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Effects of Supplemented PROSOL® as an Emulsifier on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Hanwoo Steers of Final Fattening Period (수용성 지방유화제 첨가가 비육후기 한우거세우의 발육과 도체성적에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Joon;Hwang, Jeong-Mi;Seong, Nak-Il;Kim, Jeong-Bae;Hwang, Il-Ki;Kim, Yong-Chul
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.395-406
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    • 2009
  • Fifty four Hanwoo steers in final fattening period were assigned to 3 groups control, top dressed $PROSOL^{(R)}$ as an emulsifier (TP) and DSP group (experimental diet made to down spec of nutrients with $PROSOL^{(R)}$, which is sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate), based on the body weight (647.96${\pm}$41.31 kg) and months of age (27.3${\pm}$0.8 mo), and the experiment was conducted to establish the reasonable fattening method of Hanwoo steers for 91 days. Average daily body gains during trial were 0.94, 0.84 and 0.98 kg in control, TP and DSP, respectively (P=0.011). DDMI/ADG of TP group tend to lightly improving compared to control and DSP group (P=0.692). There was no effect of supplementation of the $PROSOL^{(R)}$ in concentrates on growth rate, feed efficiency and shrinkage in Hanwoo steers during the short final fattening period. MQI from TP and DSP was not different based on the rib-eye area and carcass weight in carcass than that from control. Back fat thickness tended to be thicker than control (P>0.05). Marbling score, texture and maturity for TP and DSP was abundantly to increase compared to control (P<0.003). There was significantly increment in supplemented $PROSOL^{(R)}$ (P<0.0001). The meat quality grade of control, TP and DSP were 2.94, 3.78 and 4.50, respectively. Related to this result, the auction price (carcass/kg) were gained significantly (P<0.003) from control (17,560), TP (18,586) and DSP (19,266 won) so which the monetary return was the highest in DSP and the differences was recognized between TP and DSP. Percentage over 1st grade appeared in control, TP and DSP were 55.4, 88.9 and 100.0%, respectively. These results supported the hypothesis that supplementation of emulsifier improve the marbling score and the carcass quality grade by increased digestibilities of the feed fat in Hanwoo steers in fattening period.

Structural Analysis of Concrete-filled FRP Tube Dowel Bar for Jointed Concrete Pavements (콘크리트 포장에서 FRP 튜브 다웰바의 역학적 특성 분석)

  • Park, Jun-Young;Lee, Jae-Hoon;Sohn, Dueck-Su
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2011
  • As well known, dowel bars are used to transfer traffic load acting on one edge to another edge of concrete slab in concrete pavement system. The dowel bars widely used in South Korea are round shape steel bar and they shows satisfactory performance under bending stress which is developed by repetitive traffic loading and environment loading. However, they are not invulnerable to erosion that may be caused by moisture from masonry joint or bottom of the pavement system. Especially, the erosion could rapidly progress with saline to prevent frost of snow in winter time. The problem under this circumstance is that the erosion not only drops strength of the steel dower bar but also comes with volume expansion of the steel dowel bar which can reduce load transferring efficiency of the steel dowel bar. To avoid this erosion problem in reasonable expenses, dowers bars with various materials are being developed. Fiber reinforced plastic(FRP) dower that is presented in this paper is suggested as an alternative of the steel dowel bar and it shows competitive resistance against erosion and tensile stress. The FRP dowel bar is developed in tube shape and is filled with high strength no shrinkage. Several slab thickness designs with the FRP dowel bars are performed by evaluating bearing stress between the dowel bar and concrete slab. To calculated the bearing stresses, theoretical formulation and finite element method(FEM) are utilized with material properties measured from laboratory tests. The results show that both FRP tube dowel bars with diameters of 32mm and 40mm satisfy bearing stress requirement for dowel bars. Also, with consideration that lean concrete is typical material to support concrete slab in South Korea, which means low load transfer efficiency and, therefore, low bearing stress, the FRP tube dowel bar can be used as a replacement of round shape steel bar.

The Vogue about Outwearization of Underwear in a Tendency to the Century-end (세기말 현상으로 본 속옷의 겉옷화 현상)

  • 이상례
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.35
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    • pp.325-341
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    • 1997
  • One of the noticeable trends of female wear in 1990s is the Outwearization of Underwear as it is called 'Lingerie look' This trend meaned 'Exposure Fashion' raised splendidly its head to the whole stage of fashion destrying the tradional concept having divided the fashion between outwear and underwear by Madonna an Americal populer singer showed up in front of the audience wearing the corset-dress as a stage custome. This corset-dress which can not be recognised whether it is underwear or outwear has been diffused into the mass as a fashionable trend re-gardless of any reason; therefore discrimi-nation of wear by space by far that is underwear should have the sstandard telling between private and public sector has been gradually tumbled. By the way what has propelled desigers to introduce the style continuously having the underwear motive such as outwear almost as same as underwear or underwear worn on out-wear etc. and has made it a fashion trends? How do we accept this "Ligerie look'fashion" The rearch on vogue of outwearization of underwear started by the questions above can be summarized as the followings The division between the sprit and the ma-terial-economic shrinkage by the collapse of the bubble economy in the late of 20 century and expectation for the next century doubt by changes of international politics dynamics for the next century and increasement of psycho-logical tention by the environmental destruc-tion etc, has been extended to break the sense of value down These frustration of the tra-ditional values and dissatisfaction on the pres-ent have reflected on the fashion pursuing some more sensational style to increase the ex-posure of the body. The revolution of wearing bouncing the con-servatismhas outwardly expressed underwear of the private sector. Therefore the spatial concept of wear which for the public sec-tor has been fallen into pieces and has broken the wall of the concept fixed by outwear on underwear. in addition the stage costome for the popular people like Madonna has not been limited by the specularity any more and has been assimilated with the normal wear on the street to take the distinction for away. The circumstances of the late of 20 century pursuing sensation and making sex commer-cialized have accordance with the outweari-zation of underwear. there it is on the basis of Minimalist's dogmatism has been expressed the maximization of expoure in the pubric space to popularize bra pants(knickers) as outwear. The reaction on the attribute of hiding and shanding has brought 'See-Through fashion' with the transparent materials, The contemporary doubt recalling the mem-ory of the past has sublimated corset which was an instument of toture for women into Romanticism to introduce it to fashion with the development of a new material not to be a tool of any oppression and maltretment any longer. The popularization of outwear like underwear what's more has brought high quality of underwear. There it has called for the variety of materials such as knit demin and velvet etc, and has urged the famous designers to enlarge their working boundaries to underwear designs, Besides outwearization of underwear has been popular even in the Orient which has the con-servative opinions on exposure ; so changes of the thoughts can be seen among the establish-ment generation on exposure of the body. As the more high tech information publi-cized and the more technology and media digitalized the more expression being analog the pursue for the new in fashion with vision never been seen and even though it is imprac-tical the experimental designers have drived the freedom beyond the traditional roles of the previous century. Consequently outwearization of underwear may be viewd as a trial as an expression responded the contemporary background. This trend in my opinion will have been lasted for a while by being proliperlated among lasted for a while by being proliperlated among the pub-lic who has the century-end anxiety and doubt and expectation for the next century.

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COATED PARTICLE FUEL FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS COOLED REACTORS

  • Verfondern, Karl;Nabielek, Heinz;Kendall, James M.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.603-616
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    • 2007
  • Roy Huddle, having invented the coated particle in Harwell 1957, stated in the early 1970s that we know now everything about particles and coatings and should be going over to deal with other problems. This was on the occasion of the Dragon fuel performance information meeting London 1973: How wrong a genius be! It took until 1978 that really good particles were made in Germany, then during the Japanese HTTR production in the 1990s and finally the Chinese 2000-2001 campaign for HTR-10. Here, we present a review of history and present status. Today, good fuel is measured by different standards from the seventies: where $9*10^{-4}$ initial free heavy metal fraction was typical for early AVR carbide fuel and $3*10^{-4}$ initial free heavy metal fraction was acceptable for oxide fuel in THTR, we insist on values more than an order of magnitude below this value today. Half a percent of particle failure at the end-of-irradiation, another ancient standard, is not even acceptable today, even for the most severe accidents. While legislation and licensing has not changed, one of the reasons we insist on these improvements is the preference for passive systems rather than active controls of earlier times. After renewed HTGR interest, we are reporting about the start of new or reactivated coated particle work in several parts of the world, considering the aspects of designs/ traditional and new materials, manufacturing technologies/ quality control quality assurance, irradiation and accident performance, modeling and performance predictions, and fuel cycle aspects and spent fuel treatment. In very general terms, the coated particle should be strong, reliable, retentive, and affordable. These properties have to be quantified and will be eventually optimized for a specific application system. Results obtained so far indicate that the same particle can be used for steam cycle applications with $700-750^{\circ}C$ helium coolant gas exit, for gas turbine applications at $850-900^{\circ}C$ and for process heat/hydrogen generation applications with $950^{\circ}C$ outlet temperatures. There is a clear set of standards for modem high quality fuel in terms of low levels of heavy metal contamination, manufacture-induced particle defects during fuel body and fuel element making, irradiation/accident induced particle failures and limits on fission product release from intact particles. While gas-cooled reactor design is still open-ended with blocks for the prismatic and spherical fuel elements for the pebble-bed design, there is near worldwide agreement on high quality fuel: a $500{\mu}m$ diameter $UO_2$ kernel of 10% enrichment is surrounded by a $100{\mu}m$ thick sacrificial buffer layer to be followed by a dense inner pyrocarbon layer, a high quality silicon carbide layer of $35{\mu}m$ thickness and theoretical density and another outer pyrocarbon layer. Good performance has been demonstrated both under operational and under accident conditions, i.e. to 10% FIMA and maximum $1600^{\circ}C$ afterwards. And it is the wide-ranging demonstration experience that makes this particle superior. Recommendations are made for further work: 1. Generation of data for presently manufactured materials, e.g. SiC strength and strength distribution, PyC creep and shrinkage and many more material data sets. 2. Renewed start of irradiation and accident testing of modem coated particle fuel. 3. Analysis of existing and newly created data with a view to demonstrate satisfactory performance at burnups beyond 10% FIMA and complete fission product retention even in accidents that go beyond $1600^{\circ}C$ for a short period of time. This work should proceed at both national and international level.

Epidermal Changes of the Adhesive Disks During Wall Attachment in Parthenocissus tricuspidata (착생에 따른 담쟁이덩굴 흡착근 표피조직의 변화)

  • Kim, Jung-Ha;Kim, In-Sun
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.83-91
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    • 2007
  • The present study examined the epidermal changes of adhesive disks which occur during attachment in Parthenocissus tricuspidata using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Several adhesive disks, each covered with a bract, develop from the shoot apical meristem during early development. In the initial stage, the adhesive disks are club-shaped and their upper and lower epidermis are indistinguishable. However, in the actively growing stage, they become spherical and both epidermis are clearly differentiated into the adventitious roots. Prior to wall attachment, the adhesive disks exhibit adaxial convex and abaxial concave shapes, and electron-dense substances are abundant in the vacuoles of epidermal cells. The peripheral area of the adhesive disk is adhered first to the wall surface, while the central area is drawn inward in a vacuum-like state during attachment. As the attachment progresses and the electron-dense substances continue to discharge, the upper and lower epidermis rapidly undergo deterioration and the disks shrink considerably. At this stage, structural changes of the lower epidermis occur much faster than in the upper one. The discharged substance is accumulated on the wall surface, and this aids the attachment of adhesive disks on the wall for long periods. In this manner, the shape and structure of the adhesive disk epidermis change drastically from initial growth to the mature stage. Further, the role of electron-dense substance and shrinkage of the disk during attachment has been discussed in Parthenocissus tricuspidata.

Treatment Margin Assessment using Mega-Voltage Computed Tomography of a Tomotherapy Unit in the Radiotherapy of a Liver Tumor (간종양 방사선치료 시 토모테라피 메가볼트 CT를 이용한 치료 여백 평가)

  • You, Sei-Hwan;Seong, Jin-Sil;Lee, Ik-Jae;Koom, Woong-Sub;Jeon, Byeong-Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.280-288
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To identify the inter-fractional shift pattern and to assess an adequate treatment margin in the radiotherapy of a liver tumor using mega-voltage computed tomography (MVCT) of a tomotherapy unit. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients were treated for liver tumors by tomotherapy from April 2006 to August 2007. The MVCT images of each patient were analyzed from the $1^{st}$ to the $10^{th}$ fraction for the assessment of the daily liver shift by four groups based on Couinard's proposal. Daily setup errors were corrected by bony landmarks as a prerequisite. Subsequently, the anterior-, posterior-, right-, and left shifts of the liver edges were measured by maximum linear discrepancies between the kilo-voltage computed tomography (KVCT) image and MVCT image. All data were set in the 2-dimensional right angle coordinate system of the transverse section of each patient's body. Results: The liver boundary shift had different patterns for each group. In group II (segment 2, 3, and 4), the anterior mean shift was $2.80{\pm}1.73\;mm$ outwards, while the left mean shift was $2.23{\pm}1.37\;mm$ inwards. In group IV (segment 7 and 8), the anterior-, posterior-, right-, and left mean shifts were $0.15{\pm}3.93\;mm$ inwards, $3.15{\pm}6.58\;mm$ inwards, $0.60{\pm}3.58\;mm$ inwards, and $4.50{\pm}5.35\;mm$ inwards, respectively. The reduced volume in group II after MVCT reassessment might be a consequence of stomach toxicity. Conclusion: Inter-fractional liver shifts of each group based on Couinard's proposal were somewhat systematic despite certain variations observed in each patient. The geometrical deformation of the liver by respiratory movement can cause shrinkage in the left margins of liver. We recommend a more sophisticated approach in free-breathing mode when irradiating the left lobe of liver in order to avoid stomach toxicity.

Production and CO2 Adsorption Characteristics of Activated Carbon from Bamboo by CO2 Activation Method (CO2 활성화법에 의한 대나무 활성탄 제조와 CO2 흡착 특성)

  • Bak, Young-Cheol;Cho, Kwang-Ju;Choi, Joo-Hong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.146-152
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    • 2005
  • The activated carbon was produced from Sancheong bamboo by carbon dioxide gas activation methods. The carbonization of raw material was conducted at $900^{\circ}C$, and $CO_2$ activation reactions were conducted under various conditions: activation temperatures of $750-900^{\circ}C$, flow rates of carbon dioxide $5-30cm^3/g-char{\cdot}min$, and activation time of 2-5 h. The yield, adsorption capacity of iodine and methylene blue, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the prepared activated carbons were measured. The adsorption capacity of iodine (680.8-1450.1 mg/g) and methylene blue (23.5-220 mg/g) increased with increasing activation temperature and activation time. The adsorption capacity of iodine and methylene blue increased with the $CO_2$ gas quantity in the range of $5-18.9cm^3/g-char{\cdot}min$. But those decreased over those range due to the pore shrinkage. The specific volume of the mesopore and macropore of bamboo activated carbon were $0.65-0.91cm^3/g$. Because of this large specific volume, it can be used to the biological activated carbon process. Bamboo activated carbon phisically adsorbed the $CO_2$ of maximum 106 mg/g-A.C in the condition of 90% $CO_2$ and adsorption temperature of $20^{\circ}C$. The $CO_2$ adsorption ability of bamboo activated carbon was not changed in the 5 cyclic test of desorption and adsorption.

The Evaluation of Composite Dose using Deformable Image Registration in Adaptive Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer (두경부 종양의 적응방사선치료시 변형영상정합을 이용한 합성선량 평가)

  • Hwang, Chul-Hwan;Ko, Seong-Jin;Kim, Chang-Soo;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Choi, Seok-Yoon;Ye, Soo-Young;Kang, Se-Sik
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 2013
  • In adaptive radiotherapy(ART), generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue on overall treatment course which is using deformable image registration from multistage images. Also, compared with doses summed by each treatment plan and clinical significance is considered. From the first of May, 2011 to the last of July, 2012. Patients who were given treatment and had the head and neck cancer with 3-dimension conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy, those who were carried out adaptive radiotherapy cause of tumor shrinkage and weight loss. Generated composite dose of surrounding normal tissue using deformable image registration was been possible, statistically significant difference was showed to mandible($48.95{\pm}3.89$ vs $49.10{\pm}3.55$ Gy), oral cavity($36.93{\pm}4.03$ vs $38.97{\pm}5.08$ Gy), parotid gland($35.71{\pm}6.22$ vs $36.12{\pm}6.70$ Gy) and temporomandibular joint($18.41{\pm}9.60$ vs $20.13{\pm}10.42$ Gy) compared with doses summed by each treatment plan. The results of this study show significant difference between composite dose by deformable image registration and doses summed by each treatment plan, composite dose by deformable image registration may generate more exact evaluation to surrounding normal tissue in adaptive radiotherapy.

Efficiency Test for Surface Protecting Agents for the Chemical Resistance of Concrete Structures Using Sulfur Polymers (Sulfur Polymer를 사용한 콘크리트 구조물용 내화학성 표면보호재의 성능 평가)

  • Lee, Byung-Jae;Lee, Eue-Sung;Chung, Woo-Jung;Kim, Yun-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2014
  • Structures requiring chemical resistance are usually coated with surface protecting agents, but the cost for maintenance and re-construction is incurred due to the low durability. Therefore, in this study, sulfur was polymerized and the performance was examined so that it could be used as the concrete surface protecting agents for structures requiring chemical resistance. The evaluation results indicated that for the spray of the sulfur polymer surface coating agents, the application of the gravity type was appropriate; and for the number of coating times, about 3 cycle spray gave the best results. For the surface condition of the concrete to be coated with the surface protecting agents, outstanding quality was obtained above room temperature ($20{\sim}30^{\circ}C$), and the bond strength increased as the temperature increased. The evaluation results of the strength characteristics depending on the filler content of the surface protecting agents indicated that about 20~40% filler mixing contributed to the strength improvement as it reduced the shrinkage of the sulfur polymer. Also, the mixing of silica showed larger increase in the bond strength than the mixing of fly ash, and the most outstanding bond strength characteristics could be obtained by the mixing of both silica and fly ash. In the case of the chemical resistance, the strength reduction was minimized and outstanding chemical resistance was obtained when the fly ash and silica were substituted by 20%, respectively. The performance evaluation of the chloride ion penetration indicated that for the specimens coated with the sulfur polymer surface protecting agents, the chloride ion penetration resistance increased by 29~48% compared to the specimen without the coating of the surface protecting agent. The examination of the coating condition of the surface protecting agents, compressive strength, bond strength, chemical resistance, and salt damage resistance indicated that in the range of this study, the optimal level was when the silica and fly ash were substituted by 20%, respectively, as the filler for the sulfur polymer.

Removable implant-supported partial denture using milled bar with Locator® attachments in a cleft lip & palate patient: A clinical report (구순구개열 환자에서 Locator® 유지장치가 장착된 milled titanium bar를 이용한 가철성 임플란트 피개 국소의치의 보철수복증례)

  • Yang, Sang-Hyun;Kim, Kyoung-A;Kim, Ja-Yeong;Seo, Jae-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 2015
  • Due to the limitations of conventional removable partial denture prostheses to treat a cleft lip & palate patient who shows scar tissue on upper lip, excessive absorption of the maxillary residual alveolar ridge, and class III malocclusion with narrow palate and undergrowth of the maxilla, 4 implants were placed on the maxillary edentulous region and a maxillary removable implant-supported partial denture was planned using a CAD/CAM milled titanium bar. Unlike metal or gold casting technique which has shrinkage after the molding, CAD/CAM milled titanium bar is highly-precise, economical and lightweight. In practice, however, it is very hard to obtain accurate friction-fit from the milled bar and reduction in retention can occur due to repetitive insertion and removal of the denture. Various auxiliary retention systems (e.g. $ERA^{(R)}$, $CEKA^{(R)}$, magnetics, $Locator^{(R)}$ attachment), in order to deal with these problems, can be used to obtain additional retention, cost-effectiveness and ease of replacement. Out of diverse auxiliary attachments, $Locator^{(R)}$ has characteristics that are dual retentive, minimal in vertical height and convenient of attachment replacement. Drill and tapping method is simple and the replacement of the metal female part of $Locator^{(R)}$ attachment is convenient. In this case, the $Locator^{(R)}$ attachment is connected to the milled titanium bar fabricated by CAD/CAM, using the drill and tapping technique. Afterward, screw holes were formed and 3 $Locator^{(R)}$ attachments were secured with 20 Ncm holding force for additional retention. Following this procedure, satisfactory results were obtained in terms of aesthetic facial form, masticatory function and denture retention, and I hereby report this case.