• Title, Summary, Keyword: Single-dose intramuscular toxicity

Search Result 22, Processing Time 0.03 seconds

Single Intramuscular-dose Toxicity of Anti-inflammatory Pharmacopuncture in Rats

  • Jung, Da-Jung;Kim, Sung-Chul;Lee, Hyung-Geol;Choi, Yoo-Min;Sin, Min-Seop;Choi, Seok-Woo;Hong, Seung-Won;Song, Beom-Yong;Kim, Jong-Uk;Yook, Tae-Han
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.16 no.4
    • /
    • pp.22-29
    • /
    • 2013
  • Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity of the test substance, anti-inflammatory pharmacopuncture (AIP), when used as a single intramuscular-dose in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethal dose. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices. Twenty (20) female and 20 male Spague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of five 5 female and 5 male animals per group. The rats in the three experimental groups received single intramuscular injections with 0.1-$m{\ell}$, 0.5-$m{\ell}$ and 1.0-$m{\ell}$/animal doses of AIP, Groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the control group, Group 1, received a single intramuscular injection with a 1.0-$m{\ell}$ dose of normal saline. Clinical signs were observed and body weight measurements were carried out for 14 days following the injections. At the end of the observation period, hematology, clinical chemistry, histopathological tests and necropsy were performed on the injected parts. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the groups. Also, histopathological tests showed that AIP had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusions: As a result of single intramuscular-dose tests of the test substance AIP in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded $1.0m{\ell}$/animal. Therefore, AIP is a relatively safe pharmacopuncture that can be used for treatment, but further studies should be performed.

Single-dose Intramuscular Toxicity Studies of Shinbaro3 Pharmacopunture in Sprague-Dawley Rats and Beagle Dogs (SD (Sprague-Dawley) 랫드와 비글견을 이용한 신바로3 약침의 단회 근육투여 독성실험)

  • Lee, Jin-Ho;Lee, In-Hee;Lee, Jae-Woong;Kim, Eun-Jee;Kim, Min-Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.73-80
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives To assess the safety of Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture by analyzing the potential single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture at various dose levels in SD (Spraque-Dawley) rats and Beagle dogs. Methods For evaluation of single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture, 40 SD rats (20 male and 20 famale) and 4 Beagle dogs (2 male and 2 female) were used. The rats were divided in four groups of 10 each, and treated intramuscularly with Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture at doses of 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg in distilled water, and distilled water as a vehicle control group, respectively. The Beagle dogs were divided into two groups of 2 each, and treated intramuscularly with Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture at doses of 0.15, and 0.3 mg/kg in distilled water, respectively, and signs of toxicity were observed. After a wash-out period of 3 days, the procedure was repeated with Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture at doses of 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg in distilled water, respectively. Mortality, body weight changes, and necropsy findings were examined during the study period. Results There were no mortalities in either the SD rats or Beagle dogs. There were also no significant differences in adverse effects, body weight, or necropsy findings between the Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture and control groups. Conclusions There results suggest that the lethal dose 50 ($LD_{50}$) and approximate lethal dose (ALD) value of the test substance Shinbaro3 Pharmacopuncture are higher than 1.2 mg/kg in SD rats and Beagle dogs.

Study of Single-dose Toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go Glucose Intramuscular Injection in Sprague-Dawley Rats

  • Jo, Su-Jeong;Kim, Sung-Chul;Kim, Yu-Jong;Kim, Eun-Jung;Kim, Kap-Sung;Lee, Seung-Deok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.51-58
    • /
    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study was performed to analyze single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose pharmacopuncture. Methods: Eighty six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two large groups of forty rats; Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% and Guseonwangdo-go glucose 20% groups. Each group was sub-divided into four smaller groups of five males and five females, with the following dosages of pharmacopuncture being administered by intramuscular (IM) injection in each group: group 1 (G1, control group): 1.0 mL of normal saline solution, group 2 (G2, low-dose group): 0.1 mL, group 3 (G3, mid-dose group): 0.5 mL, and group 4 (G4, high-dose group): 1.0 mL. Results: No mortalities or clinical signs were observed in any group. Also, no significant changes in body weights or in hematological/biochemical analyses were observed between the control and the experimental groups during necropsy or histopathology. Conclusion: The above findings suggest that the lethal dose of Guseonwangdo-go glucose 5% and 20% pharmacopuncture administered via IM injection is more than 1.0 mL per animal in both male and female rats. Further studies on the repeated-dose toxicity of Guseonwangdo-go glucose should be conducted to yield more concrete data.

Single-dose Intramuscular Injection Toxicology of Danggui Pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

  • Sun, SeungHo;Jeong, JongJin;Park, Sunju;Lee, KwangHo;Yu, JunSang;Seo, Hyung-Sik;Kwon, KiRok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.56-62
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives: The purpose of the study is to assess both the approximate lethal dose and the single dose intramuscular injection toxicity of Danggui (Angelica gigantis radix) pharmacopuncture (DGP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The experiments were conducted at the good laboratory practice (GLP) laboratory, Biotoxtech Co., which is a laboratory approved by the ministry of food and drug safety (MFDS). The study was performed according to the GLP regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the MFDS (2009) after approval of the institutional animal care and use committee of Biotoxtech. Single doses of DGP were injected intramuscularly into the rats in three test groups of 6 week old SD rats (5 male and 5 female rats per groups) in the amounts of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/animal for groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and normal saline solution in the amount of 1.0 mL/animal was injected intramuscularly into the rats (5 male and 5 female rats) in the control group. Observations of the general symptoms and weight measurements were performed during the 14 day observation period after the injection. Hematologic and serum biochemical examination, necropsy, and a local tolerance test at the injection site were done after the observation period. Results: No death was observed in three test groups (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL/animal group). In addition, the injection of DGP had no effect on general symptoms, weights, hematologic and serum biochemical examination, and necropsy. The results from the local tolerance tests at injection site showed no treatment related effects in the SD rats. Conclusion: The results of single dose intramuscular injection of DGP suggest that the approximate lethal dose is above 1.0 mL/animal for both male and female SD rats and that intramuscular injection of DGP may be safe.

Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

  • Park, Sunju;Sun, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.18 no.3
    • /
    • pp.42-48
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge). The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection) and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal) groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal.

Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

  • Yu, Junsang;Sun, Seungho;Lee, Kwangho;Kwon, Kirok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.76-85
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water- soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP.

Study on Single-dose Intramuscular Toxicity of Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley (SD) Rats and Beagle Dogs (신바로 약침의 SD 랫드와 비글견에 대한 단회 근육투여 독성시험)

  • Lee, Jin-Ho;Chung, Hwa-Jin;Lee, In-Hee;Lee, Jae-Woong;Kim, Eun-Jee;Kim, Min-Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
    • /
    • v.25 no.3
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives To evaluate Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture safety through analysis of potential single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Sinbaro Pharmacopucture in SD rats and Beagle dogs. Methods Single-dose intramuscular toxicity of Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture was assessed in accordance with Korea Food and Drug Administration Guidelines for toxicity testing of Medicinal Products. The SD rats were treated intramuscularly with Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture at doses of 0, 4.6, 9.2, and 18.5 mg/kg, respectively. The Beagle dogs were treated intramuscularly with Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture at doses of 2.3, and 4.6 mg/kg, respectively, and after 3 days, the procedure was repeated a second time at doses of 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg, respectively, for toxicity testing. Mortality, change in body weight, and necropsy findings were examined for the study period. Results There were no mortalities, general symptoms, or body weight changes in the SD rats. While pyelectasis of the left kidney was observed in a male rat in the 4.6 mg/kg administration group, natural occurrence is common, and does not appear to be related with the test substance. No mortalities were observed in the Beagle dogs. In assessment of general symptoms, a female dog in the 9.2 mg/kg group displayed body weight decrease due to leftover food, but the change in body weight was within the normal range seen at 6~7 months, and the necropsy findings were not significant. The toxicity of the test substance appears to be minimal. Conclusions The results suggest that the lethal dose 50 ($LD_{50}$) and approximate lethaldose (ALD) value in single intramuscular administration of Shinbaro Pharmacopuncture in SD rats and Beagle dogs are higher than 18.5 mg/kg.

Toxicity of Single-dose Intramuscular Injection of Samjeong Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

  • Kwon, Kang;Kim, Chul-Yun;Kim, Nam-Kwen;Sun, Seung-Ho;Seo, Hyung-Sik
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.18 no.2
    • /
    • pp.60-66
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives: This study was carried out in order to find both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of samjeong pharmacopuncture (SP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The SD rats in this study were divided into four groups, one control group (1.0 mL/animal, normal saline) and three experimental groups (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mL/animal, SP). All groups consisted of five male and five female rats. SP was injected as a single-dose intramuscularly at the thigh. After the injection, general symptoms and weight were observed for 14 days. After the observations had ended, hematologic and serum biochemical examinations, necropsy and a local tolerance test at the injection site were performed. The experiments were carried out at the Good Laboratory Practice firm, Biotoxtech Co. (Cheongwon, Chungbuk). Animal experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee (Approval Number: 130379). Results: No deaths occurred in any of the three experimental groups. The injection of SP had no effects on the general symptoms, body weights, results of the hematologic, and serum biochemical examinations, and necropsy findings. In local tolerance tests at the injection sites, mild inflammation was observed in the experimental group, but it did not appear to be a treatment related effect. Conclusion: Under the conditions of this test, the results from the injection of SP suggest that the approximate lethal dose of SP is above 1.0 mL/animal for both male and female SD rats. Therefore, the clinical use of SP is thought to be safe.

Evaluation of the Single-Dose Toxicity of TA Pharmacopuncture in Rats

  • Hwang, Ji Hye;Jung, Hyo Won;Jung, Chul
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.22 no.3
    • /
    • pp.171-175
    • /
    • 2019
  • Objectives: TA is a polyherbal extract comprising seven herbs, typically used for the pharmacopuncture treatment of patients with traffic accident- related injuries and musculoskeletal diseases. This animal study was conducted to evaluate the safety of the TA extract, using a single-dose toxicity test. Methods: The dose range and sampling time were first established. Six- week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 1.0 mL of TA or normal saline (control), intramuscularly, for the single-dose toxicity test. The general condition, mortality, and histology of all rats were observed for 2 weeks. Results: No abnormal symptoms or deaths were observed in any group. The body weights of the rats in the TA and control groups were similar. No significant differences in histopathology were observed between the groups. Conclusion : Our study indicates that 1.0 mL of TA extract may be safely administered for pharmacopuncture for treatment of patients in traditional medicine clinics.