• Title, Summary, Keyword: Silage Additive

Search Result 54, Processing Time 0.036 seconds

Influence of microbial additive on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of delayed sealing silage of Napier grass

  • Cai, Yimin;Du, Zhumei;Yamasaki, Seishi;Nguluve, Damiao;Tinga, Benedito;Macome, Felicidade;Oya, Tetsuji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.33 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1103-1112
    • /
    • 2020
  • Objective: To measure whether a microbial additive could effectively improve the fermentation quality of delayed-sealing (DS) silage, we studied the effects of inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and cellulase enzyme on microbial populations, ensiling characteristics, and spoilage loss of DS silage of Napier grass in Africa. Methods: Quick-sealing (QS) and DS silages were prepared with and without LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum) inoculant, cellulase enzymes, and their combination. The QS material was directly chopped and packed into a bunker silo. The DS material was packed into the silo with a delay of 24 h from harvest. Results: In the QS silage, LAB was dominant in the microbial population and produced large amounts of lactic acid. When the silage was treated with LAB and cellulase, the fermentation quality was improved. In the DS silage, aerobic bacteria and yeasts were the dominant microbes and all the silages were of poor quality. The yeast and mold counts in the DS silage were high, and they increased rapidly during aerobic exposure. As a result, the DS silages spoiled faster than the QS silages upon aerobic exposure. Conclusion: DS results in poor silage fermentation and aerobic deterioration. The microbial additive improved QS silage fermentation but was not effective for DS silage.

Studies on the Quality and Utilization of Pumpkin Silages (호박 Silage의 품질(品質) 및 이용성(利用性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Y.K.;Kim, S.K.
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
    • /
    • v.3 no.1
    • /
    • pp.77-84
    • /
    • 1976
  • The preservation efficiency, quality and utilization of silage from 3 species of pumpkins (Mammoth pumpkin, Queensland blue pumpkin, Korean pumpkin) without and with 10, and 20% wheat bran additive were studied in this experiment. Silages were analysised and tested the chemical composition, pH and quality of silages between at 40-60 days and egg performance were carried out with mammoth pumpkin silage without additive. The results were summaried as follows. 1. The losses of all silage ware lower and similar as about 15% at 6 monthes following after silage-making but all raw pumpkins were spoilaged during the winter storaging. 2. The moisture content of silages were higher as about 97% in mammoth pumpkin silage, 94% in Queensland pumpkin silage and 91% in Korean pumpkin silage without additive and all nutrient content of silage without and with additive were depended on its content of raw silage material of pumpkins and wheat bran. The contents of moisture and N-free extract were slightly decrease but not significantly difference during the silaging and other contents were not so much changed. 3. Good quality of silage were made from all pumpkins with and without additive. Organic acid contents were 2.09-2.93% of lactic acid, 0.68-1.71% of acetic acid and 0% of butyric acid and it was pH 3.8-4.0 in silages. 4. Feed intakes, egg production and quality of egg were showed good result in 5.0 and 7.5% silage feeding group as D.M. base for egg performance. (P<0.01) 5. It was concluded that good quality of silage were made from pumpkins with and without wheat bran additive and it was suggested that poor quality feedstuff may be improved it feeding value by extended palatability with pumpkin additive silage.

  • PDF

Effect of Molasses on Nutritional Quality of Cassava and Gliricidia Tops Silage

  • Van Man, Ngo;Wiktorsson, Hans
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1294-1299
    • /
    • 2002
  • The study aimed to evaluate the influence of molasses in ensiling cassava and Gliricidia tops, common crop residues in the farming systems of Vietnam. Four levels of sugarcane molasses: 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg per tonne of fresh material, and two storage periods (2 and 4 months) for each of the two plant species: Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium, Jacq.) were allocated in a 4${\times}$2 factorial completely randomized block design with 3 replicates. A total of 48 plastic bags, each one containing 10 kg herbage were used. Based on the colour, smell and mold appearance, all the silages were considered to be acceptable but with more spoiled silages with higher levels of additives. DM of herbages (25.8% and 22.4% in cassava and Gliricidia tops, respectively) were not changed during ensiling and the molasses additive had no significant effect on the silage DM. Contents of CP and NDF in the cassava tops silage decreased significantly with increased level of molasses and storage period, respectively. The mean pH values of non-molasses silages were 4.39 in cassava tops and 4.60 in Gliricidia tops. Increased additive levels significantly reduced silage pH in Gliricidia (p<0.01) but not in cassava tops silage (p=0.10). Longer storage period significantly reduced pH in both silages. The water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations of cassava tops and Gliricidia tops were reduced by 90 and 80%, respectively, after ensiling. Molasses addition increased significantly the silage WSC concentrations. HCN contents in the fresh cassava and Gliricidia tops were reduced by 68 and 43%, respectively, after 2 months ensiling, and were continuously reduced during storage. A reduction of 25% and 42% in the tannin content of fresh cassava and Gliricidia tops, respectively was found after ensiling. Storage time and molasses additive had little affect on the tannin content. Silage lactic acid concentrations were around 1,0% of DM in cassava and 1.7% of DM in Gliricidia top silages, and no effect of molasses additive and storage time was found. It is concluded that cassava and Gliricidia tops residues can be preserved successfully by ensiling, and only low levels of molasses additive are needed to improve silage fermentation.

Evaluation of Fermentation Quality of a Tropical and Temperate Forage Crops Ensiled with Additives of Fermented Juice of Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria (FJLB)

  • Yahaya, M.S.;Goto, M.;Yimiti, W.;Smerjai, B.;Kawamoto, Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.17 no.7
    • /
    • pp.942-946
    • /
    • 2004
  • This study aimed to examine the fermentation quality of a tropical Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpuereum) and temperate Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forages ensiled additive of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to determine what factor affects the fermentation characteristics of the crops. In both species cell walls neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents in silages were consistently decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FJLB at ensiling more then Control treatment. The FJLB additive increased number of LAB (cfu) and lactate concentration in the silages in both species. The Control treatment without additive underwent a clostridial type of fermentation with traces of propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric acids contents with higher (p<0.01) levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN %TN) and had appreciable decreased of nutrient in silages. FJLB treatment improved silage nutritive value with little contents of VBN %TN, ethanol and very small amount of dry matter (DM) and hemicellulose losses (p<0.05) between 2 to 5% and 7 to 3% respectively, in Elephant grass and Italian ryegrass species. The results in this study indicates that while among the factors affecting silage fermentation butyric type of fermentation was more pronounced in tropical elephant grass compared to the temperate Italian ryegrass, FJLB additive revealed a better silage fermentation products in both species.

Cassava Tops Ensiled With or Without Molasses as Additive Effects on Quality, Feed Intake and Digestibility by Heifers

  • Van Man, Ngo;Wiktorsson, Hans
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.5
    • /
    • pp.624-630
    • /
    • 2001
  • Two experiments on the effects of molasses additive on cassava tops silage quality to its feed intake and digestibility by growing Holstein$\times$local crossbred heifers were carried out. Sixteen plastic bags of one meter diameter and two meters length were allocated in a $2{\times}2$ factorial design with four replicates in the ensiling study, with and without the molasses additive and with two storage times (2 and 3 months). The silage produced in the first experiment was used in the feed intake and digestibility study. Six crossbred Holstein heifers, 160-180 kg live weight, were randomly allocated in a $3{\times}2$ change-over design to three treatments: Guinea grass ad libitum, 70% of grass ad libitum with a supplement of non-molasses cassava silage ad libitum, and 70% of grass ad libitum with a supplement of molasses cassava silage ad libitum. Ensiling was shown to be a satisfactory method for preservation of cassava tops. The HCN content was significantly reduced from $840mg\;kg^{-1}$ to 300 or $130mg\;kg^{-1}$, depending on storage period. The tannin content was not significantly changed. Molasses additive resulted in lower pH, Crude Protein (CP), NDF and higher DM content but did not otherwise affect chemical composition. The voluntary feed intake per 100 kg live weight of the heifers was 2.59, 2.65 and 2.91 kg DM of Guinea grass, non-molasses cassava tops silage and molasses cassava tops silage diet, respectively. Crude protein intake was significantly improved in the cassava tops silage diets. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF decreased with the silage supplement diets. No significant difference in digestibility was found between the non-molasses and molasses silage diets. The digestibility coefficient of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF in non-molasses cassava tops silage and molasses cassava tops silage was 49.4, 52.1, 45.81, 36.6, 27.7 and 49.7, 51.9, 47.55, 28.1, 19.5, respectively. It is concluded that cassava tops can be preserved successfully by ensiling and that cassava tops silage is a good feed resource for cattle.

Ensiling of Sweet Potato Leaves (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) and the Nutritive Value of Sweet Potato Leaf Silage for Growing Pigs

  • An, Le Van;Lindberg, Jan Erik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.497-503
    • /
    • 2004
  • The effect of adding carbohydrate-rich feedstuffs to sweet potato leaves (SPL) on silage quality was studied using a total of 180 laboratory silos. Silage quality was assessed by changes of pH, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and ammonia nitrogen ($NH_{3}$-N). Pre-wilted SPL was mixed with cassava root meal (CRM), sweet potato root meal (SPM) or sugar cane molasses (Mo) at levels of 0, 30, 60 and 90 g $kg^{-1}$ (air-dry weight of additives to pre-wilted weight of SPL). Samples for assessing silage quality were collected after mixing the SPL with the additive and thereafter at 7, 14, 28 and 56 days of ensiling. There was a marked decrease in pH after 7 days and the pH remained low and stable until day 56. Addition of 60 and 90 g $kg^{-1}$ resulted in a lower pH (p<0.05) than the other treatments. The DM content of the silage increased (p<0.05) with increasing levels of additive, while there were no differences in DM with time of ensiling. The CP content of the silage decreased (p<0.05) with increasing levels of additive. The CP content did not change up to 28 days, but was lower (p<0.05) after 56 days in all treatments. The $NH_{3}$-N levels were increasing (p<0.05) with time of ensiling, and were lower (p<0.05) with additive levels of 60 g $kg^{-1}$ or higher. Also, the additive source affected the $NH_{3}$-N values, with the lowest values found for Mo. Castrated male pigs (Large White$\times$Mongcai) were used in 4$\times$4 Latin square design to study the total tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) utilisation of diets with inclusion of ensiled SPL. The diets were based on cassava root meal with inclusion of protein from either fish meal (C) or SPL ensiled with CRM (D1), SPL ensiled with SPM (D2) and SPL ensiled with Mo (D3). The digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and CP were higher (p<0.05), and the digestibility of crude fibre (CF) was lower (p<0.05), in diet C than in diets D1, D2 and D3. However, there were no differences (p>0.05) in digestibility of dietary components between diets D1, D2 and D3. Also, the excretion of N in faeces was higher (p<0.05) and the N retention was lower (p<0.05) in diets D1, D2 and D3 than in diet C. It can be concluded from the present experiments, that a good quality silage can be produced from pre-wilted SPL by addition of 60 g $kg^{-1}$ of either CRM, SPM or Mo. Diets with inclusion of 450 g ensiled SPL $kg^{-1}$ DM showed a high digestibility of dietary components and thus ensiled SPL should be considered as a potential feed resource for growing pigs.

The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

  • Bureenok, Smerjai;Yuangklang, Chalermpon;Vasupen, Kraisit;Schonewille, J. Thomas;Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.25 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1248-1254
    • /
    • 2012
  • The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using $4{\times}4$ Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen ($NH_3$-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

Evaluation of Whole Crop Barley for Silage Quality Contest in 2008 (2008년도 사일리지 품질경연대회에 출품한 청보리의 품질 평가)

  • Lee, Joung-Kyong;Kim, Jong-Duk;Lee, Hyun-Jin;Jeon, Gyeong-Heop;Kim, Jong-Geun;Seo, Sung;Jung, Min-Woong;Choi, Jin-Hyuk;Jo, Nam-Chul;Park, Hyung-Soo;Kim, Won-Ho;Lim, Young-Chul
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.345-354
    • /
    • 2009
  • The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is now widely grown as a whole crop silage in Korea, but the quality of that silage does not examined from farms. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate the forage quality of whole crop barley that was participated in Silage Quality Contest in 2008. These data were classified by region, dry matter (DM) yield, with or not additive, planting and harvest date. Difference on the lactic acid content of barley silage was detected in the region, DM yield, additive and harvest date (p<0.05), however, there were partially significant differences in chemical composition. There were significant differences among moisture content in DM yield, pH in additive, and crude ash content in additive and planting date of barley silage. Crude protein content was significant difference in the region, and ether extract content was in region, DM yield and harvest date, however, non-fiber carbohydrate was significant difference in planting date of barley silage. Neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and relative feed value were significant difference only in the cultivation region of whole crop barley. According to this experiment, differences in the silage quality were observed among whole crop barley silages. Therefore, nutritive value as well as moisture and pH are important in silage quality evaluation of whole crop barley. Especially, lactic acid is an important factor for the evaluation of whole crop barley silage.

Dynamics of fungal community during silage fermentation of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) produced in northern Vietnam

  • Vu, Viet Ha;Li, Xiyang;Wang, Mengyuan;Liu, Rongmei;Zhang, Guojian;Liu, Wei;Xia, Baixue;Sun, Qun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.32 no.7
    • /
    • pp.996-1006
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objective: This study aimed to gain deeper insights into the dynamic changes in spoilage fungi populations during fermentation and the influence of traditional additives on silage quality. Methods: Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was prepared without any additive (control), and with the addition of 0.5% salt, and 0.5% salt-0.2% sugar mixture. The fungal community was then determined using a classic culturing method and high-throughput sequencing at 0, 5, 15, and 60 days after ensiling. Results: The results showed that the fungal community of elephant grass silage varied significantly between the natural fermentation without any additive and the two additive groups. The diversity and relative abundance of spoilage molds in the control group were much higher than those in the two treatment groups (p<0.05). Three species of yeasts (Candida sp., Pichia sp., Trichosporon sp.) and four spoilage molds (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Muco sp. and Penicillin sp.) were the predominant fungi in elephant grass during natural fermentation from 0 to 60 days, which were found to be significantly decreased in salt and sugar additive groups (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the diversity and relative abundance of undesirable molds in the 0.5%-salt additive group were the lowest among all groups. Conclusion: Adding salt and sugar, particularly 0.5% salt, is a promising effective approach to reduce the amount of undesirable fungi thus, improving the silage quality of elephant grass in northern Vietnam.

SILAGE FERMENTATION AND SILAGE ADDITIVES - Review -

  • Bolsen, K.K.;Ashbell, G.;Weinberg, Z.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.9 no.5
    • /
    • pp.483-493
    • /
    • 1996
  • Advances in silage technology, including precision chop forage harvesters, improved silos, polyethylene sheeting, shear cutting silo unloaders, and the introduction of total mixed rations, have made silage the principal method of forage preservation. A better understanding of the biochemistry and microbiology of the four phases of the ensiling process has also led to the development of numerous silage additives. Although acids and acid salts still are used to ensile low-DM forages in wet climates, bacterial inoculants have become the most widely used silage additives in the past decade. Commercial inoculants can assure a rapid and efficient fermentation phase; however, in the future, these products also must contribute to other areas of silage management, including the inhibition of enterobacteria, clostridia, and yeasts and molds. Nonprotein nitrogen additives have the problems of handling, application, and reduced preservation efficiency, which have limited their wide spread use. Aerobic deterioration in the feedout phase continues to be a serious problem, especially in high-DM silages. The introduction of competitive strains of propionic acid-producing bacteria, which could assure aerobically stable silages, would improve most commercial additives. New technologies are needed that would allow the farmer to assess the chemical and microbial status of the silage crop on a given day and then use the appropriate additive(s).