• Title, Summary, Keyword: Slab joint

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Influence of exterior joint effect on the inter-story pounding interaction of structures

  • Favvata, Maria J.;Karayannis, Chris G.;Liolios, Asterios A.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.113-136
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    • 2009
  • The seismic induced interaction between multistory structures with unequal story heights (inter-story pounding) is studied taking into account the local response of the exterior beam-column joints. Although several parameters that influence the structural pounding have been studied sofar, the role of the joints local inelastic behaviour has not been yet investigated in the literature as key parameter for the pounding problem. Moreover, the influence of the infill panels as an additional parameter for the local damage effect of the joints on the inter-story pounding phenomenon is examined. Thirty six interaction cases between a multistory frame structure and an adjacent shorter and stiffer structure are studied for two different seismic excitations. The results are focused: (a) on the local response of the critical external column of the multistory structure that suffers the hit from the slab of the adjacent shorter structure, and (b) on the local response of the exterior beam-column joints of the multistory structure. Results of this investigation demonstrate that the possible local inelastic response of the exterior joints may be in some cases beneficial for the seismic behaviour of the critical column that suffers the impact. However, in all the examined cases the developing demands for deformation of the exterior joints are substantially increased and severe damages can be observed due to the pounding effect. The presence of the masonry infill panels has also been proved as an important parameter for the response of the exterior beam-column joints and thus for the safety of the building. Nevertheless, in all the examined inter-story pounding cases the presence of the infills was not enough for the total amelioration of the excessive demands for shear and ductility of the column that suffers the impact.

An experimental study of the behaviour of double sided welded plate connections in precast concrete frames

  • Gorgun, Halil
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2018
  • Multi-storey precast concrete skeletal structures are assembled from individual prefabricated components which are erected on-site using various types of connections. In the current design of these structures, beam-to-column connections are assumed to be pin jointed. Welded plate beam to-column connections have been used in the precast concrete industry for many years. They have many advantages over other jointing methods in component production, quality control, transportation and assembly. However, there is at present limited information concerning their detailed structural behaviour under bending and shear loadings. The experimental work has involved the determination of moment-rotation relationships for semi-rigid precast concrete connections in full scale connection tests. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to clarify the behaviour of such connections under symmetrical vertical loadings. A series of full-scale tests was performed on sample column for which the column geometry and weld arrangements conformed with successful commercial practice. Proprietary hollow core slabs were tied to the beams by tensile reinforcing bars, which also provide the in-plane continuity across the connections. The strength of the connections in the double sided tests was at least 0.84 times the predicted moment of resistance of the composite beam and slab. The secant stiffness of the connections ranged from 0.7 to 3.9 times the flexural stiffness of the attached beam. When the connections were tested without the floor slabs and tie steel, the reduced strength and stiffness were approximately a third and half respectively. This remarkable contribution of the floor strength and stiffness to the flexural capacity of the joint is currently neglected in the design process for precast concrete frames. In general, the double sided connections were found to be more suited to a semi-rigid design approach than the single sided ones. The behaviour of double sided welded plate connection test results are presented in this paper. The behaviour of single sided welded plate connection test results is the subject of another paper.

An experimental study of the behaviour of double sided bolted billet connections in precast concrete frames

  • Gorgun, Halil
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.603-622
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    • 2018
  • Precast concrete structures are erected from individual prefabricated components, which are assembled on-site using different types of connections. In the present design of these structures, beam-to-column connections are assumed pin jointed. Bolted billet beam to-column connections have been used in the precast concrete industry for many years. They have many advantages over other jointing methods in component production, quality control, transportation and assembly. However, there is currently limited information concerning their detailed structural behaviour under vertical loadings. The experimental work has involved the determination of moment-relative rotation relationships for semi-rigid precast concrete connections in full-scale connection tests. The study reported in this paper was undertaken to clarify the behaviour of such connections under symmetrical vertical loadings. A series of full-scale tests was performed on sample column for which the column geometry and bolt arrangements conformed to successful commercial practice. Proprietary hollow core floor slabs were tied to the beams by 2T25 tensile reinforcing bars, which also provide the in-plane continuity across the connections. The contribution of the floor strength and stiffness to the flexural capacity of the joint is currently neglected in the design process for precast concrete frames. The flexural strength of the connections in the double-sided tests was at least 0.93 times the predicted moment of resistance of the composite beam and slab. The secant stiffness of the connections ranged from 0.94 to 1.94 times the flexural stiffness of the attached beam. In general, the double-sided connections were found to be more suited to a semi-rigid design approach than the single sided ones. The behaviour of double sided bolted billet connection test results are presented in this paper. The behaviour of single sided bolted billet connection test results is the subject of another paper.

Experimental Study on Structural Behavior of Interfaces of Double Composite Girder Using the 80 MPa Concrete (80 MPa급 콘크리트를 활용한 이중합성 거더의 수평접합면 구조거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Yang, In-Wook;Lim, Eol;Ha, Tae-Yul
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.400-413
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    • 2016
  • The horizontal shear capacity when the flange of a steel girder is replaced with 80 MPa concrete is important for its structural safety. In this study, 6 specimens with different interface conditions were designed and fabricated based on the Limit State Design Code on Korean Highway Bridges and static tests were performed to measure the horizontal shear capacity. Not only the resistance factors of the stud shear connector, concrete and reinforcement, but also the surface conditions of the casing concrete and spacing of the horizontal shear reinforcements were used as the experimental variables. The experiments showed that the interfaces between the steel girder and the concrete flange have stronger joint performance than those between the concrete flange and deck slab. To ensure the composite action in the plastic zone, the conservative horizontal shear reinforcement is more important than the roughness in the concrete face.

Analysis Evaluation of Torsional Behavior of Hybrid Truss Bridge according to Connection Systems (격점구조형식에 따른 복합트러스교의 비틀림 거동 해석)

  • Choi, Ji-Hun;Jung, Kwang-Hoe;Kim, Tae-Kyun;Lee, Sang-Won;Kim, Jang-Ho Jay
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.3-12
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    • 2014
  • Hybrid Truss Bridge (HTB) uses steel truss webs instead of concrete webs in prestressed box girder bridges, which is becoming popular due to its structural benefits such as relatively light self-weight and good aesthetics appearance. Since the core technology of this bridge is the connection system between concrete slabs and steel truss members, several connection systems were proposed and experimentally evaluated. Also, the selected joint system was applied to the real bride design and construction. The research was performed on the connection system, since it can affect the global behavior of this bridge such as flexural and fatigue behaviors as well as the local behavior around the connection region. The evaluation study showed that HTB applied to a curved bridge or an eccentrically loaded bridge had a weak torsional capacity compared to an ordinary PSC box girder bridge due to the open cross-sectional characteristic of HTB. Therefore, three types of girders with different joint system between truss web member and concrete slab were tested for their torsional capacity. In this study, the three different types of HTB girders under torsional loading were simulated using FEM analysis to investigate the torsional behavior of HTB girders more in detail. The results are discussed in detail in the paper.

Restraint Coefficient of Long-Term Deformation and loss Rate of Pre-Compression for Concrete (콘크리트 장기변형의 구속계수와 선압축력의 손실률)

  • 연정흠;주낙친
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.521-529
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    • 2002
  • A restraint coefficient for creep and dry shrinkage deformation of concrete in a composite section was derived to calculate the residual stress, and an equation for the loss rate of the pre-compression force was proposed. The derived restraint coefficient was computed by using the transformed section properties for the age-adjusted effective modulus of elasticity. The long-term behavior of complicate composite sections could be analyzed easily with the restraint coefficient. The articles of the current design code was examined for PSC and steel composite sections. The dry shrinkage strains of $150 ~ 200$\times$10^{-6}$ for the computations of the statically indeterminate force and the expansion joint could be under-estimated for less restrained sections such as the reinforced concrete. The dry shrinkage strain of $180$\times$10^{-6}$ for the computation of residual stress in the steel composite section was unreasonably less value. The loss rate of 16.3% of the design code for the PSC composite section in this study was conservative for the long-term deformation of the ACI 205 but could not be used safely for that of the Eurocode 2. For pre-compressed concrete slab in the steel composite section, the loss rate of prestressed force with low strength reinforcement was much larger than that with high strength tendon. The loss rate of concrete pre-compression increased, while that of pre-tension decreased due to the restraint of the steel girder.

Influence of Bubble Sheet Applying Methods on Temperature of Exposed Joint Rebar at Wall Surface of Load-Bearing Wall Structure Building During Winter (동절기 벽식구조 건축물 벽부분의 버블시트 포설방법 변화가 이음부 노출철근의 온도에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Cheon-Goo;Lee, Jea-Hyeon;Kim, Min-Sang
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 2017
  • In this research, the surface covered curing method using the double-layered bubble sheet was evaluated. This double-layered bubble sheet has outstanding insulating performance with its low heat conductivity and high economic feasibility with its high durability. However, in the case of wall-typed building construction, the area of exposed rebar is curious on curing performance with the double-layered bubble sheet in spite of the double-layered bubble sheet showed favorable performance for slab. Therefore, in this research, regarding the actually constructed wall-typed apartment building, the most efficient curing method was suggested based on the evaluation of curing performance depending on temperature distribution depending on various location of covered or exposed rebar. As a result, the D method was determined as the most efficient curing method without any concern of early-age frost damage. However, by considering easiness of construction, the B method of covering the pieced double-layered bubble sheet on gap between rebars can be another option of desired result.

Long-term Performance of Fiber Grid Reinforced Asphalt Pavements Overlaid on Old Concrete Pavements (노후 콘크리트포장 위에 덧씌운 섬유그리드 보강 아스팔트포장의 장기공용성)

  • Lee, Ju Myeong;Baek, Seung Beom;Lee, Kang Hoon;Kim, Jo Soon;Jeong, Jin Hoon
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.31-43
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : The objective of this study is to verify the effect of fiber grid reinforcement on the long-term performance of asphalt pavement overlaid on old concrete pavement by performing field investigation, laboratory test, and finite element analysis. METHODS : The reflection cracking, roughness, and rutting of fiber grid reinforced overlay sections and ordinary overlay sections were compared. Cores were obtained from both the fiber grid reinforced and ordinary sections to measure bonding shear strength between the asphalt intermediate and asphalt overlay layers. Fracture energy, displacement after yield, shear stiffnesses of the cores were also obtained by analyzing the test results. Finite element analysis was performed using the test results to validate the effect of the fiber grid reinforcement on long-term performance of asphalt pavement overlaid on the old concrete pavement. The fatigue cracking and reflection-cracking were predicted for three cases: 1) fiber grid was not used; 2) glass fiber grid was used; 3) carbon fiber grid was used. RESULTS : The reflection-cracking ratio of fiber grid reinforced sections was much smaller than that of ordinary sections. The fiber grid reinforcement also showed reduction effect on rutting while that on roughness was not clear. The reflection-cracking was not affected by traffic volume but by slab deformation and joint movement caused by temperature variation. The bonding shear strength of the fiber grid reinforced sections was larger than that of the ordinary sections. The fracture energy, displacement after yield, and shear stiffnesses of the cores of the fiber grid reinforced sections were also larger than those of the ordinary sections. Finite element analysis results showed that fatigue cracking of glass or carbon fiber grid reinforced pavement was much smaller than that of ordinary pavement. Carbon fiber grid reinforcement showed larger effect in elongating the fatigue life of the ordinary overlay pavement compared to glass fiber grid reinforcement. The binder type of the overlay layer also affected the fatigue life. The fiber grid reinforcement resisted reflection-cracking and the carbon fiber grid showed the greater effect. CONCLUSIONS :The results of field investigation, laboratory test, and finite element analysis showed that the fiber grid reinforcement had a better effect on improving long-term performance of asphalt pavement overlaid on the old concrete pavement.

Structural Behavior of Steel Wire Truss Deck with Continuous Lattices to the Longitudinal Direction (길이방향으로 연속된 래티스를 가지는 철선 트러스데크의 구조 거동)

  • Lee, Sung Ho;Park, Hyung Chul;Oh, Bo Hwan;Cho, Soon Bo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2009
  • A truss deck system that has replaced the slab form conventional method has become widely used in the construction of reinforced concrete structures as well as steel structures. The current commercial products, however, have some problems. The discontinuity between the lattice wires on the joint of the bottom wire induces vierendeel behavior, which increases the deflection of the system. In this research, a new truss deck system with continuous lattice wires on the level of the bottom wire was developed to reduce the system's vierendeel behavior and to improve its deformation capacity. To investigate the system's structural behavior, an experimental test and an analysis were performed. The main parameters of the test and analysis were the longitudinal shape and spacing of the lattices. To simulate the loading condition in the construction field, uniform construction loads were directly applied on the deck plates of the analysis model and the test specimens. The results of such analysis and test revealed that the longitudinal shape of the lattice wires is a major factor affecting the structural behavior of a steel wire truss deck. Thus, continuous lattice wires could result in decreased vierendeel behavior in the steel wire truss deck. It was also found that the truss deck system with lattices spaced longer than in the conventional products could be effectively used without increasing the member stresses.

Establishment of Rebar Quantity Estimation in BIM-based Initial Design Phase (BIM기반 초기 설계 단계 철근 물량 산출 프로세스 구축)

  • Song, Chi-Ho;Kim, Chee-Kyeong;Lee, Si Eun;Choi, Hyunchul
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.447-454
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    • 2016
  • In the meantime, looking at the present status of how to estimationte the quantity of rebar based on 3D BIM getting the limelight in these days, commercial BIM tools provide rebar modeling functions however it takes a vast amount of modeling time for modeling of rebar in use of that function hence there is no BIM software at present for practical use. Therefore, in this study, we organized and presented a practical rebar quantity estimationtion process in BIM-based design work-site and intended to develop a program named Rebar Automatic Arrangement Program - hereinafter called RAAP - which enables automatic rebar arrangement based on much more precise cross-sectional information of bars in column, beam, slab and wall than the one from existing 2D method under the conditions without any cross-sectional information in the initial design phase. In addition, we intended to establish rebar quantity estimationtion process in the initial design phase through interworking of modeling & quantity estimationtion functions in consideration of joint, anchoring length of BuilderHUB as a BIM software with RAAP. The results from this study are practical in developing a technology that is able to estimationte quantity with more improved reliability than the one from existing 2D-based methods with less effort when the quantity of framework is estimationted in the uncompleted state of cross-sectional design for structural members in the initial design phase of a construction project. And it is expected that it could be utilized as a basic study from which a reasonable quantity estimationtion program can be established in the initial design phase.