• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sheep

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Genetic Differentiation among Sheep Populations from Near-sea Mainland in East Asia

  • Lu, S.X.;Chang, H.;Du, L.;Tsunoda, K.;Ji, D.J.;Sun, W.;Yang, Z.P.;Chang, G.B.;Mao, Y.J.;Wang, Q.H.;Xu, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.10
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    • pp.1360-1365
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    • 2004
  • Using the method of 'random sampling in typical colonies of the central area of the habitat', 60 Small-tailed Han sheep were obtained in Jining city, Shangdong province. The variations of Small-tailed Han sheep at 12 structural loci encoding blood proteins were detected by several electrophoresis techniques and their gene frequencies were then estimated. The same data of four other sheep populations from Near-sea Mainland in East Asia were cited for the analysis of genetic differentiation. The average heterozygosities of five populations, namely Kharkhorin sheep, Ulaanbaatar sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep, Hu sheep and Cham Tribe sheep were 0.3447, 0.3285, 0.3157, 0.3884 and 0.2300, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation among four populations, Kharkhorin sheep, Ulaanbaatar sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep, was 0.045557, and that between these four breeds and Cham Tribe sheep was 0.088005, indicating that the level of gene differentiation among the former four sheep populations of Mongolian group was comparatively lower than that between Cham Tribe sheep and other four sheep populations. The origin of Cham Tribe sheep deserve further research. The documentary research on the evolution of Small-tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep from Mongolian sheep was further verified by the biochemical experiments in the study. It was reasonably deduced that Hu sheep, Small Tailed Han sheep and Cham Tribe sheep were decreasingly influenced by the bloodline of Mongolian sheep.

Studies on the Genetic Relationships of Sheep Populations from East and South of Central Asia

  • Sun, W.;Chang, H.;Yang, Z.P.;Geng, R.Q.;Lu, S.X.;Chang, G.B.;Xu, W.;Wang, H.Y.;Ren, Z.J.;Tsunoda, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1398-1402
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    • 2002
  • Hu sheep was sampled randomly from Huzhou city, Zhejiang province, China. Of the 11 genetic markers from the blood examined by starch-gel and cellulose acetate electrophoresis, polymorphisms in Hu sheep were found for 10 loci, i.e. post-albumin (Po), transferring (Tf), alkaline phosphatase (Alp), leucine aminopeptidase (Lap), arylesterase (Ary-Es), hemoglobin-$\beta$ (Hb-$\beta$)、Xprotein(X-p), carbonic anhydrase (CA), catalase (Cat) and lysine (Ly). The same data except for Po locus were collected from another 14 sheep breeds from China and other countries, in order to ascertain their genetic relationships with one another and with the Hu sheep. The sheep populations from the east and south of Central Asia can be classified into three genetic groups: 'Mongolian sheep', 'South Asian sheep' and 'European sheep'. The Hu sheep belong to the 'Mongolian sheep' group.

Constraints to Sheep Farming in Nepal: Development Challenge for Poverty Alleviation

  • Rauniyar, G.P.;Upreti, C.R.;Gavigan, R.;Parker, W.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1162-1172
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    • 2000
  • The research was conducted to quantify farm and household characteristics of sheep farmers, evaluate farmer access to and the effectiveness of livestock services in sheep farming areas, and examine regional constraints to improving sheep productivity and profitability in Nepal. A rapid diagnostic socioeconomic survey of 200 sheep farmers was carried out in 1996 and all four ecological regions (Trans-Himalayan, Mountains, Hills and Terai), each with a distinct local sheep breed, were represented in the survey. Six major constraints were identified: (a) poor performance of local sheep breeds, (b) a serious seasonal deficit of pasture and other feed, (c) the lack of an organized market for wool and meat, (d) poor access to agricultural credit, (e) primitive shearing equipment, and (f) an inadequate supply of drinking water for sheep. Strategies to assist farmers develop their sheep management skills, improve access and quality of support services, improved technology adaptable to local conditions and effective linkages with local carpet and meat industry are likely to overcome the constraints and alleviate persistent poverty faced by sheep farmers in Nepal.

Genetic Polymorphism of Plasma Vitamin D-Binding Protein (Gc) in Some Asian Sheep

  • Tsunoda, K.;Doge, K.;Hasnath, M.A.;Rajbhandary, H.B.;Xu, W.;Zhanchiv, T.;Chau, B.L.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.318-322
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    • 1998
  • Using polyacrylamide-gel isoelectric focusing followed by immunoblotting, genetic polymorphism of plasma vitamin D-binding protein (Gc) was examined in Asian sheep. The Gc polymorphism was revealed in the Khalkhas sheep of Mongolia, consisting of F, S and W variants, and the Yunnan native sheep of China, consisting of F and S variants. In particular, W was a new variant. The V variant detected in European sheep up to now was not observed in these sheep. The Bhyanglung, Baruwal, Kagi and Lampuchhre sheep of Nepal and local sheep of Bangladesh and Vietnam were monomorphic for the S variant. Family data and population genetic data supported the hypothesis that these variants were controlled by codominant alleles. In these Asian sheep, distribution of the $Gc^s$ allele was predominant (0.9571-1) and was seen as well in European sheep (Suffolk, Corriedale, Cheviot and Finnish Landrace) raised in Japan. $Gc^w$ allele was detected only in the Khalkhas sheep with the low frequency of 0.0025. The $Gc^v$ allele was detected in the Suffolk and Corriedale sheep (0.0080 and 0.0682), but not in any of the Asian sheep studied.

PCR-SSCP Polymorphism of Inhibin ${\beta}_A$ Gene in Some Sheep Breeds

  • Chu, M.X.;Xiao, C.T.;Fu, Y.;Fang, L.;Ye, S.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.7
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    • pp.1023-1029
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    • 2007
  • Inhibins participate in the regulation of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and secretion, follicular maturation and steroidogenesis in the female. Inhibin ${\beta}_A$ gene (INHBA) was studied as a candidate gene for the prolificacy of sheep. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the entire coding region and partial 3' untranslated region of INHBA were detected by PCR-SSCP in two high fecundity breeds (Small Tail Han and Hu sheep) and six low fecundity breeds (Dorset, Texel, German Mutton Merino, South African Mutton Merino, Chinese Merino and Corriedale sheep). Only the PCR products amplified by primers 3, 4 and 5 displayed polymorphisms. For primer 3, genotype CC was only detected in Chinese Merino sheep, genotype AA was detected in the other seven sheep breeds. Genotype BB was only detected in Hu sheep. Only Hu sheep displayed polymorphism. Eight or four nucleotide mutations were revealed between BB or CC and AA, respectively, and these mutations did not result in any amino acid change. For primer 4, genotypes EE, EG and GG were detected in Dorset and German Mutton Merino sheep, genotypes EE, EF and FF were detected in Chinese Merino sheep, only genotype EE was detected in the other five sheep breeds. Only Dorset, German Mutton Merino and Chinese Merino sheep displayed polymorphism. Sequencing revealed one nucleotide mutation ($114G{\rightarrow}A$) of exon 2 of INHBA gene between genotype FF and genotype EE, and this mutation did not cause any amino acid change. Another nucleotide change ($143C{\rightarrow}T$) was identified between genotype GG and genotype EE, and this mutation resulted in an amino acid change of $serine{\rightarrow}leucine$. For primer 5, genotypes KK and KL were detected in German Mutton Merino and Corriedale sheep, genotypes KK, LL and KL were detected in the other six sheep breeds. Genotype MM was only detected in Hu sheep. All of these eight sheep breeds displayed polymorphism. Sequencing revealed one nucleotide mutation ($218A{\rightarrow}G$) of exon 2 of the INHBA gene between genotype LL and genotype KK, and nine nucleotide mutations between genotype MM and genotype KK. These mutations did not alter amino acid sequence. The partial sequence (395 bp for exon 1 and 933 bp for exon 2) of the INHBA gene in Small Tail Han sheep (with genotype KK for primer 5) was submitted into GenBank (accession number EF192431). Small Tail Han sheep displayed polymorphisms only in the fragment amplified by primer 5. The Small Tail Han ewes with genotype LL had 0.53 (p<0.05) or 0.63 (p<0.05) more lambs than those with genotype KL or KK, respectively. The Small Tail Han ewes with genotype KL had 0.10 (p>0.05) more lambs than those with genotype KK.

Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

  • Wang, Jin;Fan, Huan;Han, Ye;Zhao, Jinzhao;Zhou, Zhijiang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.100-110
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep's health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum) of sheep. Methods: This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results: The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum). Conclusion: This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

PARTICLE POOL SIZE AND TURNOVER RATE OF INGESTA IN THE RETICULO-RUMEN OF NORMAL AND ABSESSED SHEEP

  • Okamoto, M.;Miyazaki, H.;Oura, R.;Sekine, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.243-246
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    • 1990
  • Sixteen mature sheep were fed chaffed orchardgrass hay once a day for 7 days. In 7th day, four sheep were slaughtered either prior to eating, 2, 8 or 16 hours after the commencement of eating to measure digesta pool size and particle size distribution in the reticulo-rumen. One sheep slaughtered at 8 hours after feeding had absesses at the cardia and in the lungs and could not ruminate normally. Time spent eating and rumination in the sheep on the day before slaughtering were 85 and 29 (pseudo-rumination 227) minutes a day, compared to those were 112 and 277 minutes in the other animals, respectively. Total actual chewing time in the sheep with absesses and the other animals were 98 and $373{\pm}132$ minutes, respectively. Dry matter(DM) intake in the sheep was $2.9g/kgBW^{0.75}$ which was only about 17% of that in the other animals. The pool sizes of reticulo-rumen DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) were somewhat smaller in the sheep than the others. The pool sizes of large particle (>1.18mm) DM and NDF in the animal were similar with those in the other animals. Mean DM retention time in the sheep was 207.4 hours which was about 4.2 times longer than that in the other animals.

Effect of Transinoculation of Goat Rumen Liquor on Degradation and Metabolism of Mimosine in Sheep Fed with Leucaena leucocephala Leaves

  • Vaithiyanathan, S.;Sheikh, Q.;Kumar, Ravindra
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.332-339
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    • 2005
  • The effect of transinoculation of goat rumen liquor into sheep rumen on mimosine toxicity was studied. One adult Kutchi male goat having higher mimosine degradation capacity than sheep was gradually adapted to Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) leaves by feeding increasing level of eucaena leaves supplementation for 1 month. Six Bharat Merino rams (12-18 months of age) were divided into two equal groups with (group I) or without (group II) infusion of 200 ml of goat rumen liquor per animal. The mimosine degradation in groups I and II were 3.04 and 2.31; 3.90 and 3.73 mg per day per 10 ml rumen liquor respectively after 1 and 2 weeks of leucaena feeding leaves. Total rumen bacterial population in RGCA medium and in a selective medium containing iron showed an increasing trend in both groups, while the bacterial population growing in the presence of cellulose showed a decreasing trend. Animal performance data did not show any adverse effect. Results revealed that transinoculation of rumen liquor from leucaena leaves adapted goat to sheep rumen did not help to improve mimosine degradation in the sheep. The sheep transinoculated with goat rumen liquor displayed no in vivo improvements in nutrient utilization vis-a-vis mimosine metabolism.

INSULIN RESPONSIVENESS TO GLUCOSE AND TISSUE RESPONSIVENESS TO INSULIN IN SOWS, SHEEP AND PIGS

  • Sano, H.;Terashima, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 1991
  • Insulin responsiveness to glucose and tissue responsiveness to insulin, using the hyperglycemic clamp and the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp techniques, were compared among cows, sheep and pigs. The plasma insulin concentrations during the hyperglaycemic clamp period were highest (p < 0.05) in cows, followed by sheep and pigs. The glucose infusion rate in the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique was greater (p < 0.01) in pigs than in cows and sheep. These results suggest responsiveness to insulin is higher in pigs than in cows and sheep.

Effects of Dietary Protein Sources and Levels on Heat Production and Thermoregulatory Responses of Sheep Exposed to a High Ambient Temperature

  • Sudarman, A.;Ito, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.1523-1528
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    • 2000
  • Four Suffolk ewes were used in Latin Square switch over design to study the effects of varying levels and sources of protein on heat production and thermoregulatory responses at daytime high ($33^{\circ}C$ temperature. They were fed Italian ryegrass hay supplemented with fishmeal and/or urea, providing three different levels of crude protein (CP) (low/unsupplemented: 7.9, medium: 11.6, and high: 15.8%) at $1.5{\times}maintenance$. Feeds were distributed at 0900 (30%) and 1700 (70%). Urea diet caused higher heat production and increased vaginal temperature compared to fishmeal and fishmeal-urea mix diets. Time spent standing, skin temperature and respiration rate of sheep fed urea were similar with those of sheep fed fishmeal. Sheep fed diet with low CP level had higher heat production, increased vaginal and skin temperature than sheep fed diet with medium CP content. Sheep on high CP diet produced significantly more heat than sheep fed medium CP diets. Their vaginal temperatures were similar with those of sheep fed medium CP diet but lower than those of sheep fed low CP diet. Respiration rates of sheep and time spent by them for standing on all diets did not differ significantly. These results suggest that urea is inferior protein supplement for thermoregulation of animal at hot environment, as it induced higher heat production than fishmeal and fishmeal-urea mix. Thermoregulatory response on fishmeal-urea mix diet was similar to fishmeal diet. Increasing CP of the diet from low to medium gives advantage for thermoregulation of animal. Increasing CP further to high level was not beneficial as it resulted in the responses of sheep similar to those on low protein diet.