• Title, Summary, Keyword: Shot

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Shot Boundary Detection Algorithm using Multi-Pass Mechanism (Multi-Pass 구조를 가지는 Shot 경계 검출기법)

  • Seong Changwoo;Kang Dae-Seong
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2000
  • This paper describes an efficient algorithm for shot boundary detection in MPEG video stream. There are two types of shot boundary: abrupt and gradual. The proposed algorithm for detecting the abrupt shot boundaries used DCT DC value in compressed domain. The proposed algorithm of the gradual change detection consists of two-pass mechanism. In the first pass, the expected positions of shot boundaries are extracted using ratio value of motion vectors. After decoding frames that are extracted in the first pass, we will make the dissolving image using (n)th and (n+2)th image of expected position. The gradual shot boundaries are selected by similarity of the dissolving image and the image of (n+1)th expected position. As applying the algorithm for detecting shot boundaries, the gradual changes as well as the abrupt changes are detected efficiently. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is computationally fast for detecting shot boundaries and robust to the variation of the video characteristic that is different for the kind of videos.

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A Study on the Effect of the Shot Peening in SCM420H Planetary Gear (SCM420H 유성기어의 쇼트피닝 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, In-Hyo;Ahn, Min-Ju;Lyu, Sung-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2011
  • This study deals with the effect of the shot peening in SCM420H planetary gears. The hardness and roughness of the gear surface can be improved by shot blast and shot peening. there in, the shot peening techniques are welcomed especially as one of the physical surface improvement methods. The two treatments are used widely, because of the qualitative analysis of shot blast and shot peening has become possible and the surface treatment can be done with little costs compared with other surface improvement methods. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of shot blast and shot peening in surface shape. The fatigue strength test at a constant stress amplitude is performed by using an electrohydraulic serve-controlled pulsating tester. And fatigue test also explained characteristics of shot blast and shot peening of planetary gears.

Advanced Shot Boundary Detection Algorithm by Gradual Transition (점진적 장면 변화 검출을 위한 개선된 Shot 경계 검출기법)

  • 성창우;강대성
    • Proceedings of the Korea Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • pp.249-252
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    • 2000
  • 본 논문에서는 MPEG으로 압축된 영상에 대해서 급격한 장면 변화에 의한 shot 경계(cut)와 점진적 장면 변화에 의한 shot 경계(dissolve)를 검출하여 비디오 shot을 분할하는 기법을 제안한다. 기존의 방법으로 잘 검출하지 못하였던 점진적 장면 변화에 의한 shot의 경계를 검출하기 위한 기법을 제안한다. 먼저 압축영역의 기법 중 DCT DC 값을 비교하는 방법을 이용하여 cut에 의한 shot 경계를 검출한다 그리고 움직임 벡터(MV)의 비를 비교하는 방법을 사용하여 dissolve에 의한 shot 경계의 후보지들을 얻어내고, 선택된 후보지들 중 n번째와 n+2번째 후보지 영상으로 dissolve 영상을 만들어 n+1번째 후보지의 영상과 유사도를 비교하여 dissolve를 검출한다. 이와 같이 압축영역에서 cut에 의한 shot 경계와 dissolve에 의한 shot 경계의 후보지를 검출해 내고, 검출된 shot 경계 후보지들에서 dissolve에 의한 shot 경계를 검출하는 방법을 함으로서 MPEG 비디오 영상의 복원량을 최소화하여 수행 속도를 높이면서도 cut과 dissolve 두 가지 모두를 효과적으로 검출할 수 있었다.

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Kinetic Analysis of Golf Fat Shot (골프 Fat shot에 대한 운동역학적 분석)

  • Sohn, Jee-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.523-532
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    • 2013
  • When the golf club hits the ground prior to making contact with the golf ball, we define it as 'fat shot'. The aim of this research was to investigate the difference between normal shot and fat shot in golf. Five candidates playing as recreational golfer participated in this research and they were all right-handed people. Time phase between each event, wrist cocking angle, elbow extension-flexion angle, backswing height, pelvis angle, thorax angle, L-GRF, R-GRF, pelvis linear velocity, pelvis angular velocity and COG path were calculated. For statistical analysis the paired T-test was used. An early un-cocking, an early right elbow extension and impact with leaving their weight behind foot were not reasons of fat shot. Backswing height, X-Factor, pelvis angle and thorax rotation angle were not different between normal shot and fat shot. But we could find a pattern of abrupt pelvic movement and weight shift to target direction just before impact in case of fat shot. In addition fat shot showed time-delayed and small value of pelvis linear velocity pattern to upward during downswing phase as against normal shot.

Kinematical Differences of the Male Professional Golfers' 30 Yard Chip Shot and Pitch Shot Motion (남자프로골퍼의 30 야드 칩샷과 피치샷 동작의 운동학적 차이)

  • Pyun, Eun-Kyung;Park, Young-Hoon;Youm, Chang-Hong;Sun, Sheng;Seo, Kuk-Woong;Seo, Kook-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 2007
  • Even though there were no clear definitions of the short game and short game distance, short game capability is crucial for a good golf score. Generally, chip shot and pitch shot are regarded as two principal components of the short game. Chip shot is a short, low trajectory shot played to the green or from trouble back into play. Pitch shot is a high trajectory shot of short length. Biomechanical studies were conducted usually to analyze full swing and putting motions. The purpose of the study was to reveal the kinematical differences between professional golfers' 30 yard $53^{\circ}wedge$ chip shot and $56^{\circ}wedge$ pitch shot motions. Fifteen male professional golfers were recruited for the study. Kinematical data were collected by the 60 Hz three-dimensional motion analysis system. Statistical comparisons were made by paired t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan of the SPSS 12.0K with the $\alpha$ value of .05. Results show that both the left hand and the ball were placed left of the center of the left and right foot at address. The left hand position of the chip shot was significantly left side of that of the pitch shot. But the ball position of the pitch shot was significantly right side of that of the chip shot. All body segments aligned to the left of the target line, open, at address. Except shoulder, there were no significant pelvis, knee, and feet alignment differences between chip shot and pitch shot. These differences at address seem for the ball height control. Pitch shot swing motions(the shoulder and pelvis rotation and the club head travel distance) were significantly bigger than those of the chip shot. Club head velocity of the pitch shot was significantly faster than that of the chip shot at the moment of impact. This was for the same shot length control with different lofted clubs. Swing motion differences seem mainly caused by the same shot length control with different ball height control.

Stereoscopic conversion of 2D Image using Shot Information (촬영 샷 정보를 활용한 2차원 영상의 입체 변환)

  • Kim, Je-Dong;Gui, Yi-Qi;Choi, Hwang-Kyu;Cho, Beong-Chul;Kim, Man-Bae
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.219-221
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we present stereoscopic conversion based on movie shot information. To overcome the low stereoscopic quality of automatic stereo conversion technologies, the usage of the shot type is expected to provide more satisfactory stereoscopic perception. In general, movie clips are produced with a variety of shot techniques such as long shot, closeup shot, medium shot, etc. Each shot has its own characteristics that can be utilized during the conversion process. Furthermore, description sceme for shot and camera information is presented in XML. XML shot editor generates XML shot data. and conversion module parses such data and converts 2D image into stereoscopic image.

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Shot Group and Representative Shot Frame Detection using Similarity-based Clustering

  • Lee, Gye-Sung
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 2016
  • This paper introduces a method for video shot group detection needed for efficient management and summary of video. The proposed method detects shots based on low-level visual properties and performs temporal and spatial clustering based on visual similarity of neighboring shots. Shot groups created from temporal clustering are further clustered into small groups with respect to visual similarity. A set of representative shot frames are selected from each cluster of the smaller groups representing a scene. Shots excluded from temporal clustering are also clustered into groups from which representative shot frames are selected. A number of video clips are collected and applied to the method for accuracy of shot group detection. We achieved 91% of accuracy of the method for shot group detection. The number of representative shot frames is reduced to 1/3 of the total shot frames. The experiment also shows the inverse relationship between accuracy and compression rate.

Effect of Intentional Draw & Fade Shots on Golf Swing Mechanics (의도적인 드로우 샷과 페이드 샷이 골프 스윙 역학에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Jee-Hoon;Ryue, Jae-Jin;Lee, Ki-Kwang;Lim, Young-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2010
  • Intentional draw and fade shots could be good weapons for lowering golf score. But how to make such shots? To investigate deterministic variables generating different projectile paths of shots in square stance was the purpose of this study. Ten right-handed male collegiate athletes, showing 1.3 of averaged handicap, participated in this study. They were asked to intentionally perform three different shots such as the straight shot(control condition), draw shot, and fade shot. Swing path, pelvis rotation angle, thorax rotation angle and left forearm supination angle were determined for dependent variables on impact event at each trial. For statistical analysis one-way repeated measures ANOVA were used. The results showed that swing path was one of main factor making differences among three kind of shots. Straight shot vs. Draw shot, Straight shot vs. Fade shot and Draw shot vs. Fade shot showed differences on swing path. And left forearm supination angle revealed significant difference between draw shot and fade shot, showing a significant larger angle of draw shot than fade shot. No other significant difference was detected for the other variables. We found that the shot characteristics were influenced primarily by swing path and left forearm supination angle.

Kinematic Analysis According to the Intentional Curve Ball at Golf Driver Swing (골프 드라이버 스윙 시 의도적인 구질 변화에 따른 운동학적 분석)

  • Hong, Soo-Young;So, Jae-Moo;Kim, Yong-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of This study's aim is to examine the difference in the changes of body segment movement, variables for ball quality, and carry at golf driver swing according to the ball quality using comparative analysis. Regarding the impact variables according to the ball quality using the track man and carry, club speed was the fastest at draw shot, ball speed was the fastest at straight shot, and smash factor was the lowest at draw shot. About the vertical launch angle, the fade shot showed the highest launch angle while the max height of the ground and ball was the highest at fade shot. And carry was the longest at draw shot. For the flight time, it was the longest at draw shot. The landing angle was the largest at fade shot. About the club head position change and trajectory, at the overall event point, the fade shot drew a more outer trajectory at the point of the follow through(E6) than the straight or draw shot. Regarding the angular speed of shoulder rotation, at the overall event point, the fade shot showed the greatest angular speed change in the follow through(E6). Also, about the angular speed of pelvic rotation, at the overall event point, the draw shot showed the greatest angular speed change at the point of down swing(E4). Concerning the stance angle change, both straight and fade shots were open as the concept of open stance whereas the draw shot was close as that of close stance. Regarding the previous study, the most important factor of deciding Ball Quality is the club face angle's open and close state at Impact. In short, the Ball Quality and carry were decided by this factor.

Effect of the Peening Intensity by Shot Peening (쇼트피닝 가공조건이 피닝강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Seong-Gyun;Lee, Seung-Ho;Jeong, Seok-Ju
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1590-1596
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    • 2001
  • The shot peening process is most often used to improve fatigue properties of metal parts. The single most critical parameter of the shot peening process is the shot ball itself. Without the correct quality media, all other shut peening parameters are extraneous and the desired fatigue improvement and consistency of improvement will not be achieved. Shot peening involves modifications of the surface and subsurface condition of a material that can be described by the change of the residual stresses, the hardness, and the surface roughness. This Paper Presents the shot peening to optimize the shot ball parameters. The effect of shot peening parameter on the surface roughness, surface hardness and residual stress are investigated.