• Title, Summary, Keyword: Side Walls

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Relationship Between Flat End-mill Shape and Geometrical Characteristics in Side Walls Generated by End-milling Process (엔드밀링 공정에 의하여 생성된 측벽의 기하학적 특성과 평엔드밀 형상 사이의 관계)

  • Kim, Kang
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2015
  • This paper presents the effects of the tool shape on the geometrical characteristics of flat end-milled side walls. A tool shape is characterized by such parameters as helix angle, number of cutting edges, and diameter. The geometrical characteristics of the side walls are represented by the surface profiles in the feed and axial directions, which are orthogonal to each other. The geometrical defects in each direction are estimated based on the instantaneous apparent cutting areas, which are represented by the interference area between the tool and workpiece and that between the cutting edge and workpiece. It is confirmed that a geometrical defect in the feed direction is formed when the tool leaves the workpiece and the curvature of the tool path changes. Defects in the axial direction are also found in the side walls, except for the defect zone in the feed direction. An up-cut using an end-mill with a steeper helix angle, a greater number of cutting edges, and a smaller diameter are thus found to improve the geometrical accuracy of end-milled side walls.

Experimental Studies on Behaviors of T-Shaped Structural Walls with Different Concrete Compressive Strengths and Aspect Ratios (콘크리트 압축강도와 웨브길이 변화에 따른 T형 벽체의 거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Yang, Ji-Soo;Lee, Li-Hyung
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2003
  • In domestic, bearing wall apartment building have not rectangular walls but irregular walls which are designed at walls of various cross-sectional shapes such as H-shaped, T-shaped, Box-shaped and L-shaped. In these irregular walls connected with rigid joint each other, one side walls of irregular walls is expected to show effective behavior for rigid-jointed the other side walls. Moreover, previous studies have focused on simplifying irregular walls into rectangular walls because of the complication in structural design and analysis. So studies for variables affecting behaviors of irregular walls, such as aspect ratios and compressive strength of concrete, are insufficient. The objective of this study is to evaluate the behaviors of T-shaped structural walls with different concrete compressive strengths and aspect ratios by experimental works. Results of this experimental study show that flange wall is contributed to increase the flexural strengths by the variation of concrete strengths and aspect ratios, and that it is needed to evaluate the effect width of flange wall for rational wall design.

A New Resonance Prediction Method of Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC) Antennas Enclosed with Metallic Side Walls

  • Kim, Dong-Ho;Yeo, Jun-Ho
    • Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.220-226
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    • 2011
  • We have proposed a new method to accurately predict the resonance of Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC) antennas enclosed with conducting side walls. When lateral directions of an FPC antenna are not blocked with metallic walls, the conventional technique is accurate enough to predict the resonance of the FPC antenna. However, when the FPC antenna has side walls, especially for case with only a short distance between the walls, the conventional prediction method yields an inaccurate result, inevitably requiring a tedious, time-consuming tuning process to determine the correct resonant height to provide the maximum antenna gain in a target frequency band using three-dimensional full-wave computer simulations. To solve that problem, we have proposed a new resonance prediction method to provide a more accurate resonant height calculation of FPC antennas by using the well-known resonance behavior of a rectangular resonant cavity. For a more physically insightful explanation of the new prediction formula, we have reinvestigated our proposal using a wave propagation characteristic in a hollow rectangular waveguide, which clearly confirms our approach. By applying the proposed technique to an FPC antenna covered with a partially reflecting superstrate consisting of continuously tapered meander loops, we have proved that our method is very accurate and readily applicable to various types of FPC antennas with lateral walls. Experimental result confirms the validness of our approach.

The Effects of Confined Rates Side Wall of Pen for Evacuation Behaviors of Pigs (돈방 측벽마감율이 돼지의 배분 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 송준익;최홍림
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.147-154
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    • 2001
  • An experiment was conducted to examine environmental influences upon the behavioral pattern of pigs. The resting areas of an enclosed growing-finishing pig house were checked in two seasonal ventilation systems, and the excretion habit of pigs influenced by the different closing rates (50, 75 and 100%) of side walls of pens was surveyed. 1. The excretion habit of pigs was not influenced by temperature, humidity and the flow speed of running air as they excreted in a fixed area of the side walls. However, the lighting effects on the excretion habit was observed because pigs excreted in the darkest area of the pig pen. 2. The accumulated height and width of feces showed 10 and 30 cm; 5 and 25cm; and 3 and 20cm for 50, 75 and 100% of closing rates of side walls, respectively. It indicates that pigs excrete all over the floor in the pen with 100% closed side walls. 3. Ammonia concentrations of the resting areas on the pen floor were determined to 4.2, 5.1 and $5.8mg/{\ell}$ for 50, 75 and 100% of closing rates of side walls, respectively. It indicates that the ammonia concentration was highest in the pen with 100% closed side walls. Thus, the high ammonia concentration of the resting areas could be reduced by illuminating the darker areas with relation to the excretion habit. 4. The flow speed of running air was likely the biggest factor influencing the resting areas of pigs; pigs took a rest at the place of 0.04 m/s air flow speed point during midwinter, and at the place of 0.24 m/s air flow speed point during midsummer.

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Analysis of the Wind Pressure Coefficient Characteristic of Livestock Shed Roof Surface according to the Opening of Side Walls (측벽 개방유무에 따른 축사지붕면의 풍압계수 특성분석)

  • You, Ki-Pyo
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2011
  • Livestock buildings are rural facilities as vulnerable to natural disasters as vinyl houses. Many of livestock buildings have a roof but without side walls. The roof of such structures is easily blown away by a typhoon and this results in a heavy loss. Therefore, farmers install winch curtains on the sides to prevent damages caused by typhoons. This study purposed to examine the distribution of wind pressure coefficient among different positions of livestock shed roof according to the opening of side walls. It was found that according to the distribution of peak external pressure coefficient on the roof surface of livestock shed, the wind blowing at wind angle $0^{\circ}$ was disadvantageous to roof surface regardless of the presence of side walls. However, it was confirmed that the peak external pressure coefficient was affected by wind angle and the length of eave depending on the presence of side walls.

A Case Study on Design and Construction of Subway Tunnels Underneath Existing Buildings (건물하부 통과를 위한 터널설계 시공사례)

  • 김홍석;조성태
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.225-230
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    • 1994
  • This paper concerns a case study on the design concept, analysis, construction methodology of a subway tunnel excavated in the soft ground beneath an existing building where the distance between the bottom of the building and the crown of the tunnel is separated by about 3 meters only. The silot tunnels are excavated in advance, and side reinforced-concrete walls are installed. Then, main tunnels are excavated with ring cut method. The steel ribs are installed and supported by the side walls made in advance. Between the steel ribs and the side walls, the screw jack is installed to apply prestressing so that settlement can be controlled at minimum. Various in-situ seasurements are made and compared with computed values obtained by numerical methods. By choosing this underpinning method with very caraful construction control, tunnelling projects could be finished successfully without having any damage to the building located very closely to the tunnel crown.

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Enhancement of Sound Clarity of Classrooms Using Sound Diffusers and Panel Absorbers

  • Shin, Sang-Bong;Haan, Chan-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.2E
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    • pp.60-65
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    • 2009
  • The present study aims to investigate the effects of sound diffusers and absorbers on the sound clarity in classrooms. In order to do this, computer simulations were carried out to find the effective area of treatment which could enhance the sound clarity in the room. Acoustic measurements were undertaken in a lecture room with several conditions changing the surface of walls and ceilings with diffusers and absorbers. Diffusion and absorption treatments were applied to the side walls, rear wall and the ceiling of the classroom. SPL, RT, D50, RASTI were measured at 9 measurement points with one sound source and MLS was used as the sound source signal. The results show that higher sound clarity was obtained when diffusers were applied to rear walls and ceiling rather than side walls. Also, it was confirmed that absorption increased sound clarity more effectively with smaller amount in comparison with diffusers. It was also concluded that the effects of sound diffusers and absorbers on the sound clarity could be obtained distinctly at the rear area of the classroom.

Comparison of structural foam sheathing and oriented strand board panels of shear walls under lateral load

  • Shadravan, Shideh;Ramseyer, Chris C.;Floyd, Royce W.
    • Advances in Computational Design
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.251-272
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    • 2019
  • This study performed lateral load testing on seventeen wood wall frames in two sections. Section one included eight tests studying structural foam sheathing of shear walls subjected to monotonic loads following the ASTM E564 test method. In this section, the wood frame was sheathed with four different types of structural foam sheathing on one side and gypsum wallboard (GWB) on the opposite side of the wall frame, with Simpson HDQ8 hold down anchors at the terminal studs. Section two included nine tests studying wall constructed with oriented strand board (OSB) only on one side of the wall frame subjected to gradually applied monotonic loads. Three of the OSB walls were tied to the baseplate with Simpson LSTA 9 tie on each stud. From the test results for Section one; the monotonic tests showed an 11 to 27 percent reduction in capacity from the published design values and for Section two; doubling baseplates, reducing anchor bolt spacing, using bearing plate washers and LSTA 9 ties effectively improved the OSB wall capacity. In comparison of sections one and two, it is expected the walls with structural foam sheathing without hold downs and GWB have a lower wall capacity as hold down and GWB improved the capacity.

Seismic performance of the historical masonry clock tower and influence of the adjacent walls

  • Cakir, Ferit;Uysal, Habib
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.217-231
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    • 2014
  • Ancient masonry towers are regarded as among the most important historical heritage structures of the world. These slender structures typically have orthogonal and circular geometry in plane. These structural forms are commonly installed with adjacent structures. Because of their geometrical shapes and structural constraints, ancient masonry towers are more vulnerable to earthquake damage. The main goal of the paper is to investigate the seismic behavior of Erzurum Clock Tower under earthquake loading and to determine the contribution of the castle walls to the seismic performance of the tower. In this study, four three-dimensional finite element models of the Erzurum Clock Tower were developed and the seismic responses of the models were investigated. Time history analyses were performed using the earthquakes that took place in Turkey in 1983 near Erzurum and in 1992 near Erzincan. In the first model, the clock tower was modeled without the adjacent walls; in the second model, the clock tower was modeled with a castle wall on the south side; in the third model, the clock tower was modeled with a castle wall on the north side; and in the last model, the clock tower was modeled with two castle walls on both the north and south sides. Results of the analyses show that the adjacent walls do not allow lateral movements and the horizontal displacements decreases. It is concluded that the adjacent structures should be taken into consideration when modeling seismic performance in order to get accurate and realistic results.

A Study on Cooling Systems with Cold Water Panels in the Walls of Small Buildings (소형 건축 벽면의 냉수 패널에 의한 냉방시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Dong-Hyun;Jo, Myeong-Gi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Process Engineers
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted on cooling systems in which, for the first time at home and abroad, cold water panels are embedded in the walls of small buildings for radiant cooling by heat absorption with cold water. In summer, cold water is circulated through cold water (chiller) circulation tubes embedded in three walls (two side walls and one rear wall) of a building to implement radiant cooling by the coldness of the water. From the results of this study, the experimental and theoretical natural convection heat transfer coefficients were relatively well-matched over the entire experimental range, thereby verifying the reliability of the experimental results. The surface temperature reduction rate of the walls in which cold water panels are embedded was large whereas that of the walls where no cold water panels are embedded was very small.