• Title, Summary, Keyword: Short-term memory

Search Result 290, Processing Time 0.055 seconds

Language performance analysis based on multi-dimensional verbal short-term memories in patients with conduction aphasia (다차원 구어 단기기억에 따른 전도 실어증 환자의 언어수행력 분석)

  • Ha, Ji-Wan;Hwang, Yu Mi;Pyun, Sung-Bom
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
    • /
    • v.23 no.4
    • /
    • pp.425-455
    • /
    • 2012
  • Multi-dimensional verbal short-term memory mechanisms are largely divided into the phonological channel and the lexical-semantic channel. The former is called phonological short-term memory and the latter is called semantic short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory is further segmented into the phonological input buffer and the phonological output buffer. In this study, the language performance of each of three patients with similar levels of conduction aphasia was analyzed in terms of multi-dimensional verbal short-term memory. To this end, three patients with conduction aphasia were instructed to perform four different aspects of language tasks that are spontaneous speaking, repetition, spontaneous writing, and dictation in both word and sentence level. Moreover, the patients' phonological memories and semantic short-term memories were evaluated using digit span tests and verbal learning tests. As a result, the three subjects exhibited various types of performances and error responses in the four aspects of language tests, and the short-term memory tests also did not produce identical results. The language performance of three patients with conduction aphasia can be explained according to whether the defects occurred in the semantic short-term memory, phonological input buffer and/or phonological output buffer. In this study, the relations between language and multi-dimensional verbal short-term memory were discussed based on the results of language tests and short-term memory tests in patients with conduction aphasia.

  • PDF

Effect of acupuncture on memory function in old rats

  • Choi, In-Ho;Lim, Hyung-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.38 no.2
    • /
    • pp.31-40
    • /
    • 2017
  • Objectives: We investigated the effect of acupuncture on memory function in relation with neurogenesis in old rats. Methods: In this study, a step-down avoidance task for short-term memory and Y-maze task for spatial memory capability were conducted. Western blot analysis for brain-derived neurotorphic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), and immunohistochemistry for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) were performed. Results: Short-term memory and spatial memories were decreased in the old-aged rats. Expressions of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus were significantly decreased in the old-aged rats. Neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was also decreased in the old-aged rats. However, acupuncture treatment alleviated impairment of short-term and spatial memories induced by ageing. Acupuncture also increased the expressions of BDNF and TrkB and enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The present study showed that acupuncture alleviated ageing-induced short-term and spatial memory loss by increasing of BDNF and neurogenesis. Acupuncture at ST41-acupoint showed most potent effect than at ST36-acupoint or non-acupoint. Conclusions: Acupuncture might be used as the effective therapeutic modality to ameliorate the age-related decrease of brain functions.

Development and Evaluation of English Word Display Interface to Improve Short-term Memory (단기기억 개선을 위한 영단어 제시 인터페이스의 개발 및 평가)

  • Hong, Jung-ho;Park, So Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Computer Game
    • /
    • v.30 no.3
    • /
    • pp.27-33
    • /
    • 2017
  • In this paper, we propose English word display interfaces to improve short-term memory: a basic display, a rotation change display, a size change display, and a color change display. Using these display interfaces, we apply the word recall memory test to users. Experimental results show that the users recall more English words in the rotation change display and the color change display, as compared with the basic display and the size change display. Also, the users think that the rotation change display and the color change display are more helpful for short-term memory than the basic display and the size change display. It describes that the word display interface can have an influence on short term memory.

Effects of Computer Game on Children's Spatial Skills and Short-term Memory Ability (컴퓨터 게임이 아동의 공간기술과 단기기억에 미치는 효과)

  • Yi, Soon Hyung;Suh, Bong Yeon;Lee, So Eun;Sung, Mi Yong
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.293-306
    • /
    • 1999
  • This study investigated children's spatial skills and short term memory ability based on their practice with computer games. The 40 four-year-old and 40 six-year-old subjects were divided by experimental and control groups. Spatial skills of children were assessed by visual speed, mental rotation, and spatial visualization tasks. Short term memory was measured with a digit span task. Results showed that computer game practice enhanced children's memory ability and spatial skills. Even 4-year-olds performed better on mental rotation and spatial visualization tasks after practice. The treatment effect was significant for visual speed of 6-year-olds, short term memory ability and mental rotation of 4-year-olds, and spatial visualization of both 4- and 6-year-olds.

  • PDF

Effect of acupuncture on short-term memory and apoptosis after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils

  • Choi, In-Ho;Lim, Hyung-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.39 no.4
    • /
    • pp.1-15
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objectives: Cerebral ischemia results from a variety of causes that cerebral blood flow is reduced due to a transient or permanent occlusion of cerebral arteries. Reactive astrocytes and microglial activation plays an important role in the neuronal cell death during ischemic insult. Acupunctural treatment is effective for symptom improvement in cerebrovascular accident, including cerebral ischemia. Methods: In the present study, the effects of acupuncture at the ST40 acupoint on short-term memory and apoptosis in the hippocampal CA1 region following transient global cerebral ischemia were investigated using gerbils. Transient global ischemia was induced by occlusion of both common carotid arteries with aneurysm clips for 5 min. Acupuncture stimulation was conducted once daily for 7 consecutive days, starting one day after surgery. Results: In the present results, ischemia induction deteriorated short term memory, increased apoptosis, and induced reactive astrocyte and microglial activation. Acupuncture at ST40 acupoint ameliorated ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment by suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus through down-regulation of reactive astrocytes and microglial activation. Conclusion: The present study suggests that acupuncture at the ST40 acupoint can be used for treatment of patients with cerebral stroke.

The Biological Base of Learing and Memory(I):A Neuropsychological Review (학습과 기억의 생물학적 기초(I):신경심리학적 개관)

  • MunsooKim
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
    • /
    • v.7 no.3
    • /
    • pp.7-36
    • /
    • 1996
  • Recebt neuropsychological studies on neurobiological bases of learning and memory in humans are reviewed. At present, cognitive psychologists belive that memory is not a unitary system. But copmosed of several independent subsystems. Adoption this perspective,this paper summarized findings regarding what kinds of memory discorders result from lesions of which brain areas and which brain areas are activated by what kind of learning/memory tasks. Short-term memory seems to involve widespread areas around the boundaries among the parietal,occipital,and temporal lobes,depending on the type of the type of the tasks and the way of presentation of the stimuli. Implicit memory,a subsystem of long-term memory,is not a unitary system itself. Thus,brain areas involved in implicit memory tasks used. It is well-known that medial temporal lobe is necessary for formation(i,e.,consolidation)of explicit memory,another subsystem of long-term memory. Storage and/or retrieval of episodic and semantic memory involve temporal neocortex. Perfromtal cortex seemas to be involved in several aspects of memory such as short term memory and retrieval of espisodic and semantic memory. Finally, a popular view on the locus of long-term memory storage is described.

  • PDF

Long Short Term Memory based Political Polarity Analysis in Cyber Public Sphere

  • Kang, Hyeon;Kang, Dae-Ki
    • International Journal of Advanced Culture Technology
    • /
    • v.5 no.4
    • /
    • pp.57-62
    • /
    • 2017
  • In this paper, we applied long short term memory(LSTM) for classifying political polarity in cyber public sphere. The data collected from the cyber public sphere is transformed into word corpus data through word embedding. Based on this word corpus data, we train recurrent neural network (RNN) which is connected by LSTM's. Softmax function is applied at the output of the RNN. We conducted our proposed system to obtain experimental results, and we will enhance our proposed system by refining LSTM in our system.

Simulation Study on Silicon-Based Floating Body Synaptic Transistor with Short- and Long-Term Memory Functions and Its Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity

  • Kim, Hyungjin;Cho, Seongjae;Sun, Min-Chul;Park, Jungjin;Hwang, Sungmin;Park, Byung-Gook
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.5
    • /
    • pp.657-663
    • /
    • 2016
  • In this work, a novel silicon (Si) based floating body synaptic transistor (SFST) is studied to mimic the transition from short-term memory to long-term one in the biological system. The structure of the proposed SFST is based on an n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with floating body and charge storage layer which provide the functions of short- and long-term memories, respectively. It has very similar characteristics with those of the biological memory system in the sense that the transition between short- and long-term memories is performed by the repetitive learning. Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) characteristics are closely investigated for the SFST device. It has been found from the simulation results that the connectivity between pre- and post-synaptic neurons has strong dependence on the relative spike timing among electrical signals. In addition, the neuromorphic system having direct connection between the SFST devices and neuron circuits are designed.

The Effects of Interactive Metronome on Short-term Memory and Attention for Children With Mental Retardation (상호작용식 메트로놈(Interactive Metronome: IM) 훈련이 지적장애 아동의 집중력과 단기기억력에 미치는 영향)

  • Bak, Ah-Ream;Yoo, Doo-Han
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.19-30
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of Interactive Metronome (IM) training on short-term memory and attention for children with mental retardation. Methods : For this study, single-subject experimental research was conducted using an ABA design. We observed two children, twice a week for 9 weeks, which was 18 sessions in total. We evaluated the children's brain waves without intervention and the child's pseudo randomly selected sample of one short-term memory task as assessed in the baseline A phase for three sessions. In the intervention phase the children received 40-50 minutes of Interactive Metronome training twice a week, a total of 12 sessions. The short-term memory test and long form test as assessed after treatment, without brain wave in short form test measuring. During the baseline A phase, data were collected using the same procedure as the baseline A phase. Results : After the interactive metronome training, positive changes was observed in brain waves, attentions and short-term memory. Conclusion : The results of this study expect that IM training has a potential for improving cognitive functions of children with mental retardation. In addition, the results of this study can be used as basic data in attention and short-term memory of occupational therapy intervention for children with mental retardation.

Effects of Combat Related PTSD on Memory Function : in Vietnam Veterans (월남전 참전 재향군인들에서 외상 후 스트레스 장애가 기억기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Woo, Deuk-Ku;Kang, Hyun-Sook;Choi, Young-An
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.136-146
    • /
    • 1998
  • Objectives : This study was performed to evaluate the effects of PTSD on memory function, to investigate the difference of memory function between PTSD and non-PTSD patients, and to identify major variables correlated to PTSD scale and Memory Assessment Scale. Methods: The authors used PTSD-scale(Mississippi scale and Combat Exposure Scale) for measuring PTSD severity. And, Beck Depression Inventory was also used. Memory assessment scale was assessed by well trained psychologist. Thirty one Vietnam veterans who had been hospitalized were collected consecutively. These patients were evaluated by psychiatrists with interview and measurement for fifteen months since March, 1997. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS and the stastistic methods used for analysis Chi-square, t-test, and Pearson's correlation. Results : 1) There were significant differences in short-term memory and verbal memory between PTSD and non-PTSD in Vietnam veterans. 2) Mississippi scale and Combat Exposure Scale were negatively correlated to short-term memory and verbal memory(Pearson's correlation). 3) Religion status was a significant variable between PTSD and non-PTSD in Vietnam veterans. 4) There is no significant difference in visual memory and total memory scale between PTSD and Non-PTSD in Vietnam veterans Conclusions : Neuropsychological changes were found in the posttraumatic stress disorder. There were significant differences in short-term memory and verbal memory between PTSD and non-PTSD in Vietnam veterans. Mississippi scale and Combat Exposure Scale were negatively correlated to short-term memory and verbal memory. We suggest that neuropsychological test might be used for an objective assessment of patients with the combat related PTSD and be considered helpful in the assessment of patients with the diagnosis. And we also suggest rehabilitation strategies would be used to compensate for memory deficits in PTSD patients.

  • PDF