• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sleepiness level

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Usefulness of Various Questionnaires in the Assessment of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Circadian Rhythm (수면의학(睡眠醫學)에 있어서 지필(紙筆) 척도(尺度)의 활용(活用) -과도한 주간 졸음과 일주기리듬의 평가를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Moo-Jin
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.125-144
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    • 1994
  • Recently excessive daytime sleepiness was found to have relations with various social, occupational, and health problems. This condition is common symptom of several sleep disorders, among which sleep apnea syndrome is most contributive. It is essential to assess daytime sleepiness exactly for the diagnosis of such sleep disorders. Multiple sleep latency test which is a valid and objective measurement technique of sleepiness is time and cost consuming, and so there is increasing need of scales measuring general level of daytime sleepiness which are quick and simple to perform for clinical and research purpose. And also, there have been a lot of sleep researches viewing sleep as a chronobiological process, especially in the study of circadian type of shift workers. In these studies they used various techniques of multiple demensions to assess sleepiness or circadian rhythm which concerns various psychological variables. Of these measurement techniques circadian type questionnaires might have some problems in their psychometric properties. So some of these morningness-eveningness questionnaires have been revised and more valid scales are being suggested by different authors. The author briefly reviewed various measurement techniques of sleepiness and circadian rhythm and introduced recently developed scales which are more valid allegedly, and finally discussed psychometric properties of these morningness-eveningness questionnaires.

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Relatively Decreased Level of Subjective Daytime Sleepiness and Its Associated Factors in Patients with Primary Insomnia (일차성 불면증 환자에서의 주간 졸림증과 연관된 수면변인에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Yu-Jin;Lee, Jin-Sung;Sohn, Chang-Ho;Lee, Eun-Hye;Moon, Pil-Sung;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the difference of subjective daytime sleepiness level between primary insomnia patients and healthy control subjects. We also investigated the relationship between subjective daytime sleepiness level and variables of nocturnal polysomnograghic sleep architecture of insomnia patients. Method: Total subjects were 87 patients with primary insomnia diagnosed with polysomnography and 88 normal controls. The daytime sleepiness level in each group was measured by Korean version of Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The correlations of ESS score and nocturnal polysomnographic variables were calculated in the patient group. Results: Patients with insomnia had the lower ESS scores than the control group. In patients group, the ESS score showed significant negative correlations with total sleep time, sleep efficiency%, and stage 2 sleep time%. The ESS score also showed significant positive correlations with number of awakenings, number of awakenings more than 2 minutes, and wake after sleep onset time. Conclusions: Insomnia patients showed lower level of subjective daytime sleepiness that may indicate their higher alertness comparing to control subjects. Daytime sleepiness of patients with insomnia was associated with polysomnographic variables including total sleep time, sleep efficiency%, stage 2 sleep time% and disrupted continuity of nocturnal sleep.

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Study on Prevention of Drowsiness Driving using Electrocardiography(LF/HF) Index (심전도(LF/HF)를 활용한 졸음운전 예방 연구)

  • Moon, Kwangsu;Hwang, Kyungin;Choi, Eunju;Oah, Shezeen
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the index of Electrocardiography(LF/HF) and the occurrence of drowsiness driving while driving in a simulated situation. Participants were 31 undergraduate students with an experience in driving and they participated 30 minutes driving under enough sleep condition and 1 hour under the sleep deprivation condition. The Euro Truck Simulator II was used for driving simulation task and ECG and perceived drowsiness of each participants were measured during two driving conditions. Perceived sleepiness recorded by the checklist every 10 minutes and ECG data extracted before and after 15 seconds of every 10 minutes to verify the relationship between two variables. The results showed that the level of perceived sleepiness under sleep deprivation condition was higher than that under the enough sleep condition, and the level of LF/HF under sleep deprivation condition was lower than that under the enough sleep condition. In addition, the result of analysis of repeated measure ANOVA for ECG indicated that authentic sleepiness revealed in 20 minutes after the start of driving under the sleep deprivation condition. However, the result of perceived drowsiness indicated that authentic sleepiness revealed in 30 minutes after the start of driving. These result suggest that the time difference between biological and perceived response on drowsiness may be exist. Finally, the significant negative correlation between the LF/HF level and perceived drowsiness was observed. These findings suggest that ECG(LF/HF) can be an possible index to measure drowsiness driving.

Pupil Size Variability as an Index of Autonomic Activity - from the Experiments of Posture, Sleepiness and Cognitive Task (자율신경활성도의 지표로서의 동공크기 변이율 -자세변화, 졸음, 인지과제 실험으로부터)

  • Lee, Jeung-Chan;Kim, Ji-Eun;Park, Kyung-Mo
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.55-65
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    • 2007
  • This paper sought to investigate pupil size variability, pupil size parameters in terms of time domain and frequency domain, the autonomic activity change induced by posture change, degree of sleepiness and cognitive task (math task). With a specially designed pupil image acquisition system in the dark room, these three kinds of experiments were performed to induce a dominant state of sympathetic or parasympathetic activation. Electrocardiogram and pupil size were measured in all the experiments. Based on three experiments, we calculated heart rate variability. In the pupil size analysis, we calculated the mean and standard deviation of pupil size (in time domain), and proposed several frequency bands that exhibit different autonomic activation between different sessions. The results indicate that in terms of heart rate variability, posture change exhibited significant differences but not between sleepiness level, or between cognitive task. Pupil sizes differed only during the postures. And we found some frequency bands that correlated with autonomic activation in each experiment. While heart rate variability reflects posture change that need cardiac control, pupil size variability reflects not only posture induced autonomic activation but sleepiness and cognitive load, which is processed in the brain, in time and frequency domain parameter.

A Comparison of Nighttime Sleepiness, Performance, and Body Temperature between Morning-Type and Evening-Type Persons (아침형과 저녁형 사람에서 야간의 졸리움, 수행 및 체온의 비교)

  • Yoon, Jin-Sang;Kook, Seung-Hee;Shin, Il-Seon;Shin, Man-Sik;Choi, Young;Lee, Mu-Suk;Lee, Hyung-Young
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 1994
  • Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the possible differences in sleepiness, performance, and body temperature during the night between morning(M) and evening(E) type subjects. Methods: After a survey study, to verify the validity and reliability of the Korean translation of the Home' and $\ddot{O}stberg's$ Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire(1976), 8 extreme M-type subjects(3males, 5 females) and 8 extreme E-type subjects(3 males, 5 females) were selected from the university student population who had participated in the survey study. All subjects underwent sleep latency test and a battery of performance tests at intervals of 2 hours through the night, from 23:00 to 07:00. Oral temperature of each subject was taken every hour from 21 : 00 to 8 : 00. Between the testing times, the experimenters ensured that subjects remained awake. Results: More profound sleepiness was found in the M-type compared to the E-type throughout the night, with significant differences in sleepiness occuring at 23:00 and 01:00 hours. Overall performance efficiency tended to be lower through, the night in the M-type than in the E-type on all tests. A difference in time of temperature minimum between the two types was not noteworthy. Rather, there appeared to be a substantial difference in temperature level during the declining phase, with the temperature of the M-type being lower than that of the E-type. Conclusions: These results indicate the existance of a temporal relationship between sleepiness, perfonnance and body temperature during night work. Since the M-type exhibited greater sleepiness and lower performance efficiency overnight than the E-type, it may be assumed that the E-type is more suitable for and tolerable to night work. There was some discussion of the limitations in generalizing these results together with some suggestions for future studies.

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A Basic Study on the Fatigue Analysis Model for Marine Officers (항해사의 피로도 분석모델에 관한 기초연구)

  • Yang, Won-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.217-222
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    • 2009
  • Safe navigation is closely related to the fatigue of marine officers. Also, the fatigue of duty officer can cause serious marine accidents. In this study, the documentary survey about the marine officers' working environments, fatigue factors and symptoms was conducted. And the questionnaire survey which is related to the fatigue analysis factors such as sleepiness, mental physical workload and alcohol for apprentice officers was carried out, and the results of questionnaire survey were analyzed. Lastly, on the basis of this study, the fatigue analysis model was suggested in order to assess the marine officers' performance in the future.

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Effects of Smartphone Overuse on Perceived Cognitive Function, Fatigue, and Daytime Sleepiness among College Students (대학생의 스마트폰 과다사용이 지각된 인지기능, 피로 및 주간 졸림증에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Mi Sook;Ju, Kyoung Ok;Song, Mi Soon;Lee, Kyoung Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.245-255
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effects of smartphone overuse and individual factors including age, relationship with friends, satisfaction with school life, and time of smartphone usage on perceived cognitive functions, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness among college students. Methods: Three-hundred college students were recruited after confirming the absence of major depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression. Results: Smartphone overuse commonly explained the variance in perceived cognitive functions, fatigue, and daytime sleepiness, after controlling for individual factors. In addition, satisfaction with school life was significantly related with better effectiveness of cognitive functions while being male, having good relationships with friends and satisfaction with school life were relatively associated with a lower level of fatigue. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the overuse of smartphone can serve as a psycho-cognitive burden leading to ineffective functioning in daily living. Students who are female and have issues regarding school life and friendship may be a high risk group for experiencing psycho-cognitive dysfunction associated with smartphone overuse. Further investigation is needed to develop effective interventions to improve psycho-cognitive health associated with the excessive use of smartphone in young adults.

Sleep Problems and Daytime Sleepiness in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis

  • Gu, Yun-Mo;Kwon, Jung Eun;Lee, Gimin;Lee, Su Jeong;Suh, Hyo Rim;Min, Soyoon;Roh, Da Eun;Jo, Tae Kyoung;Baek, Hee Sun;Hong, Suk Jin;Seo, Hyeeun;Cho, Min Hyun
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is one of the most common problems in childhood. NE has a multifactorial etiology and is influenced by sleep and arousal mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate sleep problems and patterns in children with NE compared with normal healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-eight children with NE and 16 healthy controls were included in the study. To evaluate sleep habits and disturbances, parents and children filled out a questionnaire that included items about sleep patterns and sleep-related behaviors prior to treatment for NE. Demographic factors and other data were compared for the two groups based on the responses to the sleep questionnaire. Results: Night awakening, sleepwalking, and periodic limb movements were more prevalent in children with NE, but symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing were not increased in this group. There were statistically significant differences in periodic limb movements and daytime sleepiness between the two groups. Conclusion: Children with NE seemed to have more sleep problems such as night awakening, sleepwalking, and periodic limb movements. In addition, a higher level of daytime sleepiness and hyperactivity in patients with NE suggested a relationship between NE and sleep disorders.

Industrial Fatigue due to Banking Operations with VDT (은행원의 VDT작업에 따른 피로자각증상)

  • Koo, Jung-Wan;Lee, Seung-Han
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.305-313
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    • 1991
  • In order to investigate industrial fatigue due to visual display terminal (VDT) work of banking operations the questionnaire survey for subjective symptoms of fatigue was carried out on 470 bank clerks who had been engaged in VDT work for various length of work hours. The questionnaires comprised three groups of 10 items each, representing dullness and sleepiness (level of cerebral activation), difficulty in concentration (level of motivation) and bodily projection of fatigue. The results were as follows : 1. Of the 30 items of questionnaires, the highest percentage was accounted for by 'eye strain' (51.5% ), followed by 'feel stiffness in the neck or the shoulders'(33.4%), 'feel a pain in the low back'(26.8%), 'whole body feels tired'(19.6%) and 'feel headache'(17.9%) in the order of sequence. 2. The average weighted score for the first group of questionnaire items (dullness and sleepiness) was the largest among three groups and was followed by 'the third cup (bodily projection of fatigue) and the second item group (difficulty in concentration) in the order of sequence, suggesting the heavier mental stress of VDT work in banking operations rather than physical burden. 3. In terms of the age and sex of workers, work duration and VDT work percentage, the difference in average weighted score was noted only between sex, the score of female being larger than that of male. 4. The complaint rates of subjective symptoms showed close associations with the subjective optimums of room temperature, ventilation, illumination and noise level. 5. The significant correlation was showed between age, work duration and item of 'whole body feels tired', between VDT work percentage and items of 'eye strain' and 'feel stiffness in the neck or shoulders' and between all items of subjective symptoms.

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The Effect of Cold Air Stimulation on Electroencephalogram and Electrocardiogram during the Driver's Drowsiness (운전자 졸음시 냉풍 자극이 뇌파 및 심전도 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Minsoo;Kim, Donggyu;Park, Jongil;Kum, Jongsoo
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze physiological changes via a cold air reaction experiment to generate basic data that are useful for the development of an automobile active air conditioning system to prevent drowsiness. The $CO_2$ concentration causing drowsiness in vehicle operation was kept below a certain level. Air was blown to the driver's face by using an indoor air cooling apparatus. Sleepiness and the arousal state of the driver in cold wind were measured by physiological signals. It was evident in the EEG that alpha waves decreased and beta waves increased, caused by cold air stimulation. The ${\alpha}/{\beta}$ ratio was reduced by about 52.9% and an alert state confirmed. In the electrocardiogram analysis, the efficiency of cold air stimulation was confirmed by the mean heart rate interval change. The R-R interval had a delay time of about one minute compared to the EEG response. The findings confirmed an arousal effect from sleepiness due to cold air stimulation.