• Title, Summary, Keyword: Skin and Hair Follicle

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Ultrastructural Study on Connective Tissue-Epithelial Junctions in Anagen Hair Follicle of Human Fetus (사람태아 성장기 모낭에서 결합조직-상피 경계부의 미세구조에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Baik-Yoon;Park, Min-Ah;Nam, Kwang-Il
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.321-332
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    • 1997
  • The dermal papilla is known to playa major role in influencing the form and dynamics of the hair follicle, which probably involves regulatory substances crossing the basal lamina. But little is known about the junctions between the dermal papilla and the surrounding epithelial cells of the hair bulb, or between the connective tissue and the epithelial cells on the outside of the hair follicle. This study was performed to identify the ultrastructural differences between dermoepidermal junction of the skin and connective tissue-epithelial junctions on the outside of the hair follicle and around the dermal papilla of normal anagen hair follicles in the human fetal scalp skin. Electron microscopic findings of dermoepidermal junction in scalp skin showed that basal lamina was very irregular and undulated, and it contained many attachment plaques of hemidesmosomes with sub-basal dense plates, tonofilaments, and anchoring filaments. Also invaginations of plasma membrane of basal keratinocytes were seen. There were clear differences both on the outside of the follicle and around the dermal papilla as compared with similar junction in the skin. In particular, neither hemidesmosomes nor tonofilaments, as seen in dermoepidermal junction, were observed in the dermal papilla. Also attachment plaque, sub-basal dense plate and anchoring filaments were not observed at the junction on the outside of the follicle and the dermal papilla. There were some differences between connective tissue-epithelial junctions on the outside of the hair follicle and around the dermal papilla, ie, smoothness of basal lamina and orthogonal arrangement of collagen fibers were seen in the outside of hair follicle, but not in the dermal papilla. These results indicate that the mechanical connection between the hair follicle and the connective tissue component is much weaker than that between the corresponding components in skin, and it reflects the dynamic processes during the anagen phase of the hair follicle compared to the relatively permanent state of the epidermis.

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The Immunohistochemical Changes of Skin during Hair Follicle Cycle after Depilation in Mice

  • Kim, Dae-Keun;Lee, Chang-Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 2010
  • We have examined the histological changes of skin during hair follicle growth after depilation in C57BL/6N mice. We first studied on histological changes of number of mast cells and thickness of skin during hair follicle growth periods (telogen, 1 day, 3 day, 5 day, 10 day, 14 day, 17 day and 21 day after depilation) by toluidine blue, Giemsa and H&E staining methods. We second studied immunoreactive density of cytokines and Brdu labeled cells in skin during hair follicle growth periods after depilation in C57BL/6N mice by immunohistochemical methods. The histological changes on skin thickness was increased from telogen to 14 day. The number of mast cells was decreased in 3,5 and 10 day and increased in 14, 17 and 20 day after depilation. Immunoreactive density of cytokines [protein kinase C-${\alpha}$ (PKC-${\alpha}$), c-kit, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] in 1, 3, 5, 10, and 14 day after depilation was mildly stained in bulge and cutaneous trunci m., but immunoreactive density of cytokines in 17 and 21 day was heavily stained in epidermis, bulge, outer root sheath (ORS), inner root sheath (IRS) and cutaneous trunci m.. Immunoreactive density of Brdu labeled cells in skin in 1 and 3 day was heavily stained in bulge, epidermis and connective tissue under the cutaneous trunci m.. In all periods, immunoreactive density of Brdu labeled cells in skin was heavily stained in bulge, subcutaneous tissue, cutaneous trunci m, ORS and IRS. These experiments suggest that histological changes related to hair follicle growth elevated mast cell counts, skin thickness and epidermis thickness and heavily stained immunoreactive density of cytokines and Brdu labeled cutaneous trunci m. and connective tissue under the cutaneous trunci m. after depilation in C57BL/6N mice.

Closure of a full-thickness scalp burn that occurred during hair coloring using a simple skin-stretching method: A case report and review of the literature

  • Oh, Suk Joon
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.167-170
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    • 2019
  • Full-thickness scalp burns secondary to hair coloring are rare; however, such defects can be large and complex reconstruction of hair-bearing tissue may be necessary. Many skin-stretching devices that use gradual traction have been applied to take advantage of the viscoelastic properties of the skin. A 21-year-old female patient was seen with a burn defect on her occipital scalp leading to exposed subcutaneous tissue after chemical application of hair coloring in a salon. The dimensions of the wound were $10cm{\times}5cm$, and a skin graft or flap would have been necessary to close the defect. Two long transfixing K-wires (1.4 mm) and paired 3-wire threads (23 gauge), which are readily available in most hospitals, were applied over a period of 12 days for trichophytic closure of the defect. The remaining scalp scars after primary trichophytic closure with this skin-stretching method were refined with hair follicle transplantation. This skin-stretching method is simple to apply and valuable for helping to close problematic areas of skin shortage that would otherwise require more complicated procedures. This case shows a relatively unknown complication of hair coloring and its treatment.

The Hairless Gene: A Putative Navigator of Hair Follicle Development

  • Kim, Jeong-Ki;Kim, Bong-Kyu;Park, Jong-Keun;Choi, Jee-Hyun;KimYoon, Sung-Joo
    • Genomics & Informatics
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2011
  • The Hairless (HR ) gene regulates the expression of several target genes as a transcriptional corepressor of nuclear receptors. The hair follicle (HF), a small independent organ of the skin, resides in the epidermis and undergoes regenerative cycling for normal hair formation. HF development requires many genes and signaling pathways to function properly in time and space, one of them being the HR gene. Various mutations of the HR gene have been reported to cause the hair loss pheno-type in rodents and humans. In recent studies, it has been suggested that the HR gene is a critical player in the regulation of the hair cycle and, thus, HF development. Furthermore, the HR gene is associated with the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates proliferation and differentiation of cells and plays an essential role in hair and skin development. In this review, we summarize the mutations responsible for human hair disorders and discuss the roles of the HR gene in HF development.

Hair Growth Promoting Effect of Radish Crude Saponin Extract on Athymic Nude Mice

  • Kim, Hyun-Kyoung
    • International journal of advanced smart convergence
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.184-195
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates the hair restoration efficacy of selected radish saponin extracts on nude mice. Nude mice genetically predisposed to pattern balding were used in this study. Our study revealed the underlying mechanism of stimulating hair growth in athymic nude mice by repair the nu/nu follicular keratin differentiation defect. Thus, the topical application of radish saponin may represent a novel strategy for the management and therapy of certain forms of alopecia. The term of hair density of PEE treated nude mice were significantly increase as compared with of control nude mice. Histological observation of skin sample showed no hair follicle or only distorted hair follicles were observed in the control samples, in contrast, by the PEE treatment groups showed a fully formed and increased the number of hair follicles up to three times higher than that of control group in terms of the number of hair follicles in nude mouse skin.PEE treated mice the number of BrdU-labeled keratinocytes per anagen follicle increased significantly, especially in the follicular bulbs and outer root sheath compared with the control mice. Moreover, PEE-treated nude mice also exhibited a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled epidermal keratinocyte proliferation.

Hair Growth-Promoting Effects of Lavender Oil in C57BL/6 Mice

  • Lee, Boo Hyeong;Lee, Jae Soon;Kim, Young Chul
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the hair growth effects of lavender oil (LO) in female C57BL/6 mice. The experimental animals were divided into a normal group (N: saline), a vehicle control group (VC: jojoba oil), a positive control group (PC: 3% minoxidil), experimental group 1 (E1: 3% LO), and experimental group 2 (E2: 5% LO). Test compound solutions were topically applied to the backs of the mice ($100{\mu}L$ per application), once per day, 5 times a week, for 4 weeks. The changes in hair follicle number, dermal thickness, and hair follicle depth were observed in skin tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and the number of mast cells was measured in the dermal and hypodermal layers stained with toluidine blue. PC, E1, and E2 groups showed a significantly increased number of hair follicles, deepened hair follicle depth, and thickened dermal layer, along with a significantly decreased number of mast cells compared to the N group. These results indicated that LO has a marked hair growth-promoting effect, as observed morphologically and histologically. There was no significant difference in the weight of the thymus among the groups. However, both absolute and relative weights of the spleen were significantly higher in the PC group than in the N, VC, E1, or E2 group at week 4. Thus, LO could be practically applied as a hair growth-promoting agent.

Effects of 4 Weeks Endurance Exercise on Expression of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase in Rat Back Skin Hair Follicle (4주간 지구성 운동이 흰쥐의 Back Skin Hair Follicle에서 ERK 및 JNK의 활성화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Mo-Kyung;Park, Han-Su;Jo, Sung-Cho;Chae, Jeong-Ryong;Kim, Mo-Young;Shin, Byung-Cheul
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.1211-1216
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    • 2006
  • The effect of a chronic programme of either low- or moderate-to-high-intensity treadmill running on the activation of the Extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), Phosphorylated ERK 1/2(pERK1/2) and the Phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase(pJNK) pathways was determined in rat Back skin Hair follicle. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: (i) sedentary group(NE; n=10); (ii) low-intensity exercise group (Bm/min; LIE; n=10); and (iii) moderate-high-intensity exercise group(28m1min; HIE; n=10). The training regimens were planned so that animals covered the same distance and had similar utilization for both LIE and HIE exercise sessions. The report runs as follows; A single bout of LIE or HIE following 4 weeks of exercise led to a twofold increase in the phosphorylation of ERK2, pERK2 and a threefold increase in pJNKl, pERKl. ERKI phosphorylation in LIE Back skin sampled and pJNK2 in HIE Back skin sampled 48h after the last exercise bout was similar to sedentary values, while pJNK2 phosphorylation in LIE Back skin sampled was 70-80% lower than sedentary. 48h after the last exercise bout of LIE or HIE increased ERK2, pERKl and pJNKl expression, with the magnitude of this increase being independent of prior exercise intensity or duration. PERK1/2, pJNKl expression was increased Three- to fourfold in Back skin Hair follicle sampled 48h after the last exercise bout irrespective of the prior exercise programme, but ERKI expression in HIE Back skin sampled was approximately 90% lower than sedentary values. In conclusion, exercise-training of different jntensities/durations results in selective postexercise activation of intracellular signal pathways, which may be one mechanism regulating specific adaptations induced by diverse training programmes.

Experimental Studies on the Expression of Hair Growth Related Factors after Acupuncture & Moxibustion Therapy (침구요법(鍼灸療法)에 의한 발모관련 인자들의 발현에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Ho-Il;Kim, Cheong-Moo;Lee, Chang-Hyun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.674-682
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    • 2011
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of acupuncture & moxibustion therapy on the hair follicle growth of skin 5 days and 10 days by macroscopic, microscopic and immunohistochemical methods. The results were as follows : Macroscopic hair follicle growth of plum-blossom needle treated group and strong moxibustion treated group was more increase than that of control group. Microscopic hair follicle growth of plum-blossom needle treated group and strong moxibustion treated group was hair growing cycle, anagen phase VI and that of control group and weak moxibustion treated group was hair growing cycle, anagen phase IV. Immunohistochemical observations on the expression of various growth factors, enzyme and receptor in hair follicle cycle after local treatment of acupuncture & moxibustion therapy are as follows: Expression of fibroblast growth factor was more intense in epidermis in plum-blossom needle treated group, epidermis and secondary hair germ cells in strong moxibustion treated group than control group. Expression of epidermal growth factor was more intense in epidermis in all experimental groups, and secondary hair germ cells in moxibustion treated group than control group. Expression of c-kit receptor was more intense in epidermis, secondary hair germ cells, outer root sheath in all experimental groups than control group. Expression of protein kinase C-${\alpha}$ was more intense in epidermis, secondary hair germ cells, outer root sheath in all experimental groups than control group. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was more intense in epidermis, bulge, secondary hair germ cells, outer root sheath in plum-blossom needle treated group and strong moxibustion treated group than control group. We concluded that acupuncture & moxibustion therapy related to the expression of various growth factors, enzymes and receptor on the hair growth cycle for hair growth.

Hair-growth Promoting Effect of Microneedle Roller Therapy (미세침요법의 모발성장효과)

  • Lee, Chang Hyun;Lee, Ji Yeon;Shin, Hyun Jong;Ha, Ki Tae;Seo, Hyung Sik;Jeong, Han Sol
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.16-21
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    • 2014
  • Micro needle roller therapy has been used for cosmetic purposes, such as reducing skin winkles and improving elasticity of skin. It is claimed that micro needle roller therapy has potentials for connective tissue regeneration by facilitating collagen synthesis. Therefore, there seems to be a possibility that connective tissue regenerating potential of micro needle roller therapy could influence the hair growth cycle. This study, we investigated the hair growth-promoting effects of micro needle roller therapy. C57BL/6 mice were devided into three groups as follows: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and micro needle roller therapy-received group. Hair growth activity was evaluated by handscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expression of BrdU, FGF, and VEGF was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Micro needle roller therapy enhanced the development of hair follicle during anagen. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that micro neeld roller therapy incresed the expression of BrdU and FGF in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, micro needle roller therapy upregulated mRNA expression of VEGFR-2, FGF-2, EGF - growth factors that play a central role in hair follicle development during anagen. These results suggest that Micro needle roller therapy can potentially be used for the treatment of alopecia.

The Localization of Cytokeratin 19 and Vimentin in Sprague Dawley Albino Rat Skin Tissue

  • Kim, Tae Keun;Kim, Yong Joo;Min, Byoung Hoon;Kim, Soo Jin
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2014
  • Cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expressed in epidermis of skin, bulge region of hair follicle, outermost layer of outer root sheath and proximal and distal to bulge. Vimentin is a fibrous protein that localized in cytoplasm of fibroblast and forms cytoskeleton to maintain shape of cell and nucleus. In this study, CK19 and vimentin in skin were confirmed with light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscope. As a result, CK19 was localized epidermis, hair follicles, outer root sheath and nucleus of Merkel's cell. However, vimentin was localized some epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and nucleus of Merkel's cell. The role of CK19 is self-renewal and homeostasis in skin. Also, hair follicle regeneration and hair growth is known to be related. It is supposed that required of structural proteins that make up cytoskeleton is increased. Thereby, expression of CK19 is increased. It is considered that vimentin localized in order to stabilize structure of cell and cytoskeleton of fibroblasts. Also, CK19 and vimentin present in nuclei of Merkel's cell, and to act as a fibrous protein that make up end of a nerve fiber present in Merkel's cell and paracrine function of Merkel's cell.