• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sintering aid

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Use of copper tungsten oxide as a liquid phase sintering aid for barium hexaferrite

  • Fisher, John G.;Le, Phan Gia;Meng, Meng;Heo, Sang-Hyeon;Bak, Tae-Jin;Moon, Byeol-Lee;Park, In-San;Lee, Dong-Kyu;Lee, Wu-Hui
    • Journal of Ceramic Processing Research
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.434-438
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    • 2018
  • The sintering behavior of $BaFe_{12}O_{19}$ with the addition of one and three weight % of $CuWO_4$ as a liquid phase sintering aid is studied. Samples are sintered in the temperature range $900-1250^{\circ}C$ and the effect of $CuWO_4$ addition on density, microstructure, phase composition and magnetic properties is examined. Compared to $BaFe_{12}O_{19}$ with no sintering aid addition, addition of 1 wt % $CuWO_4$ retards densification. Addition of 3 wt % $CuWO_4$ promotes densification at lower sintering temperatures but retards densification at temperatures > $1050^{\circ}C$. Three wt % $CuWO_4$ addition induces the formation of $BaWO_4$ and $Ba_3WFe_2O_9$ secondary phases at temperatures ${\geq}1100^{\circ}C$. Addition of $CuWO_4$ causes a decrease in saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity.

A Study for the Sintering of Boron Carbide ($B_4C$의 소결에 관한 연구)

  • 오정훈;오근호;이종근;김도경;이준근;김종희
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.60-66
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    • 1985
  • Hard shaped bodies are made by sintering a cold-pressed compact of a boron carbide compound which contains a densification aid. Titanium diboride and carbon were used as a densification aid in a range of 1% to 10% by weight. The effects of sintering temperature and additives on linear shrinkage porosity hardness bend strength and microstructure were examined. The initial partical size dependence on the sintered density was also discussed.

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Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Low Temperature Sintering (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 Ceramics according to Sintering Aid Li2CO3 (소결조제 Li2CO3 첨가에 따른 저온소결(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 세라믹스의 압전 및 유전 특성)

  • Lee, Il-Ha;Yoo, Ju-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.906-910
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    • 2008
  • $(K_{0.5}Na_{0.5})NbO_3$ (NKN) ceramics doped with $Li_{2}CO_3$ as sintering aids were manufactured in order to develop the low temperature sintering ceramics for piezoelectric device. The sintering aids were proved to lower the sintering temperature of doped NKN ceramics due to the effect of $Na_{2}CO_{3}-Li_{2}CO_3$ liquid phase. All the specimens showed the orthorhombic phase without secondary phase. And also, the piezoelectric properties of specimens were improved with increasing $Li_{2}CO_3$ contents. At sintering temperature of $930^{\circ}C$, the density, electromechanical coupling factor (kp), mechanical quality factor (Qm) and dielectric constant(${\epsilon}_{\gamma}$), piezoelectric constant of 0.3 wt.% $Li_{2}CO_3$ added specimen showed the optimum values of $4.255 g/cm^3$, 0.37, 234, 309, 136 pC/N, respectively.

Characteristics of PMN-PZ-PT Thick Film Ceramic by Low-Temperature Sintering Aids (저온 소결 조제에 따른 PMN-PZ-PT 후막 세라믹 특성)

  • Jung, Myungwon;Jeon, Dae-Woo;Kim, Jin-Ho;Lee, Youngjin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.476-482
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    • 2016
  • Convectional PZT based piezoelectric ceramics have to sinter at high temperature about $1,200^{\circ}C$ for their suitable electrical properties. However, some issues: low temperature sintering piezoelectric ceramic composition and reliable internal electrode, have recently attracted a great deal of interest as a highly efficient multi-layered piezoelectric ceramics. In order to optimize low temperature sintering conditions of thick-film PMN-PZ-PT ceramic, it was investigated sintering and piezoelectric properties according to the change of $LiBiO_2$ contents. Thus, the superior piezoelectric properties were found at the pallet type PMN-PZ-PT optimized with low sintering processing at $925^{\circ}C$ including 7 wt% $LiBiO_2$ sintering aid. Consequentially, we successfully manufactured thick-film PMN-PZ-PT ceramics, which had superior piezoelectric and dielectric properties, with 5 wt% of $LiBiO_2$ sintering aid at temperature of $900^{\circ}C$.

Thermal Evolution of BaO-CuO Flux as Sintering Aid for Proton Conducting Ceramic Fuel Cells

  • Biswas, Mridula;Hong, Jongsup;Kim, Hyoungchul;Son, Ji-Won;Lee, Jong-Ho;Kim, Byung-Kook;Lee, Hae-Weon;Yoon, Kyung Joong
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.506-510
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    • 2016
  • The eutectic melt of BaO-CuO flux is known to be a potential sintering aid for $Ba(Zr,Y)O_3$ (BZY) electrolyte for proton-conducting ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs). A density of BZY higher than 97% of theoretical density can be achieved via sintering at $1300^{\circ}C$ for 2 h using a flux composed of 28 mol% BaO and 72 mol% CuO. In the present study, chemical and structural evolution of BaO-CuO flux throughout the sintering process was investigated. An intermediate holding step at $1100^{\circ}C$ leads to formation of various impurity compounds such as $BaCuO_{1.977}$, $Ba_{0.92}Cu_{1.06}O_{2.28}$ and $Cu_{16}O_{14.15}$, which exhibit significantly larger unit cell volumes than the matrix. The presence of such secondary compounds with large lattice mismatch can potentially lead to mechanical failure. On the other hand, direct heating to the final sintering temperature produced CuO and $Cu_2O$ as secondary phases, whose unit cell volumes are close to that of the matrix. Therefore, the final composition of the flux is strongly affected by the thermal history, and a proper sintering schedule should be used to obtain the desired properties of the final product.

Microstructural evolution in liquid-phase sintered $\alpha$-silicon carbide (액상소결 $\alpha$형 탄화규소의 미세구조 변화)

  • 이종국;강현희;박종곤;이은구
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.324-331
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    • 1998
  • After the addition of yttrium aluminum garnet of 2, 5, 10 mol% as a sintering aid, $\alpha$-silicon carbides were prepared by a liquid-phase sintering at $1850^{\circ}C$, and the microstructural evolution was investigated during sintering as functions of liquid-phase amount and sintering time. The highest apparent density in each compositions was obtained in specimens sintered for 2 h, and the percentage of weight loss increased with sintering time. By increasing the amount of sintering aid (yttrium aluminum garnet), the rate of grain growth during sintering decreased, but the apparent density of sintered body increased. The phase transformation from 6H-SiC to 4H-SiC was partially observed in specimens sintered for a long time, and so, a few rod-like grains were observed.

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Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of PZW-PMN-PZT Piezoelectric Ceramic according to Sintering Aid Li2CO3 Addition (소결조제 Li2CO3 첨가에 따른 PZW-PMN-PZT 압전 세라믹의 압전 및 유전 특성)

  • Lee, Kab-Soo;Lee, Il-Ha;Yoo, Ju-Hyun;Ryu, Sung-Lim
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1034-1038
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    • 2007
  • In order to develop the composition ceramics capable of being sintered at low temperature with high piezoelectric properties for multilayer piezoelectric actuator application, PZW-PMN-PZT system ceramics were manufactured according to sintering aid $Li_2CO_3$ addition and their microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties were investigated. The crystal structure of the specimens showed a perovskite phase and no pyrochlore or other second phase was detected. At the sintering temperature of $900\;^{\circ}C,\;0.2\;wt%Li_2CO_3$ added specimen showed a optimum values of kp = 0.562, $d_{33}\;=\;360\;pC/N$ and Qm = 1184, respectively.

Effect of In Situ YAG on Microstructure and Properties of the Pressureless-Sintered $SiC-ZrB_2$ Electroconductive Ceramic Composites (상압소결(常壓燒結)한 $SiC-ZrB_2$ 전도성(電導性) 복합체(複合體)의 미세구조(微細構造)와 특성(特性)에 미치는 In Situ YAG의 영향(影響))

  • Shin, Yong-Deok;Ju, Jin-Young
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers C
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    • v.55 no.11
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    • pp.505-513
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    • 2006
  • The present study investigated the influence of the content of $Al_2O_3+Y_2O_3$ sintering additives on the microstructure, mechanical and electrical properties of the pressureless-sintered $SiC-ZrB_2$ electroconductive ceramic composites. Phase analysis of composites by XRD revealed mostly of ${\alpha}-SiC(4H),\;ZrB_2,\;{\beta}-SiC(15R)$ and In Situ $YAG(Al_5Y_3O_{12})$. The relative density and the flexural strength showed the highest value of 86.8[%] and 203[Mpa] for $SiC-ZrB_2$ composite with an addition of 8[wt%] $Al_2O_3+Y_2O_3$ as a sintering aid at room temperature respectively. Owing to crack deflection and crack bridging of fracture toughness mechanism, the fracture toughness showed 3.7 and $3.6[MPa{\cdot}m^{1/2}]\;for\;SiC-ZrB_2$ composites with an addition of 8 and 12[wt%] $Al_2O_3+Y_2O_3$ as a sintering aid at room temperature respectively. Abnormal grain growth takes place during phase transformation from ${\beta}-SiC\;into\;{\alpha}-SiC$ was correlated with In Situ YAG phase by reaction between $Al_2O_3\;and\;Y_2O_3$ additives during sintering. The electrical resistivity showed the lowest value of $6.5{\times}10^{-3}[({\Omega}{\cdot}cm]$ for the $SiC-ZrB_2$ composite with an addition of 8[wt%] $Al_2O_3+Y_2O_3$ as a sintering aid at room temperature. The electrical resistivity of the $SiC-ZrB_2$ composites was all positive temperature coefficient(PTCR) in the temperature ranges from $25[^{\circ}C]\;to\;700[^{\circ}C]$. The resistance temperature coefficient showed the highest value of $3.53{\times}10^{-3}/[^{\circ}C]\;for\;SiC-ZrB_2$ composite with an addition of 8[wt%] $Al_2O_3+Y_2O_3$ as a sintering aid in the temperature ranges from $25[^{\circ}C]\;to\;700[^{\circ}C]$. In this paper, it is convinced that ${\beta}-SiC$ based electroconductive ceramic composites for heaters or ignitors can be manufactured by pressureless sintering.

Effect of Sintering Process with Co3O4 on the Performance of LSCF-Based Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

  • Khurana, Sanchit;Johnson, Sean;Karimaghaloo, Alireza;Lee, Min Hwan
    • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing-Green Technology
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    • v.5 no.5
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    • pp.637-642
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    • 2018
  • The impact of the sintering process, especially in terms of sintering temperature and sintering aid concentration, on the ohmic transport and electrode performance of $(La_{0.80}Sr_{0.20})_{0.95}CoO_{3-{\delta}}$-gadolinia-doped ceria (LSCF-GDC) cathodes is studied. The ohmic and charge-transfer kinetics exhibit a highly coupled $Co_3O_4$ concentration dependency, showing the best performances at an optimum range of 4-5 wt%. This is ascribed to small grain sizes and improved connection between particles. The addition of $Co_3O_4$ was also found to have a dominant impact on charge-transfer kinetics in the LSCF-GDC composite layer and a moderate impact on the electronic transport in the current-collecting LSCF layer. Care should be taken to avoid a formation of excessive thermal stresses between layers when adding $Co_3O_4$.