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Overexpression of Cyclooxygenase-1 Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Yu, Zu-Hu;Zhang, Qiang;Wang, Ya-Dong;Chen, Jing;Jiang, Zhi-Mao;Shi, Min;Guo, Xin;Qin, Jie;Cui, Guang-Hui;Cai, Zhi-Ming;Gui, Yao-Ting;Lai, Yong-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.3729-3734
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of COX-1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and its prognostic value. mRNA of COX-1 was detected in 42 paired RCC and adjacent normal tissues with quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expression of COX-1 was also evaluated in 196 RCC sections and 91 adjacent normal tissues with immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed to assess COX-1 expression in RCC and its prognostic significance. The results of qRT-PCR showed mRNA levels of COX-1 in RCC tissues to be significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical assays also revealed COX-1 to be overexpressed in RCC tissues (p < 0.001). Statistical analysis demonstrated high expression of COX-1 was correlated with tumour size (p = 0.002), pathological stage (p = 0.003), TNM stage (p = 0.003, 0.007, 0.027, respectively), and tumour recurrence (p < 0.001). Survival analysis indicated patients with high expression of COX-1 had shorter survival time (p < 0.001), and COX-1 was an independent predictor. This is the first study to reveal overexpression of COX-1 in RRC and point to use as a prognostic marker in affected patients.

RALY RNA Binding Protein-like Reduced Expression is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Cui, Zhi-Wen;Xia, Ye;Ye, Yi-Wang;Jiang, Zhi-Mao;Wang, Ya-Dong;Wu, Jian-Ting;Sun, Liang;Zhao, Jun;Fa, Ping-Ping;Sun, Xiao-Juan;Gui, Yao-Ting;Cai, Zhi-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3403-3408
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    • 2012
  • The molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationships between expression of RALYL and clinical characteristics. In 41 paired samples of ccRCCs and adjacent normal tissues, we used real-time qPCR to evaluate the expression of RALYL mRNA. RALYL protein levels were determined in 146 samples of ccRCC and 37 adjacent normal tissues by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was used to explore the relationships between expression of RALYL and the clinical characteristics (gender, age, tumor size, T stage, N stage, M stage, survival times and survival outcome) in ccRCC. In addition, these patients were follow-up period 64 months (range: 4~116months) to investigate the influence on prognosis. We found significantly differences between ccRCC tissues and normal tissues (p<0.001, paired-sample t test) in mRNA levels of RALYL. Immunohistochemistry analyses in 146 ccRCC samples and 37 adjacent normal tissues showed significantly lower RALYL protein levels in ccRCC samples (${\chi}^2$-test, p<0.001), inversely correlating with tumour size (p=0.024), T stage (0.005), N stage (p<0.001) as well as M stage (p=0.019), but not age (p=0.357) and gender (p=0.348). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that people with lower level of RALYL expression had a poorer survival rate than those with a higher level of RALYL expression, significantly different by the log-rank test (p=0.011). Cox regression analysis indicated that RALYL expression (p=0.039), N stage (p=0.008) and distant metastasis (p<0.001) were independent prognosis factors for the overall survival of ccRCC patients. We demonstrated that the expression of RALYL was significantly low in ccRCC and correlated with a poor prognosis in a large number of clinical samples. Our findings showed that RALYL may be a potential therapeutic target as well as a poor prognostic factor.

Circular RNA hsa_circ_0075828 promotes bladder cancer cell proliferation through activation of CREB1

  • Zhuang, Chengle;Huang, Xinbo;Yu, Jing;Gui, Yaoting
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.82-87
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    • 2020
  • Circular RNAs (circRNAs), one kind of non-coding RNA, have been reported as critical regulators for modulating gene expression in cancer. In this study, microarray analysis was used to screen circRNA expression profiles of bladder cancer (BC) 5637 cells, T24 cells and normal control SV-HUC-1 cells. The data from the microarray showed that hsa_circ_0075828 (named circCASC15) was most highly expressed in 5637 and T24 cells. circCASC15 was highly expressed in BC tissues and cells. Overexpression of circCASC15 was closely associated with BC tumor stage and promoted cell proliferation significantly in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circCASC15 could act as miR-1224-5p sponge to activate the expression of CREB1 to promote cell proliferation in BC. In short, circCASC15 promotes cell proliferation in BC, which might be a new molecular target for BC diagnosis and therapy.

A Survey on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Image Steganography and Steganalysis

  • Hussain, Israr;Zeng, Jishen;Xinhong, Xinhong;Tan, Shunquan
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1228-1248
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    • 2020
  • Steganalysis & steganography have witnessed immense progress over the past few years by the advancement of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN). In this paper, we analyzed current research states from the latest image steganography and steganalysis frameworks based on deep learning. Our objective is to provide for future researchers the work being done on deep learning-based image steganography & steganalysis and highlights the strengths and weakness of existing up-to-date techniques. The result of this study opens new approaches for upcoming research and may serve as source of hypothesis for further significant research on deep learning-based image steganography and steganalysis. Finally, technical challenges of current methods and several promising directions on deep learning steganography and steganalysis are suggested to illustrate how these challenges can be transferred into prolific future research avenues.

Improving Cellulase Production in Trichoderma koningii Through RNA Interference on ace1 Gene Expression

  • Wang, Shao-Wen;Xing, Miao;Liu, Gang;Yu, Shao-Wen;Wang, Juan;Tian, Sheng-Li
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1133-1140
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    • 2012
  • Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) inhibits the expression of target genes in a sequence-specific manner, and shows potential for gene knockdown in filamentous fungi, in which the locus-specific gene knockout occurs in low frequency. In this study, the function of the repressor of cellulase expression I (ACEI) was verified in Trichoderma koningii (T. koningii) YC01 through RNAi, and ace1-silenced strains with improved cellulase productivity were obtained. An expression cassette that transcribed the interfering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of ace1 was constructed and transformed into T. koningii, and the transformants, in which the expression of ace1 was successfully silenced, were selected. As a result of the ace1 gene silencing, the expression levels of the main cellulase and xylanase genes were elevated, and the enhanced production of total proteins, cellulase, and xylanase was observed in the cultivation. In addition, the down-regulation of ace1 resulted in an increasing expression of xyr1, but no clear variation in the expression of cre1, which suggested that ACEI acted as a repressor of the xyr1 transcription, but was not involved in the regulation of the cre1 expression. The results of this work indicate that ace1 is a valid target gene for enhancing enzyme production in T. koningii, and RNAi is an appropriate tool for improving the properties of industrial fungi.

Enhancing Cellulase Production in Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora thermophila ATCC42464 by RNA Interference of cre1 Gene Expression

  • Yang, Fan;Gong, Yanfen;Liu, Gang;Zhao, Shengming;Wang, Juan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.1101-1107
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    • 2015
  • The role of CRE1 in a thermophilic fungus, Myceliophthora thermophila ATCC42464, was studied using RNA interference. In the cre1-silenced strain C88, the filter paper hydrolyzing activity and β-1,4-endoglucanase activity were 3.76-, and 1.31-fold higher, respectively, than those in the parental strain when the strains were cultured in inducing medium for 6 days. The activities of β-1,4-exoglucanase and cellobiase were 2.64-, and 5.59-fold higher, respectively, than those in the parental strain when the strains were cultured for 5 days. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that the gene expression of egl3, cbh1, and cbh2 was significantly increased in transformant C88 compared with the wild-type strain. Therefore, our findings suggest the feasibility of improving cellulase production by modifying the regulator expression, and an attractive approach to increasing the total cellulase productivity in thermophilic fungi.

Design and Implementation of a Universal System Control Strategy Applicable to VSC-HVDC Systems

  • Zhao, Yue;Shi, Li-bao;Ni, Yi-xin;Xu, Zheng;Yao, Liang-zhong
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2018
  • This paper proposes a universal system control strategy for voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems. The framework of the designed control strategy consists of five layer structures considering the topology and control characteristics of the VSC-HVDC system. The control commands sent from the topmost layer can be transmitted to the next layer based on the existing communication system. When the commands are sent to each substation, the following transmission of commands between the four lower layers are realized using the internal communication system while ignoring the communication delay. This hierarchical control strategy can be easily applied to any VSC-HVDC system with any topology. Furthermore, an integrated controller for each converter is designed and implemented considering all of the possible operating states. The modular-designed integrated controller makes it quite easy to extend its operating states if necessary, and it is available for any kind of VSC. A detailed model of a VSC-HVDC system containing a DC hub is built in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment. Simulation results based on three operating conditions (the start-up process, the voltage margin control method and the master-slave control method) demonstrate the flexibility and validity of the proposed control strategy.

User Association and Base Station Sleep Management in Dense Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

  • Su, Gongchao;Chen, Bin;Lin, Xiaohui;Wang, Hui;Li, Lemin
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.2058-2074
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    • 2017
  • Dense Heterogeneous Cellular Networks(HCNs) offer a promising approach to meet the target of 1000x increase in aggregate data rates in 5G wireless communication systems. However how to best utilize the available radio resources at densely deployed small cells remains an open problem as those small cells are typically unplanned. In this paper we focus on balancing loads across macro cells and small cells by offloading users to small cells, as well as dynamically switching off underutilized small cells. We propose a joint user association and base station(BS) sleep mangement(UA-BSM) scheme that proactively offloads users to a fraction of the densely deployed small cells. We propose a heuristic algorithm that iteratively solves the user association problem and puts BSs with low loads into sleep. An interference relation matrix(IRM) is constructed to help us identify the candidate BSs that can be put into sleep. User associations are then aggregated to selected small cells that remain active. Simulation results show that our proposed approach achieves load balancing across macro and small cells and reduces the number of active BSs. Numerical results show user signal to interference ratio(SINR) can be improved by small cell sleep control.

Two-dimensional water seepage monitoring in concrete structures using smart aggregates

  • Zou, Dujian;Li, Weijie;Liu, Tiejun;Teng, Jun
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.313-323
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    • 2018
  • The presence of water inside concrete structures is an essential condition for the deterioration of the structures. The free water in the concrete pores and micro-cracks is the culprit for the durability related problems, such as alkali-aggregate reaction, carbonation, freeze-thaw damage, and corrosion of steel reinforcement. To ensure the integrity and safe operation of the concrete structures, it is very important to monitor water seepage inside the concrete. This paper presents the experimental investigation of water seepage monitoring in a concrete slab using piezoelectric-based smart aggregates. In the experimental setup, an $800mm{\times}800mm{\times}100mm$ concrete slab was fabricated with 15 SAs distributed inside the slab. The water seepage process was monitored through interrogating the SA pairs. In each SA pair, one SA was used as actuator to emit harmonic sine wave, and the other was used as sensor to receive the transmitted stress wave. The amplitudes of the received signals were able to indicate the water seepage process inside the concrete slab.

Effects of particle size of zero-valent iron (ZVI) on peroxydisulfate-ZVI enhanced sludge dewaterability

  • Zhou, Xu;Chen, Hongyi;Gao, Shu-Hong;Han, Songfang;Tu, Renjie;Wei, Wei;Cai, Chen;Liu, Peng;Jin, Wenbiao;Wang, Qilin
    • The Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.2672-2677
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    • 2017
  • The advanced oxidization process has proven to be an effective conditioning technique for the improvement of sludge dewaterability. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is often used as the catalyst of the oxidization process. This study applied ZVI with different particle sizes to the ZVI- peroxydisulfate reactions, and investigated their effects on the improvement of sludge dewaterability. It was found that ZVI particles with smaller sizes (100 and 400 meshes) led to slightly higher enhancement of sludge dewaterability (69.1%-72%) than the larger size particles (20-40 meshes) with the reduction rate of CST by 64%. However, after the treatment, the recycle rate of larger size ZVI particles was obviously higher than the small sizes ZVI particles: 98.3% vs. 87.6-89.7%. Different surface areas of the ZVI particles with different sizes might contribute to the phenomenon. For the small ZVI particles with the sizes of 100 and 400 meshes, no obvious differences of oxidization effects and the improvements of sludge dewaterability were found between them, which might be because an oxide layer could have been formed on the surface of fine ZVI particles and led to agglomeration. According to the economical analysis, the small particles (100 and 400 meshes) of ZVI were more economically favorable for the oxidative conditioning process with ZVI-peroxydisulfate than large ZVI particles (20-40 meshes).