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Development of pSJE6c, an Expression Vector for Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria, and Heterologous Gene Expression Using the Vector (김치유산균용 발현벡터 pSJE6c 개발과 이를 이용한 외래 유전자 발현)

  • Lee, Kang-Wook;Park, Ji-Yeong;Lee, Ji-Yeon;Lee, Hwang-A;Baek, Chang-Un;Jo, Hyeon-Deok;Kim, Joo-Yeon;Kwon, Gun-Hee;Chun, Ji_Yeon;Kim, Jeong-Hwan
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.389-398
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    • 2009
  • Development of expression vectors is important for the basic and applied researches on kimchi LAB (lactic acid bacteria). An expression vector, pSJE6c was constructed by inserting P6C promoter sequence from Lactococcus lactis into pSJE, a shuttle vector for E. coli and Leuconostoc species. To test the efficiency of pSJE6c, aga ($\alpha$-galactosidase) and lacZ ($\beta$-galactosidase) genes were expressed in Lactobacillus brevis 2.14. Compared to the pSJE, expression levels of both genes were increased, indicating P6C promoter was better than indigenous promoters. Enzyme activities of L. brevis cells harboring pSJE6caga (pSJE6c with aga) or pSJE6Z (pSJE6c with lacZ) were 1.5-2 fold higher than those with pSJEaga (pSJE with aga) or pSJEZ (pSJE with lacZ). More RNA transcripts were detected in cells harboring pSJE6c based recombinant plasmid. The results indicated that heterologous gene expressions in kimchi LAB could be improved significantly by use of efficient expression vectors.

Finite Element Method Modeling for Individual Malocclusions: Development and Application of the Basic Algorithm (유한요소법을 이용한 환자별 교정시스템 구축의 기초 알고리즘 개발과 적용)

  • Shin, Jung-Woog;Nahm, Dong-Seok;Kim, Tae-Woo;Lee, Sung Jae
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.815-824
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to develop the basic algorithm for the finite element method modeling of individual malocclusions. Usually, a great deal of time is spent in preprocessing. To reduce the time required, we developed a standardized procedure for measuring the position of each tooth and a program to automatically preprocess. The following procedures were carried to complete this study. 1. Twenty-eight teeth morphologies were constructed three-dimensionally for the finite element analysis and saved as separate files. 2. Standard brackets were attached so that the FA points coincide with the center of the brackets. 3. The study model of a patient was made. 4. Using the study model, the crown inclination, angulation, and the vertical distance from the tip of a tooth was measured by using specially designed tools. 5. The arch form was determined from a picture of the model with an image processing technique. 6. The measured data were input as a rotational matrix. 7. The program provides an output file containing the necessary information about the three-dimensional position of teeth, which is applicable to several finite element programs commonly used. The program for a basic algorithm was made with Turbo-C and the subsequent outfile was applied to ANSYS. This standardized model measuring procedure and the program reduce the time required, especially for preprocessing and can be applied to other malocclusions easily.

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A PHOTOELASTIC STUDY ON THE STRESS DISTRIBUTION OF THE UPPER ANTERIOR TEETH WHEN RETRACT WITH HIGH PULL J-HOOK HEADGEAR (상악전치의 후방견인시 J-hook headgear의 사용이 응력분포변화에 미치는 영향에 대한 광탄성학적 연구)

  • Lee, You-Jin;Park, Soo-Byung
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.697-709
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to investigate the stress intensity and distribution produced by 1mm activation of retraction archwire with $0^{\circ},\;7^{\circ},\;14^{\circ}$ torque and application of high polk J-hook headgear during retraction of four maxillary incisors using the photoelastic stress analysis. The photoelastic model was made with a PL-3 type epoxy resin which was substituted by alveolar bone portion. Each retraction archwire was fabricated from .020' X .025' stainless steel wire which had vertical loops in 7mm height and hooks for high pull J-hook headgear between central and lateral incisors. The high pull J-hook headgear was applied 35 degree backward and upward to occlusal plane with 200gm pet each side The findings of this study were as follows: 1. In case of $0^{\circ}$ torque, the stress was distributed from cervical 1/8 to apex of roots of central and lateral incisors which were the forms of arc mode. When the high pull J-hook headgear was applied, the stress distributed by arc mode was presented from cervical 1/2 to apex of roots of central and lateral incisors. And the stress distributed by following the root surface was presented from alveolar crest to cervical 1/2 of roots of central and lateral incisors. The stress between apecies of central and Lateral incisors was presented also. 2. In case of $7^{\circ}$ torque, the stress distributed by arc mode was presented from cervical 1/2 to apex of roots of central and lateral incisors. And the stress distributed by following the root surface was presented from alveolar crest to cervical 1/2 of roots of central and lateral incisors. When the high pull J-hook headgear was applied, the stress distributed by following the root surface was presented mote apically than without headgear. The stress between apecies of central and lateral incisors was presented also. 3. In case of $14^{\circ}$ torque, the stress distributed by following the root surface was Presented from alveolar crest to apex of roots of central and lateral incisors. When the high pull J-hook headgear was applied, the stress distributed by following the root surface was presented stronger than without headgear The stress between apecies of central and lateral incisors was presented also.

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Adaptive Power Control Dynamic Range Algorithm in WCDMA Downlink Systems (WCDMA 하향 링크 시스템에서의 적응적 PCDR 알고리즘)

  • 정수성;박형원;임재성
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.29 no.8A
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    • pp.918-927
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    • 2004
  • WCDMA system is 3rd generation wireless mobile system specified by 3GPP. In WCDMA downlink, two power control schemes are operated. One is inner loop power control operated in every slot. Another is outer loop power control based on one frame time. Base station (BS) can estimate proper transmission power by these two power control schemes. However, because each MS's transmission power makes a severe effect on BS's performance, BS cannot give excessive transmission power to the specific user. 3GPP defined Power Control Dynamic Range (PCDR) to guarantee proper BS's performance. In this paper, we propose Adaptive PCDR algorithm. By APCDR algorithm, Radio Network Controller (RNC) can estimate each MS's current state using received signal to interference ratio (SIR). APCDR algorithm changes MS's maximum code channel power based on frame. By proposed scheme, each MS can reduce wireless channel effect and endure outages in cell edge. Therefore, each MS can obtain better QoS. Simulation result indicate that APCDR algorithm show more attractive output than fixed PCDR algorithm.

Effects of Ventilation Systems on Interior Environment of the Growing-finishing Pig House in Korea (육성$\cdot$비육돈사 내에서 환기형태별 환경조사 연구)

  • Song J. I.;Yoo Y. H.;Jeong J. W.;Kim T. I.;Choi H. C.;Kang H. S.;Yang C. B.;Lee Y. Y.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.93-100
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    • 2004
  • An experiment was conducted to establish comparison of ventilation efficiency in an enclosed and conventional growing-finishing pig house. The experimental pigs were in winter and summer. The main results of the experiment are as follows : Then the air from planar slot inlet the pig house flow out through the sidewall outlet operated by exhaust fan(Gl). The second structure has an air input through the circular duct inlet are plated side the juncture of the entering wall and the air into the pig house flow out through the chimney and pit outlet are operated by exhaust fan(G2). Through the air into relay fan the pig house flow out through the curtains in sidewall(G3). Similarly, air comes in through the circular duct inlet are placed the air into the pig house flow out through the curtains in sidewall (G4). Air flow rate on the floor level which is the low part of pen and the living area of pigs in the G2 and G4 system during winter was measured at 0.2 to 0.3 m/s at the 0.5 to 0.6 m/s at the maximum ventilation efficiency. As for the results of detrimental gas(ammonia) concentration ratio analysis, while G2 and G4 system sustained of summer 13.3 $\~$ 16.6 ppm, winter 14.0 $\~$ 14.6 ppm level, Gl and G3 system sustained of summer 14.6 $\~$ 20.3 ppm, winter 20.3 $\~$ 25.0 ppm, and the latter one is lower than that of the G1 and G3 system.

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The effect of bracket width on frictional force between bracket and arch wire during sliding tooth movement (치아의 활주 이동시 브라켓 폭이 브라켓과 호선 사이의 마찰력에 미치는 효과)

  • Choi, Won-Cheul;Kim, Tae-Woo;Park, Joo-Young;Kwak, Jae-Hyuk;Na, Hyo-Jeong;Park, Du-Nam
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2004
  • Frictional force between the orthodontic bracket and arch wire during sliding tooth movement is related to many factors, such as the size, shape and material of both the bracket and wire, ligation method and the angle formed between the bracket and wire. There have been clear conclusions drawn in regard to most of these factors, but as to the effect of bracket width on frictional force there are only conflicting studies. This study was designed to investigate the effect of bracket width on the amount of frictional forces generated during clinically simulated tooth movement. Three different widths of brackets $(0.018{\times}0.025'\;standard)$ narrow (2.40mm), medium (3.00mm) and wide (4.25mm) were used in tandem with $0.016{\times}0.022'$ stainless steel wire. Three bracket-arch wire combinations were drawn on for 4 minutes on a testing apparatus with a head speed of 0.5mm/min and tested 7 times each. To reproduce biological conditions, dentoalveolar models were designed with indirect technique using a material with similar elastic properties as periodontal ligament (PDL). In addition, to minimize the effect of ligation force, elastomer was used with added resin, which was attached to the bracket to make up for the discrepancies of bracket width. The results were as follows: 1. Maximum frictional force for each bracket-arch wire combination was: Narrow (2.40mm): $68.09\pm4.69gmf$ Medium (3.00mm): $72.75\pm4.98 gmf$ Wide (4.25mm): $72.59\pm4.54gmf$ 2. Frictional force was increased with more displacement of wire through the bracket slot. 3. The ANOVA psot-hoc test showed that the bracker width had no significant effect on frictional force when tested under clinically simulated conditions(p>0.05).

Evaluation of Cavity Wall Adaptation of Bulk-fill Resin Composites in Class II Cavities of Primary Molar (유구치 2급 와동에서 bulk-fill 복합레진의 와동적합성 평가)

  • Bae, Youngeun;Shin, Jonghyun;Kim, Shin;Jeong, Taesung;Kim, Jiyeon
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.446-454
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    • 2017
  • Recently, there have been many studies on bulk-fill resin composites. However, studies on the proper materials for pediatric patients are rare. The aim of this study was to compare the cavity wall adaptation of bulk-fill resin composites with conventional resin composite in class II cavities of primary molars using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Standardized class II slot cavities were prepared in 80 exfoliated primary molars and randomly divided into 4 groups. The control group was restored with conventional resin composite, Filtek Z-350 XT (FZ), and the three groups were restored with bulk-fill resin composites, Filtek bulk-fill posterior (FB), Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TNC), Filtek bulk-fill flowable (FBF). All specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in 50% silver nitrate ($AgNO_3$) solution. Micro-CT was used to measure the penetration volume of the total silver nitrate and the degree of cervical marginal leakage and the number, size, and position of the voids were evaluated. The results revealed that the volume of silver nitrate were significantly different between FB and FZ (p < 0.05). The results also revealed that the penetration length of silver nitrate FBF showed statistically lower than the FZ and FB (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in number and size of voids. In conventional resin composite, most of the voids were present inside the restoration (83.3%), but the voids in the bulk-fill resin composites incidence were higher in the gingivoaxial angle. The cavity wall adaptation demonstrated in class II restorations of primary molar by new bulk fill resin composites was similar to conventional incremental technique. Bulk-fill resin composites might be an clinical option for a faster restoration in deciduous teeth.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2011 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2011년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Choi, Jong-Min;Paik, Yong-Kyoo;Kim, Su-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.521-537
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    • 2012
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2011. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends of thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed as groups of fluid machinery and fluid flow, thermodynamic cycle, and new and renewable energy. Various topics were presented in the field of fluid machinery and fluid flow. Research issues mainly focused on the rankine cycle in the field of thermodynamic cycle. In the new and renewable energy area, researches were presented on geothermal energy, fuel cell, biogas, reformer, solar water heating system, and metane hydration. (2) Research works on heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, nanofluids and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included heat transfer above liquid helium surface in a cryostat, methane hydrate formation, heat and mass transfer in a liquid desiccant dehumidifier, thermoelectric air-cooling system, heat transfer in multiple slot impinging jet, and heat transfer enhancement by protrusion-in-dimples. In the area of pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, researches on pool boiling of water in low-fin and turbo-B surfaces, pool boiling of R245a, convective boiling two-phase flow in trapezoidal microchannels, condensing of FC-72 on pin-finned surfaces, and natural circulation vertical evaporator were actively performed. In the area of nanofluids, thermal characteristics of heat pipes using water-based MWCNT nanofluids and the thermal conductivity and viscosity were measured. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on fin-tube heat exchangers for waste gas heat recovery and Chevron type plate heat exchanger were implemented. (3) Refrigeration systems with alternative refrigerants such as $CO_2$, hydrocarbons, and mixed refrigerants were studied. Heating performance improvement of heat pump systems were tried applying supplementary components such as a refrigerant heater or a solar collector. The effects of frost growth were studied on the operation characteristic of refrigeration systems and the energy performance of various defrost methods were evaluated. The current situation of the domestic cold storage facilities was analyzed and the future demand was predicted. (4) In building mechanical system fields, a variety of studies were conducted to achieve effective consumption of heat and maximize efficiency of heat in buildings. Various researches were performed to maximize performance of mechanical devices and optimize the operation of HVAC systems. (5) In the fields of architectural environment and energy, diverse purposes of studies were conducted such as indoor environment, building energy, and renewable energy. In particular, renewable energy and building energy-related researches have mainly been studied as reflecting the global interests. In addition, various researches have been performed for reducing cooling load in a building using spot exhaust air, natural ventilation and energy efficiency systems.

A Comparative Study on Confirmation Hearings for Secretary of Education in South Korea and the United State - Focus Cases on Administrations of Myungbak Lee and Barack Obama - (한국과 미국 교육부 장관 인사청문회 비교 - 이명박 정부와 오바마 정부의 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Yoo, Dong-Hoon;Jin, Sun-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Comparative Education
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.103-132
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to suggest ways of improving the quality of confirmation hearings for the Secretary of Education in South Korea by: 1) comparing the confirmation process by the presidents in South Korea and the United States; and 2) contrasting procedures and contents of hearings for Education Secretary nominee in South Korea and the United States. As the process of selecting a nominee to be the Secretary of Education started, the Blue House Office of Secretary conducted an investigation on the nominee's personal details, family matters, and etc within a week. The investigation, with very limited time frame, led the selection process to be a mere verification on the nominee's morality. On the other hand, the White House Office of Presidential Personnel carried out a thorough investigation on the nominee collectively with the White House Council, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and Internal Revenue Service, taking from two to three months. In terms of contents of the hearings, the members of the ruling party mainly asked the nominee for clarification, and his ideas on certain policies, whereas the opposition party focused mostly on verifying his morality. In addition, the committee members led the hearing whilst strongly expressing their own political ideologies. However, in the case of the hearings in the United States, the committee members did not ask any questions to verify the nominee's morality but questions that could help them to get an understanding of the nominee's experience, professionalism, and perspective on nation- wide issues regarding education and federal education policy. As for the procedural characteristics of South Korean hearings, the Committee on Education conducted the hearing with a week of advanced preparation. However, submission of required reports by the nominee, performing confirmation hearings, and reports on the hearing were not mandatory in order to appoint the nominee as the Secretary of Education. On the contrary, in the United States, the members of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pension spent about a month preparing for the confirmation hearing. For the nominee to be appointed, submission of reports and the committee's approval on the President's nomination were required. Based on the results, this research suggests that it is important to develop a policy that can strengthen the substantiality of the nomination process, to establish a professional agency for personnel investigation, to make a mandatory submission of personal reports before hearings, to extend the time frame for hearing preparation, to secure enough time slot for nominees to respond, and to increase the member's autonomy.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2015 (설비공학회 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2015년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Dong-Seon;Park, Jun-Seok;Ihm, Pyeong Chan
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.256-268
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    • 2016
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2015. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) The research works on the thermal and fluid engineering were carried out in the areas of flow, heat and mass transfer, cooling and heating, and air-conditioning, the renewable energy system and the flow inside building rooms. Research issues dealing with air-conditioning machines and fire and exhausting smoke were reduced. CFD seems to be spreading to more research areas. (2) Research works on heat transfer area were carried out in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the economic analysis of GHG emission, micro channel heat exchanger, effect of rib angle on thermal performance, the airside performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers, theoretical analysis of a rotary heat exchanger, heat exchanger in a cryogenic environment, the performance of a cross-flow-type, indirect evaporative cooler made of paper/plastic film. In the area of pool boiling and condensing, the bubble jet loop heat pipe was studied. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches were performed on fin-tube heat exchanger, KSTAR PFC and vacuum vessel at baking phase, the performance of small-sized dehumidification rotor, design of gas-injection port of an asymmetric scroll compressor, effect of slot discharge-angle change on exhaust efficiency of range hood system with air curtain. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were carried in the categories of refrigeration cycle, alternative refrigeration/energy system, system control. In the refrigeration cycle category, a cold-climate heat pump system, $CO_2$ cascade systems, ejector cycles and a PCM-based continuous heating system were investigated. In the alternative refrigeration/energy system category, a polymer adsorption heat pump, an alcohol absorption heat pump and a desiccant-based hybrid refrigeration system were investigated. In the system control category, turbo-refrigerator capacity controls and an absorption chiller fault diagnostics were investigated. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, eighteen studies were reported for achieving effective design of the mechanical systems, and also for maximizing the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included energy performance, HVAC system, ventilation, and renewable energies, piping in the buildings. Proposed designs, performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data which can improve the energy efficiency of the buildings. (5) The field of architectural environment was mostly focused on indoor environment and building energy. The main researches of indoor environment were related to the user and location awareness technology applied dimming lighting control system, the lighting performance evaluation for light-shelves, the improvement evaluation of air quality through analysis of ventilation efficiency and the evaluation of airtightness of sliding and LS window systems. The subjects of building energy were worked on the energy saving estimation of existing buildings, the developing model to predict heating energy usage in domestic city area and the performance evaluation of cooling applied with economizer control. The studies were also performed related to the experimental measurement of weight variation and thermal conductivity in polyurethane foam, the development of flame spread prevention system for sandwich panels, the utilization of heat from waste-incineration facility in large-scale horticultural facilities.