• Title, Summary, Keyword: Shrimp By-Product

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Shrimp By-product Feeding and Growth Performance of Growing Pigs Kept on Small Holdings in Central Vietnam

  • Nguyen, Linh Q.;Everts, Henk;Beynen, Anton C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1025-1029
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    • 2003
  • The effect studied was that of the feeding of shrimp by-product meal, as a source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, on growth performance and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue in growing pigs kept on small holdings in Central Vietnam. Shrimp by-product meal was exchanged with ruminant meal so that the diets contained either 0, 10 or 20% shrimp byproduct meal in the dry matter. The diets were fed on 6 different small-holder farms. The farmers fed a base diet according to their personal choice, but were instructed as to the use of shrimp by-product and ruminant meal. The diets were fed to the pigs from 70 to 126 days of age. There were three animals per treatment group per farm. The diets without and with 20% shrimp by-product meal on average contained 0.01 and 0.14 g docosahexaenoic acid/MJ of metabolisable energy (ME). Due to the higher contents of ash and crude fiber, the shrimp by-product meal containing diets had lower energy densities than the control diets. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not detectable in adipose tissue; the content of docosahexaenoic acid was generally increased after consumption of shrimp by-product meal. In spite of the concurrent high intakes of ash and crude fiber, the feeding of shrimp by-product meal had a general stimulatory effect on growth performance of the growing pigs. The intake of docosahexaenoic acid or its content in adipose tissue was not related with average daily gain. It is suggested that shrimp by-product meal may contain an unknown growth enhancing factor.

Ileal and Total Tract Digestibility in Growing Pigs Fed Cassava Root Meal and Rice Bran Diets With Inclusion of Fish Meal and Fresh or Ensiled Shrimp By-Products

  • Ngoan, Le Duc;Lindberg, Jan Erik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.216-223
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    • 2001
  • The digestibility of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract and amino acids of a cassava root meal and rice bran diet, without (Basal) and with inclusion of fish meal (FM) or fresh (FSB) or ensiled (ESB) shrimp by-product in growing pigs (Large White$\times$Mong Cai) fitted with post-valve T-caecum (PVTC) cannulas was studied in a $4{\times}4$ change-over experiment. Significantly higher ileal digestibility of OM in the basal and FM diets and lower ileal digestibility of CP in the basal and ESB diets were found (p<0.05). Total tract digestibilities of OM and CP of diet ESB were lower (p<0.05) than in the other diets. The apparent ileal digestibilities of most amino acids were higher (p<0.05) in diets FM, FSB and ESB than in the basal diet. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the ileal digestibility of individual amino acids between diets FM, FSB and ESB, except for threonine, alanine and glycine. The estimated apparent ileal digestibility of individual amino acids in ensiled shrimp by-product was lower (p<0.05) than in fresh shrimp by-product and fish meal. In conclusion, as a result of the reduced daily intake of the diets containing shrimp by-products and lower ileal and total tract digestibility of both fresh and ensiled shrimp by-products complete replacement of fish meal cannot be recommended. The ensiled shrimp by-product was inferior nutritionally compared with fresh shrimp by-product. However, lower daily feed intakes of both the FSB and ESB diets suggest that the replacement should only be made partially, in order not to reduce the overall performance.

Ensiling Techniques for Shrimp By-Products and their Nutritive Value for Pigs

  • Ngoan, L.D.;An, L.V.;Ogle, B.;Lindberg, J.E.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.1278-1284
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    • 2000
  • An experiment was performed to evaluate different methods for preserving shrimp by-products and to determine their chemical composition. In the first experiment three ratios of shrimp by-product (SBP) to molasses (6:1, 4:1 and 3:1, wet weight), and to cassava root meal (3:1, 2:1 and 1:1, wet weight of shrimp by-product and air-dry weight of cassava root meal) were investigated. The pH of the SBP ensiled with molasses at a ratio of 3:1, and with cassava root meal at a ratio of 1:1, decreased during the first week to below 4.5 and remained low up to day 56 of ensiling, whereas the pH of the mixtures with higher ratios of SBP remained above 7.0, and the material deteriorated rapidly. The dry matter decreased initially in all treatments but then increased slightly from day 28 in the treatment where shrimp by-product was ensiled with cassava root meal at a ratio of 1:1. The crude protein (CP) and ammonia-N $(NH_3-N)$ contents of the preserved shrimp by-product material ensiled with molasses at a ratio of 3:1 increased significantly one week after ensiling. The CP content then remained constant, while the $NH_3-N$ concentration continued to increase up to 56 days after ensiling. When SBP was ensiled with cassava root meal at a ratio of 1:1 the CP content of the silage increased significantly up to 21 days after ensiling and then decreased back to the original level after 56 days, whereas $NH_3-N$ increased markedly up to 14 days and then remained fairly constant up to 56 days. However, the $NH_3-N$ content was significantly higher when SBP was ensiled with cassava root meal than with molasses. A balance experiment was carried out, arranged as a double Latin-square and including 6 F1 (Large White ${\times}$ Mong Cai) castrates fed randomly one of three diets based on cassava root meal, rice bran, and fish meal (FM) or shrimp by-product ensiled with molasses (SBEMO) or with cassava root meal (SBECA) as the main protein source. Apparent organic matter and CP digestibilities were significantly (p<0.001) higher for the fish meal diet than for the two shrimp by-product diets, although CP digestibility in SBEMO and SBECA was similar (p>0.05). N-retention was significantly higher for the fish meal diet than for the SBEMO diet, which in turn was significantly higher than for the SBECA diet (p<0.01). It can be concluded that shrimp by-product can be preserved by ensiling with molasses at a ratio of 3:1 or with cassava root meal at a ratio of 1:1. Nutrient digestibility and N-retention of diets based on these shrimp by-product silages were lower than for similar diets based on fish meal, probably due to their high chitin content and inferior amino acid balance.

Anatomical Proportions and Chemical and Amino Acid Composition of Common Shrimp Species in Central Vietnam

  • Ngoan, L.D.;Lindberg, J.E.;Ogle, B.;Thomke, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.1422-1428
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    • 2000
  • This investigation was conducted to evaluate the shrimp flesh (SF) and shrimp by-product (SB) of the most abundant shrimp species (Metapenaeus affinis, Penaeus semisulcatus and Penaeus monodon) caught in Central Vietnam, with the emphasis on yield, gross and amino acid (AA) composition and effect of heat treatment. The results showed that the mean edible SF and SB (head and shells with tail) yields of the three shrimp species averaged 56.7 and 43.3%, respectively, of the total wet body weight, with the M. affinis generating the highest by-product yield (45.7%) and P. semisulcatus (40.6%) the lowest. Significant differences in dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ash content were found between SF and SB. The DM content of SF (21.5%) was lower than of SB (24.9%) and the ash content (on a DM basis) of the SB in all shrimp species was more than three times that of the SF (p<0.05), whereas the CP content was almost twice as high in the SF as compared with the SB (p<0.05). The SB of the three species contained (on a DM basis) between 44.0 and 49.8% CP (p<0.05) and between 13.5 and 18.1% chitin (p<0.05). The Ca content of SB differed also between species (p<0.05). On average, the sum of AA in SB corresponded to 89.3% of the CP and essential AA accounted for about 50% of the total AA. The most abundant AA were arginine, aspartic and glutamic acids, which accounted for 33% of the total AA. Minor, but significant differences in some AA concentrations of SB between species were observed (p<0.05). With the exception of the DM and ether extract content, all other chemical constituents of entire shrimp, SF and SB were not significantly affected by heat treatment (p>0.05).

Effects of Replacing Fish Meal With Ensiled Shrimp By-Product on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Pigs

  • Ngoan, Le Duc;Ogle, Brian;Lindberg, Jan Erik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.82-87
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    • 2001
  • A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacing fish meal (FM) with ensiled shrimp by-product (ESB) in a cassava root meal and rice bran-based diet on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs. Thirty six crossbred (Large White$\times$Mong Cai) pigs, with an average initial BW of 19.4 kg, were randomly allocated to one of three different dietary treatments in which the crude protein of the FM was replaced with 0, 50 or 100% ESB. The animals were fed restrictedly and at the end of the experiment at a BW of about 90 kg, 6 representative animals in each treatment group were slaughtered for carcass quality evaluation. Animal growth performance and daily feed intake were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by the inclusion of shrimp by-products in the diets, whereas feed conversion ratios and carcass measurements were not significantly affected (p>0.05). Daily weight gains of the pigs fed the 100% FM diet and 50% ESB diet were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of pigs fed the 100% ESB diet. In conclusion, from an economical as well as performance point of view, ESB can replace 50% of the crude protein of FM in cassava root meal and rice bran-based diets for growing pigs with a low genetic growth potential.

Brine shrimp lethality and cytotoxicity assay of Araucaria bidwillii Hook in human carcinoma cell lines

  • Ahamed, KFH Nazeer;Kumar, V;Manikandan, L;Wahile, Atul M;Mukherjee, Kakali;Saha, BP;Mukherjee, Pulok K
    • Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2005
  • The leaf extracts of Araucaria bidwillii Hook. (Araucariaceae) were evaluated for their cytotoxic effect in various human cancer cell lines. Preliminary investigation by brine shrimp lethality assay indicated that $LC_{50}$ value of various successive extracts were found to be less than $1000\;{\mu}g/ml$, where the ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity of less than $100\;{\mu}g/ml$. Further cytotoxic evaluation of various leaf extracts of Araucaria bidwilli Hook was carried out in four different human cancer cell lines-acute myeloblastic leukemia (HL-60), chronic myelogenic leukemia (K-562), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa). Cytotoxicity was assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion method and 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazole-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. From the present investigation it was found that the ethyl acetate and methanol extract of Araucaria bidwilli Hook was found to be more effective in leukemic cell lines and was less effective in MCF-7 and HeLa. The $IC_{50}$ value of the ethyl acetate extract in leukemic cell lines was found to be $28.18\;and\;34.64\;{\mu}g/ml$ and methanol extract was found to be $33.11\;&\;39.81\;{\mu}g/ml$. It can be concluded that various extract from the leaves of Araucaria bidwillii Hook. posses cytotoxic activity tested in brine shrimps and various human carcinoma cell lines.

Xylaroisopimaranin A, a New Isopimarane Derivative from an Endophytic Fungus Xylaralyce sp.

  • Bao, Shang-Song;Liu, Hui-Hui;Zhang, Xue-Qing;Liu, Cheng-Xiong;Li, Xiao-Cong;Guo, Zhi-Yong
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.228-232
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    • 2019
  • Five secondary metabolites, including a new isopimarane derivative xylaroisopimaranin A (1), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaralyce sp. (HM-1), and their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR, MS and CD spectra. Their bioactivities were performed to antibacterial, Hep G2 cells cytotoxicity and brine shrimp inhibition. The biological evaluation results showed that the xylaroisopimaranin A (1), xylabisboein B (2), griseofulvin (3), 5-methylmellein (4) and mellein-5-carboxlic acid (5) displayed no significant Hep G2 cells cytotoxicity and antibacterial acitivity, but they inhibited the brine shrimp with $IC_{50}$ from 0.5 to $25{\mu}mol/mL$.

Cytotoxic Constituents of Saussurea lappa

  • Jung, Jee-Hyung;Kim, Young-Soo;Lee, Chong-Ock;Kang, Sam-Sik;Park, Jong-Hee;Im, Kwang-Sik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 1998
  • The crude extract of Saussurea lappa displayed significant lethality to brine shrimp larvae. Investigation of the causative components by bioactivity-directed fractionation resulted in the isolation of three $C_17$-polyene alcohols. Based on various nmr spectral data, these compounds were identified as shikokiols which had been previously isolated from Cirsium nipponicum and/or Centaurea aegyptica. These $C_17$-polyene alcohols exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against the human tumor cell lines, A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, XF498, and HCT15.

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A New Cyclitol Derivative from a Sponge Stelletta Species

  • Zhao, Qingchun;Liu, Yong-Hong;Hong, Jong-Ki;Lee, Chong-O.;Park, Jong-Hee;Lee, Dong-Seok;Jung, Jee-H.
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.18-21
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    • 2003
  • Guided by the brine shrimp lethality assay, a new (4) and three known cyclitol derivatives (1-3) were isolated from the marine sponge Stelletta sp. Norsarcotride A (4) showed significant cytotoxicity against a small panel of five human tumor cell lines.