$). However, linkage analyses conditional on the single nucleotide polymorphism indicated that other functional variants should exist. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time the linkage and association between the BCDO2 locus on GGA24 and quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC.

Influence of Dietary Natural and Synthetic figments on Growth Performances, Skin Pigmentation and Color Difference in Broiler Chicks (천연 및 합성 착색제의 첨가가 브로일러의 육성성적, 착색도 및 육색 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • 김창혁;김혜정;함영훈;이성기;이규호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.35-40
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of natural and synthetic commercial pigments on the growth performances, skin pigmentation and color difference of broiler chicks. Experimental diet was formulated to have isocalories and isonitrogen for experimental period, and xanthophyll concentration in the diet was 8.45g/1on. The experiment was conducted for six weeks with 450 broiler chicks. The birds were assigned to 10 treatment groups and each group had 15 chicks with three replications. Results showed that the types of pigments did not have any effect on body weight, feed intake and feed efficiency. The mortality was lower with higher pigment supplementation and greater in the natural pigment groups than in the synthetic ones. Dressed carcass, abdominal fat pad and gizzard weight were not significantly different among treatments. The pigmentation of shank skin was increased with high pigment supplementations, and the pigmentation effect was greater with synthetic pigments than in natural pigments. In the shank meat or skin, the color difference(L*, a*, b*, c* and h*) was not consistently related to pigmentation.

Investigation of TYR and MC1R polymorphisms in Korean native chickens and the commercial chickens (토종닭과 실용계에서 TYR 및 MC1R 유전자의 변이 분석)

  • Heo, Kang-Nyeong;Choo, Hyo-Jun;Seo, Bo-Young;Park, Mi-Na;Jung, Kie-Chul;Hwang, Bo-Jong;Kim, Hak-Kyu;Hong, Eui-Chul;Seo, Ok-Suk;Kang, Bo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.465-471
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    • 2011
  • The commercial Korean native chickens (WR_CC) was developed by crossing a few native chicken breeds in Korea. In order to investigate the breed identification markers, SNPs from TYR gene and MC1R gene, which are associated with skin and feather colors respectively, were initially identified. In case of 3 identified SNPs in the TYR gene, yellow shank color was identified in Loss, Harvard, AA, RIR and CC, which have the fixed SNPs in most of the animals. On the other hand, SNP variations were observed in KNC_RB, C_B, WR_CC and HH_CC, which have the black, yellow and mixed color with black and yellow shank colors. Also, the investigation of 3 SNPs in the MC1R gene indicated that there were associations between shank and feather colors in RIR, SF, KNC_B, C_B and RIR. However, these results are not consistent among breeds. These SNP type inconsistencies within breeds suggested that the selection was performed based on the phenotypes, which is not include the genotype information. Thus, selection based on genetic information is required in the future.

Quality Characteristics of Pork by Cooking Conditions (돈육의 조리조건에 따른 품질 특성)

  • 박추자;박찬성
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.490-496
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ingredients(spices and medicinal plants) on the physicochemical properties of Pyunyuk a Korean style-cooked pork. Pyunyuk samples were prepared by the following 5 cooking conditions: Control(pork, water), A(pork, water, soy sauce), B(pork, water, soy sauce, onion, ginger), C(pork, water, soy sauce, onion, ginger, licorice, cinnamon) and D(pork, water, soy sauce, onion, ginger, licorice, cinnamon, clove and chestunt inner skin(CIS). The contents of ash, crude protein in loin and shank Pyunyuk were not significantly different among Pyunyuk samples, but crude fat content of C, D were significantly lower than control, A and B(p<0.05). In Hunter’s color values of Pyunyuk, the lightness(L) was decreased by the addition of multiple ingredients, whereas the redness was increased. In mechanical characteristics, the hardness of control was the highest among the samples(p <0.05). In sensory evaluation, sample D obtained the highest score in flavor, taste, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and overall acceptability(p<0.05), and it was most preferred by the panels. There were higher negative-correlations between mechanical hardness and sensory characteristics of flavor, taste, cohesiveness, gumminess, brittleness and overall acceptability. From these results, it could be concluded that Pyunyuk ingredients(herbs and medicinal plants) reduce the content of crude fat, increase the tenderness and improve the flavor and taste of pork during cooking.

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