• Title, Summary, Keyword: Smoking

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Factors Affecting Smoking Attitude and Intention among Preschool Children (유치원 아동의 흡연태도 및 흡연의도에 미치는 영향요인)

  • Lee Hung Sa;Paik Sun-bok;Kim Hyun Chull;Choi Gyoung Hee
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.330-341
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    • 2004
  • Parental smoking status and smoking environment do not only affect children's health through exposure to nicotine, but are also related to children's smoking attitude, intention and knowledge of smoking. Since this study was conducted to examine a relationship between family members smoking and smoking attitude, intention and knowledge of their children, little is known about psychosocial factors influencing smoking among Korean preschool children. This study aimed to determine the psychosocial factors (sociodemographic factors, education for smoking cigarette, knowledge about smoke cigarette) influencing smoking attitude and smoking intention, with a purpose of providing directions for future education programs for Korean preschool children. A cross sectional sample of 840 children, ages 4-7 years, living in a rural district were interviewed during August 6 - November 14, 2003. Among them, 834 children whose missing data were less than $10\%$ were included the analysis. The independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics and education for smoking cigarette, while the dependent variables were knowledge about smoking, the children's smoking attitude and their intention of smoking. The data on sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The correlations between the independent variables and attitude and intention of smoking were analyzed using chi-square test, t-test, and logistic regression. The results of this study were s follows. The factors that were found to be significantly correlated to smoking attitude include mother's smoking $(x^2=4.86,\;p=.03)$, grandmother's smoking $(x^2=5.56,\;p=.02)$, and knowledge of smoking cigarette $(x^2=-5.13 p<.01)$. The factors that were significantly correlated to the intention of smoking include gender $(x^2=.08,\; p=.02)$, education for smoking$(x^2=17.65,\;p<.01)$, mother's smoking $(x^2=19.05,\; p<.01)$, grandmother's smoking $(x^2=17.67,\; p<.01)$, and knowledge$(x^2=-2.17,\;p=.03)$. The children who had non smoking mother were more likely to have negative attitude (OR=2.29). The children who had a higher knowledge about smoking were more likely to have negative attitude (OR=1.58). The findings suggest that a smoking prevention program specific for preschool children is necessary to prevent early onset of smoking. The findings also suggest that the program should involve children's family members who influence their smoking attitude and intention.

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Knowledge, Attitude and Experience on Smoking among Primary School Students (일부 농촌지역 초등학생의 흡연지식, 흡연태도와 흡연경험)

  • Chung, Young-Sook;So, Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.189-205
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    • 2003
  • The purpose: This study was to get database of health service for smoking prevention through investigating the state of the students' experience, knowledge and attitude on smoking. Method: The subjects were cosisted of 545 students who were currently enrolled in 3, 4, 5 and 6th grade of 4 primary school in J community. The instruments for this study were Smoking Knowledge and Smoking Attitude questionaire (40 items) developed by WHO(l982). Frequency, percentage, t-test, ANOY A and Chi- square test with SAS program were used to analyze the data. Result: Among the students 10.8% answered they had the experience of smoking, while 0.5% said they are current smokers. The experience of smoking related to general characteristics were showed significantly different according to sex, grade and received or not received of smoking exhort. With regard to smokers smoking behavior, first beginning time of smoking was most by 29.8% preschooler and the first motive of smoking was most by 80.8% curiosity. The main smoking area is most by 31.1 % own house or friend's house. The main purchase route of tobacco appeared by thing which house(father or brother's tobacco) most by 34.9%. Smoking period was most less than 1 day and smoking frequency was most stops while bum sometimes. The amount for a day was less than one cigarette. Smoking time was appeared highest when curiosity occurs. Students' knowledge level about smoking prevention is high comparatively to mean 15.44(±2.66). Smoking prevention knowledge level related to general characteristics were showed significantly different according to the grade, academic score and learned or not of smoking prevention. Therefore, was expose that the smoking prevention knowledge level is high in students who results high grade, high academic score level and learned of smoking prevention. Students' attitude level about smoking prevention was high level to mean 55.90(±3.58). Smoking prevention attitude level related to general characteristics were showed significantly different according to academy score and received or not of smoking exhort(t=2.33, p=.020). Therefore, was expose that the smoking prevention attitude level is high in students who result high academic score level and received of smoking exhort group. Conclusion: It follows from this study that education for smoking prevention should be continued from lower grade students and teaching for refusal skill against smoking is needed.

Analysis for Influences of Individual Characteristics, Experience, Cognition, and Affect Relating to Smoking Quitting Behavior on Commitment to a Plan of and Practice for Smoking Quitting Behavior (금연과 관련된 개인의 특성, 경험, 그리고 인지·감정요인들이 금연행동 계획수립 및 실천에 미치는 영향 분석 -Pender의 개정된 건강증진 모형 적용-)

  • Oh, Hyun-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.277-290
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    • 2001
  • This study was conducted to examine if the revised HPM was appropriate to explain smoking quitting behavior. A convenience sample of 400 college students enrolled in the universities located in Seoul and Kyunggi-Inchon province was selected. According to the study results, smoking-specific cognitions and affect included in the study could significantly explain commitment to a plan to quit smoking which was one of the behavioral outcomes in the revised HPM. The study result showed that among predictors, smoking-related affect, perceived benefit of quitting smoking, and perceived self-efficacy significantly explained commitment to a plan to quit smoking, but perceived barriers and interpersonal influences did not. The model for smoking quitting behavior formulated with smoking-specific cognitions and affect was statistically significant and the model explained 48 percent of variance in smoking quitting behavior. More specifically, it was shown that among smoking-specific cognitions and affect, only smoking-related affect, interpersonal influences, and perceived self-efficacy were the significant predictors to explain smoking quitting behavior. Smoking-related affect was the most important variable to explain smoking quitting behavior, followed by perceived self-efficacy. However, the influence of commitment to a plan to quit smoking on smoking quitting behavior was not statistically significant. Lastly, the model for smoking quitting behavior formulated with individual characteristics and experiences could explain 13 percent of the variance in behavior to quit smoking. Although the model is statistically significant, only the number of quitting attempts had significant and direct influence on behavior to quit smoking, while the remaining variables did not.

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Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoking Behavior in Male Middle School Students (일부 남자 중학생의 흡연에 대한 지식 및 태도)

  • Yang, Soon-Ok;Kim, Shin-Jeong;Choi, Eun-Jin;Baek, Sung-Sook;Yang, Soon-Bun
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.387-398
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to provide basic data to develop a smoking prevention and non-smoking education program. Data were collected, using a questionnaire, from 438 male middle school students living in Chunchon, Kwangwon- do. The data collection period was from September 2 to 30, 2000. The questionnaire used to measure the subjects' knowledge and attitude toward smoking was based on the guideline for the contents of tobacco smoking surveys for the general population designed by WHO. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS-Win program. The results were as follows. 1. The subjects' average score for smoking knowledge was 58.52 out of 100 points. 2. The subjects' average score for attitude toward smoking was 63.54 out of 100 points. 3. Smoking knowledge of the subjects was significantly different by their grade (F=9.187, p=.000), father's smoking behavior (t=2.261, p= .024), aware of harmfulness of smoking (F=8.911, p=.000). The subjects' attitude toward smoking was significantly different by mother's smoking behavior (t=-2.557, p=.011), brother's smoking behavior (t=-3.959, p=.000), having a smoking friend or not (t=-4.422, p=.000), subjects' smoking experience (t=-8.304, p=.000), present smoking behavior (t=7.001, p=.000), quantity of smoking (F=3.297, p= .041), abstinence period of smoking (F=3.858, p=.013), thinking about smoking behavior (F=20.999, p=.000), aware of harmfulness of smoking (F=20.964, p=.000), and amount of drinking (F=8.316, p=.000). 4. There was a significant correlation between subjects' knowledge and attitude toward smoking (r=.514, p=.000).

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Factors Associated with Perceived Peer Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents (청소년들의 또래 흡연율 추정에 대한 관련 요인)

  • Park, Soon-Woo;Kim, Jong-Yeon;Park, Jung-Han;Lee, Sang-Won
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.249-254
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the factors related to the perceived peer smoking prevalence for adolescents. Methods: A self-administrated questionnaire was administered to 352 students in a technical high school in Kangwon Province in May, 2002. The questions included in the questionnaire were concerned with the estimated number of smokers among ten students of the same grade in their school, the sociodemographic characteristics, the smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and the smoking-related environments. All the students had their expiratory carbon monoxide level measured with EC50 Micro-Smokerlyzer? to verify their smoking status. Multiple regression analysis was applied for data analysis using Windows SPSS 11.5. Results: The former and current smokers overestimated the peer smoking prevalence. Multiple regression analysis for estimating the peer smoking prevalence for the male showed that the perceived smoking prevalence was higher in the female students than in the male students, higher in those students whose mothers had a higher educational level, who had smoked more frequently, who had more best friends smoking, and who had a higher actual smoking rate of the class. For estimating the peer smoking prevalence for the female, the perceived smoking prevalence was higher in the female students than in the male students, higher in those who smoked more frequently, whose five best friends smoked, who had higher actual smoking rate of the class, and who had smoking siblings. Conclusions: This study showed that a higher perceived peer smoking rate is related with their own smoking history and smoking frequency, the smoking related environment, and gender. Smoking prevention and smoking cessation programs need to focus on correcting the falsely perceived smoking prevalence.

Longitudinal Analysis on Success Factors of Smoking Cessation Using Panel Data (패널자료를 활용한 종단적 금연 성공요인 분석)

  • Song, Tae-Min;Lee, Ju-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.25-34
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    • 2009
  • Objectives: This study has longitudinally analyzed male smokers in order to find out the trend rate of re-smoking after smoking cessation. Methods: The study was conducted with 800 male smokers who were provided with smoking cessation services for 3 years at public health centers from July 16, 2005 to July 15, 2008. Results: The results can be summarized as follows: First, the success rate of smoking cessation for at least 6 months during 3-year period was 54.4%. The failure rate of smoking cessation at the second year was 47.5% and the third 27.2%, which indicates that the failure rate diminishes as the period of smoking cessation extends. Second, the success rate of smoking cessation at the first trial was 35.0%, the second 24.3%, and the third 16.4%. The success rate diminished as the number of trial increased. Third, the continuation rate of smoking cessation for a year was 18.3%, for 2 years 13.4%. For the success group, the continuation rate of smoking cessation for a year was 52.5%, for 2 years 38.2%. For the failure group, the rate for a year was 21.5%. Fourth, in this longitudinal analysis, the most crucial variables that affect the success rate of smoking cessation are total number of consultation and the past experience of successful smoking cessation. Conclusion: This study shows that success of smoking cessation and the continuance of smoking cessation are both difficult, and that the past experience of smoking cessation plays an important role determining the present success of smoking cessation and continuance of smoking cessation. Thus, it is necessary to divide people into success group and failure group based on the results of the past experience of smoking cessation when they consult at smoking cessation clinics at public health centers. Further, in order to increase the continuation rate of smoking cessation, this study suggests that we need to consider ways to take care of those who successfully abstained from smoking for 6 months.

Changes in Smokers' Perception about smoking before and after Participation in a Hospitalized Smoking Cessation Program (금연학교 입원프로그램 전과 후의 흡연자의 흡연에 대한 인식변화)

  • Chang, Sung Ok;Shin, Sung Rae;Kim, Hung Kyu;Kim, Sang Suk;Ju, Eun Ae
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.1163-1173
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: This study was done to analyze the changes in smokers' subjectivity about smoking before and after participation in a 5-day hospitalized smoking cessation program. Design: Q-methodology, which provides a scientific method on subjectivity, was applied. Findings: Nine types of subjectivity changes about smoking were identified; Type I, Nicotine $craving{\to}Confident$ of self control for smoking; Type II, Nicotine $craving{\to}Cognition$ of the link between habituation and smoking, Type III, Nicotine craving ~ Nicotine craving, Type IV, smoking as a social $behavior{\to}Cognition$ of the link between habituation and smoking, Type V, smoking as a social $behavior{\to}Motive$ to turn away from being addicted to smoking to being healthy, Type VI, Habitual $smoking{\to}Confident$ of self control for smoking, Type VII, Habitual $smoking{\to}Cognition$ of the link between habituation and smoking, Type VIII, Habitual $smoking{\to}Motive$ to turn away from being addicted to smoking to being healthy and Type IX, Denial of the negative effects of $smoking{\to}Confident$ of self control for smoking Conclusion: The types of changes in smokers' subjectivity before and after the smoking cessation program in this study suggest a better tailored intervention for individual smokers. The types of changes on smokers' subjectivity provide insight about which factors of the interventions for smoking cessation are especially valued for a particular group of smokers.

Effects of Cigarette Smoking across Three Generations and of Perceptions of the Smoking-Cancer Relationship on the Cigarette Smoking Status of Turkish University Students

  • Ozturk, Candan;Bektas, Murat;Mert, Ozlem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4527-4533
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    • 2014
  • Background: This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effects of cigarette smoking across three generations and perceptions of the smoking-cancer relationship on the cigarette smoking status of Turkish university students. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 434 university students studying in different departments of a university. Data were collected using a socio-demographic data collection form and the Decisional Balance Scaleqand evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test, CHAID and multiple regression analyses. Results: The average age of the students participating in the study is 19.6+.5.0, some 11.3% of the students reporting that they smoked cigarettes. No statistically significant relationship was ascertained between the cigarette smoking statuses of the students based on the cigarette smoking status of their grandparents (p=0.144). but there was alink to that of their parents (p=0.002). The difference between the cigarette smoking ratios of the students based on their perceptions of smoking-cancer relationship was statistically significant (p<0.001). Believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer decreased likelihood of cigarette smoking 3.7 fold. Cigarette smoking by grandparents, and believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer, and cigarette smoking by parents explained 8.3% of the cigarette smoking status of the students. Conclusions: While cigarette smoking by grandparents only indirectly influences cigarette smoking by the students, believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer, and cigarette smoking by parents are influential variables in determining cigarette smoking by Turkish students.

Smoking Status and Dietary Habits of Middle School Students (중학생의 흡연실태와 흡연에 따른 식습관 차이)

  • 정은희
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 2002
  • Adolescent smoking has been a great concern with respect to it’s causing more serious health problems than adult smoking. The smoking status and habits of middle school students were studied using anonymous questionnaires, and their dietary habits were compared. Ninety-two of 4l4 students (22.2%) had experienced smoking, and 62.0% of them began in primary school, mostly out of curiosity. The most plausible reasons for smoking were ‘boredom’ and/or ‘stress reduction’. Dietary habits were generally inadequate in the smoking group. Compared with the non-smoking group, the smoking group paid less attention to a balanced diet, more skipped breakfasts, more had irregular meal times and fewer snacked. There was no significant difference between the smoking and non-smoking groups in food intake frequency, except of sweet foods and caffeinated foods, which were more frequent consumed by the smoking group. These results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to nutrition and health education programs in elementary schools and also that proper support programs for smoking by themselves.

The Actual Condition of Smoking among University Students (일부 대학생의 흡연 실태 - 경기북부지역을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Shin-Jeong;Moon, Sun-Young;Han, Kyoug-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.147-160
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was twofold: one, to provide basic data to prevent smoking among university students and two, to develop an effective no smoking program for university students. Two hundred and ten 210 university students who smoked were enrolled in the study. Data were collected from September, 1999 to January, 2000 using a questionnaire. The data collected were scored by using mean and standard deviation according to the motivations for smoking, the psychological characteristics and the motivation for not smoking. Each item was analyzed as an independent variable by the t-test and the ANOVA test. The results were as follows: 1. The average score of subjects' smoking motivation and psychologic characteristics was 2.59. 2. The average score of subjects' no smoking was 3.18. 3. With the respect to the general characteristics of subjects' smoking motivation and psychologic characteristics. there were significant difference in allowance for the month (F=6.197, P=.002), smoking reason (F=4.196, P=.003), smoking type(F=2.34, P=.035), father's smoking(F=3.119, P=.027), and smoking of close friend (F=4.430, P=.013). In subjects' no smoking motivation. there were significant difference in age (F=3.469, P=.033) and starting time of smoking(F=2.834, P=.039) 4. There was a significant correlation (r=.190, p=.007) between subjects' smoking motivation, psychologic characteristics and no smoking motivation.

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