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Eating Traits and General Psychopathology of Korean Males Who Show High Score on the Korean Version of Eating Attitudes Test-26 (한국판(韓國版) 식사태도(食事態度) 검사(檢査)-26에서 고득점(高得點)을 보인 한국(韓國) 일반(一般) 남성군(男性群)의 식사특성(食事特性)과 일반정신병리(一般精神病理))

  • Han, Ki-Seok;Lee, Young-Ho;Rhee, Min-Kyu;Park, Se-Hyun;Sohn, Chang-Ho;Chung, Young-Cho;Hong, Sung-Kook;Lee, Byung-Kwan;Chang, Phi-Lip;Yoon, A-Rhee
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.87-102
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    • 1999
  • Objectives : The purposes of this study were to estimate the prevalence rate of eating disorders in Korean males and to clarify their characteristics in sociodemograhic data, the eating traits, and general psychopathology through the comparison with those of female high scored group on the Korean version of Eating Attitudes Test-26(KEAT-26). Methods : Using a multi-stage questionnaire sampling method including area sampling, proportionated stratified sampling, and quota sampling, we surveyed a total of 4,400 Korean adults over 18 in a nationwide area(9 kus, 10 middle or small cities, and 17 kuns), obtaining usable responses on 3,896. Of the 3,062 subjects(1249 males and 1813 females) who were available for analysis, we ascertained 52 males and 208 females who had high score($\geq$ cutoff point 21) on the KEAT-26. Results : 1) The proportion of this high score group was 1.7% in male and 6.8% in female with a sex ratio(male versus female) of 1 : 4. 2) The mean age was higher in the male group than in the female group, although it was not statistically significant(p=0.0514). Mean Body Mass Index(BMI) of the male group was significantly higher than that of female group, and the number of male subjects with below 20 of BMI was also significantly lower than in the female group. 3) There were no significant difference in past history of physical illness between two groups. However, frequency of smoking and alcohol use, and mean amount of alcohol consumption per month were significantly higher in the male group than in the female group. There were no significant differences between the two groups on various socio-demographic correlates such as economic status, total duration of education, number of family, marital status, religious status, and area of residence, but the exception of being occupational status. 4) The 'Eating Habits Scale' score and score of 'preference for vegetables and fish, and dislike for sweet-tasting food' of the male group were significantly lower than those of the female group. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups in total scores of the KEAT-26, the mean score on 'pursuit of thinness' subscale was higher in the female group than in the male group, while scores of 'food preoccupation' and 'self-control' subscales were higher in the male group than in the female group. 5) Scores on 'psychoticism' was significantly higher in the male group than in the female group, although there were no significant differences between the two groups on 'locus of control for weight', 'depression' and 'hypochondriasis'. Conclusion : These results support a possibility of a high prevalence of eating disorders in Korean males. These results suggest that eating related characteristics of high scorer on the EAT are different by sex in spite of the same high score on the EAT, and also suggest that male patients with eating disorders have more serious personality pathology than female patients with eating disorders.

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Radiation-induced Pulmonary Toxicity following Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer (유방암 환자에서 보조적 방사선치료 후의 폐 손상)

  • Moon, Sung-Ho;Kim, Tae-Jung;Eom, Keun-Young;Kim, Jee-Hyun;Kim, Sung-Won;Kim, Jae-Sung;Kim, In-Ah
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.109-117
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    • 2007
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: To evaluate the incidences and potential predictive factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (SRP) and radiographic pulmonary toxicity (RPT) following adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer. A particular focus was made to correlate RPT with the dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters based on three-dimensional RT planning (3D-RTP) data. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: From September 2003 through February 2006, 171 patients with breast cancer were treated with adjuvant RT following breast surgery. A radiation dose of 50.4 Gy was delivered with tangential photon fields on the whole breast or chest wall. A single anterior oblique photon field for supraclavicular (SCL) nodes was added if indicated. Serial follow-up chest radiographs were reviewed by a chest radiologist. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity criteria were used for grading SRP and a modified World Health Organization (WHO) grading system was used to evaluate RPT. The overall percentage of the ipsilateral lung volume that received ${\geq}15\;Gy\;(V_{15}),\;20\;Gy\;(V_{20})$, and $30\;Gy\;(V_{30})$ and the mean lung dose (MLD) were calculated. We divided the ipsilateral lung into two territories, and defined separate DVH parameters, i.e., $V_{15\;TNGT},\;V_{20\;TNGT},\;V_{30\;TNGT},\;MLD_{TNGT}$, and $V_{15\;SCL},\;V_{20\;SCL},\;V_{30SCL},\;MLD_{SCL}$ to assess the relationship between these parameters and RPT. $\underline{Results}$: Four patients (2.1%) developed SRP (three with grade 3 and one with grade 2, respectively). There was no significant association of SRP with clinical parameters such as, age, pre-existing lung disease, smoking, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and regional RT. When 137 patients treated with 3D-RTP were evaluated, 13.9% developed RPT in the tangent (TNGT) territory and 49.2% of 59 patients with regional RT developed RPT in the SCL territory. Regional RT (p<0.001) and age (p=0.039) was significantly correlated with RPT. All DVH parameters except for $V_{15\;TNGT}$ showed a significant correlation with RPT (p<0.05). $MLD_{TNGT}$ was a better predictor for RPT for the TNGT territory than $V_{15\;SCL}$ for the SCL territory. $\underline{Conclusion}$: The incidence of SRP was acceptable with the RT technique that was used. Age and regional RT were significant factors to predict RPT. The DVH parameter was good predictor for RPT for the SCL territory while $MLD_{TNGT}$ was a better predictor for RPT for the TNGT territory.

Anthropometric Measurement, Dietary Behaviors, Health-related Behaviors and Nutrient Intake According to Lifestyles of College Students (대학생의 라이프스타일 유형에 따른 신체계측, 식행동, 건강관련 생활습관 및 영양소 섭취상태에 관한 연구)

  • Cheong, Sun-Hee;Na, Young-Joo;Lee, Eun-Hee;Chang, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.12
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    • pp.1560-1570
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences according to lifestyle in anthropometric measurement, dietary attitude, health-related behaviors and nutrient intake among the college students. The subjects were 994 nation-wide college students (male: 385, female: 609) and divided into 7 clusters (PEAO: passive economy/appearance-oriented type, NCPR: non-consumption/pursuit of relationship type, PTA: pursuit of traditional actuality type, PAT: pursuit of active health type, UO: utility-oriented type, POF: pursuit of open fashion type, PFR: pursuit of family relations type). A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self administered questionnaire, and the data were collected via Internet or by mail. The nutrient intake data collected from food record were analyzed by the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Data were analyzed by a SPSS 12.0 program. Average age of male and female college students were 23.7 years and 21.6 years, respectively. Most of the college students had poor eating habits. In particular, about 60% of the PEAO group has irregularity in meal time. The students in PAH and POF groups showed significantly higher consumption frequency of fruits, meat products and foods cooked with oil compared to the other groups. As for exercise, drinking and smoking, there were significant differences between PAH and the other groups. Asked for the reason for body weight control, 16.2% of NCPR group answered "for health", but 24.8% of PEAO group and 26.3% of POF group answered "for appearance". Calorie, vitamin A, vitamin $B_2$, calcium and iron intakes of all the groups were lower than the Korean DRIs. Female students in PTA group showed significantly lower vitamin $B_1$ and niacin intakes compared to the PFR group. Therefore, these results provide nation-wide information on health-related behaviors and nutrient intake according to lifestyles among Korean college students.

A Study on Nutritional Intake Status and Health-related Behaviors of the Elderly People in Gyeongsan Area (경산시 노인의 영양섭취상태 및 건강관련인자에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Kyung-Mi
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.1018-1027
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate nutrients intake and health-related behaviors in elderly people residing in Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk who have no problem in daily living. Information on general characteristics of the elderly, health-related behaviors and dietary habits were obtained by interview based on questionnare. Dietary nutrients intake data were obtained through the 24 recall method. The subject group of this study was composed of 113 males and 112 females, the average age being $73.1\pm6.06$ years old. In health related factors, $76.9\%$ of subjects exercised regularly. The rates of alcohol drinking and smoking showed to be $38.2\%\;and\;22.2\%$, respectively. There were many elderly with neuralgia, hypertension, and gastrointestinal disease, especially female were worse. Average heights of the subjects were lower than the standard established in the Korean Recommended Dietary Allowances, and average weights were similar to the standards. The mean BMI and WHR were 24.8 (male 23.7, female 25.7) and 0.92 (male 0.92, female 0.89), respectively. Most of the subjects had a regular meal pattern comsuming three meals a day, and many elderly, especially more than $79.5\%$ of female, prepared the meals for themselves. Mean daily energy intakes and RDA percentage of energy intakes of the male and female subjects were estimated as 1426.9kcal $(79.3\%)$ and 1381.3 kcal $(86.3\%)$, respectively. Mean daily intakes of nutrients were estimatied as 48.1g for protein, 411.3mg for calcium, 8.05mg for iron, 541.8 R.E. for vitamin A, 0.84mg for vitamin $B_1$, and 0.79mg for vitamin $B_2$. Most nutrients except protein, clacium, iron and vitamin $B_2$ were consumed over $75\%$ of the RDA. Female elderly showed significant lower intakes (p<0.05) for most of the nutrients except calcium, phosphorus and vitamin ethan the elderly male.

GET Imaging Evaluation of Patients with Esophageal Cancer (식도암 환자의 GET 영상 평가)

  • Moon, Jong Wun;Lee, Chung Wun;Seo, Young Deok;Yun, Sang Hyeok;Kim, Yong Keun;Won, Woo Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Measure gastric emptying time (GET: Gastric Emptying Time) is a non-invasive and quantitative evaluation methods, mainly by endoscopic or radiological examination confirmed no mechanical obstruction in patients with symptoms of congestion is checked. Such tests are not common gastric emptying time measured esophageal cancer patients (who underwent esophagectomy) patients after surgery for gastric emptying time was measured test. And the period of time for more than one year after the gastric emptying time measurement was performed. By comparing the two kinds of tests in the chest cavity after surgery as the evaluation of gastrointestinal function tests evaluate the usefulness of GET, and will evaluate the characteristics of the image. Materials and Methods: 93 patients who underwent esophagectomy with gastric emptying time measurement of subject tests immediately after surgery and after 1 year or longer were twice. Preparation of the patient before the test is more than 12 hours of overnight fasting is important, in addition to the medicine or to stop smoking, and diabetes insulin injections should be early in the morning is ideal to test. Generally labeled with $^{99m}Tc-DTPA$ resin which is used to make steamed egg, seaweed and fermented milk with a high viscosity after eating, three hours in the standing position was measured. Evaluation of gastric emptying curves on the way intragastric radioactivity level by 50% the time (half-time [T1/2]) was calculated, based on the half-life was divided into three steps: over 180 minutes was defined as delayed gastric emptying, within 180minutes was defined as intermediate gastric emptying and when all the radioisotopes were dumped into the jejunum as soon as swallowed, was defined as rapid gastric emptying. Results: Gastric emptying time of a typical images stomach of antrum and fundus additional images appear stronger over time move on to the small intestine. but esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy side of the thoracic cavity showed a strong image. Immediately after surgery, the half-time (T1/2) of rapid gastric emptying appeared to 12.9%, intermediate gastric emptying appeared to 52.7%, delay gastric emptying appeared to 34.4%. After more than a year the results of the half-life after surgery, 67% of rapid gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying was changed, 69% of delay gastric emptying to intermediate gastric emptying changed. Intermediate gastric emptying worse in patients rapid gastric emptying and the delay gastric emptying is 24% in the case. Conclusion: Esophagectomy for esophageal cancer who underwent half-time measurement test (T1/2) rapid gastric emptying and delay gastric emptying are the result of the comparison over time, changes were observed intermediate gastric emptying. Mainly seeing of gastric emptying time measurement in the esophagus instead of thoracic cavity to check the evaluation of gastrointestinal function can be useful even means. And segmentation criteria and narrow time interval of checking if more accurate information and analysis of the clinical diagnosis and evaluation seems to be done.

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Effect of working patterns on eating habits in manufacturing workers of Gwangju area (광주지역 제조업 근로자의 근무형태가 식습관에 미치는 영향)

  • Yim, Ji-Suk;Heo, Young-Ran;Jeong, Eun;Lee, Jae-Joon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.495-505
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate and analyze the association between stress from shift and non-shift work as well as the effects living habits have on eating habits in order to identify why and how workers can improve their health and form proper eating habits for higher working efficiency. Methods: The subjects of this study were 361 workers from K manufacturing company from April 7 to 11, 2014 and they were surveyed using a questionnaire. The subjects were divided into two groups according to working pattern: shift workers (n = 216) and non-shift workers (n = 110). Results: In the general characteristics, there were significant differences in age, work career, work time, marriage, monthly income, and education levels between the two groups. For healthy behaviors, significant differences in subjective health status, moderate physical activity, drinking, smoking, and sleep time were observed between shift workers and non-shift workers. For eating habits, scores of non-shift workers having a regular mealtime, balanced meal composition, and vegetable and seaweed intakes were significantly higher than those of shift workers. The sum score of dietary habits in non-shift workers was also significantly lower than that in shift workers (p < 0.05). Total job stress score did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusion: The sum of eating habit scores according to work types was $16.1{\pm}0.6$ in non-shift workers and $14.0{\pm}0.3$ in shift workers. These results suggest that it is necessary to provide food suitable to characteristics of different workers according to work type which should be provided along with daily nutrition counseling to help subjects recognize their status.

Bone mineral density and nutritional state according to milk consumption in Korean postmenopausal women who drink coffee: Using the 2008~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 폐경 후 여성 커피소비자에서 우유섭취여부에 따른 골밀도와 영양상태 비교 : 2008~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Ryu, Sun-Hyoung;Suh, Yoon Suk
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.347-357
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study investigated bone mineral density and nutritional state according to consumption of milk in Korean postmenopausal women who drink coffee. Methods: Using the 2008~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey data, a total of 1,373 postmenopausal females aged 50 yrs and over were analyzed after excluding those with diseases related to bone health. According to coffee and/or milk consumption, subjects were divided into four groups: coffee only, both coffee & milk, milk only, and none of the above. All data were processed after application of weighted values and adjustment of age, body mass index, physical activity, drinking, and smoking using a general linear model. For analysis of nutrient intake and bone density, data were additionally adjusted by total energy and calcium intake. Results: The coffee & milk group had more subjects younger than 65 yrs and higher education, urban residents, and higher income than any other group. The coffee only group showed somewhat similar characteristics as the none of the above group, which showed the highest percentage of subjects older than 65 and in a lower education and socio-economic state. Body weight, height, body mass index, and lean mass were the highest in coffee & milk group and lowest in the none of the above group. On the other hand, the milk only group showed the lowest values for body mass index and waist circumference, whereas percent body fat did not show any difference among the groups. The coffee and milk group showed the highest bone mineral density in the total femur and lumbar spine as well as the highest nutritional state and most food group intakes, followed by the milk only group, coffee only group, and none of the above group. In the assessment of osteoporosis based on T-score of bone mineral density, although not significant, the coffee and milk group and milk only group, which showed a better nutritional state, included more subjects with a normal bone density, whereas the none of the above group included more subjects with osteoporosis than any other group. Conclusion: Bone mineral density in postmenopausal women might not be affected by coffee drinking if their diets are accompanied by balanced food and nutrient intake including milk.

Efficacy of Pigtail Catheter Drainage in Patients with Thoracic Empyema or Complicated Parapneumonic Effusion (농흉 및 합병된 부폐렴성 흉막 삼출 환자에서 Pigtail 도관 배액의 유용성)

  • Park, Jeong Woo;You, Seung Min;Seol, Won Jong;Paik, Eun Ki;Lee, Kyu Hoon;Seo, Joon Beom;Jeong, Seong Hwan;An, Chang Hyeok;Lim, Youg Hee;Park, Jeong Woong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.219-229
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    • 2003
  • Background : The management of thoracic empyema and complicated parapneumonic effusion requires adequate antibiotics use and prompt drainage of infected pleural space. Tube thoracostomy for loculated empyema has low success rate and is also an invasive procedure with potential morbidity. Complications include hemothorax, perforation of intra-abdominal or intra-thoracic organs, diaphragmatic laceration, empyema, pulmonary edema, and Horner's syndrome. Given the potential morbidity of traditional chest tube insertion, use of the image-guided pigtail catheter drainage(PCD) of empyema has been employed. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of patients with empyema or complicated parapneumonic effusion to determine the efficacy of percutaneous pigtail catheter drainage. Materials and Methods : 45 patients with complicated parapneumonic effusions or empyema were treated at Gil medical center from January 1998 to June, 1999. All were initially given PCD procedure and the following data were collected: clinical symptoms at the time of diagnosis, alcohol and smoking history, the characteristics of pleural effusion, radiologic findings (at the time of catheter insertion, removal and 1 month after catheter removal), the amount of effusion drained for initial 24 hours, the time from catheter insertion to removal and the use of surgical approach. Results : Male gender was more frequent (42 men vs. 3 women), the mean age of the study population was 52(range: 21~74) years. Empyema was found in 23 patients, complicated parapneumonic effusion in 22 patients. Four patients(three, parapneumonic effusion and one, with empyema) with PCD only treated, were cast off. Among the available patients, 36(80%) patients were treated with PCD only or PCD with urokinase. Among the 23 patients with empyema, surgical approach was required in five patients(27.1%, one required decortication, four open thoracostomy), one patient, treated with surgical procedure, died of sepsis. There was no significant difference of the duration of catheter insertion, the duration of hospital admission after catheter insertion and the mean amount of effusion drained for initial 24 hours between the patients with only PCD treated and the patients treated with PCD and urokinase. The duration of catheter insertion($9.4{\pm}5.25days$ vs. $19.2{\pm}9.42days$, p<0.05) and the duration of hospital admission after catheter insertion($15.9{\pm}10.45days$ vs. $38.6{\pm}11.46days$, p<0.01) of the patients with only PCD treated were more longer than those of the patients treated with surgical procedure after PCD. They were same between the patients treated with urokinase after PCD and the patients treated with surgical procedure after PCD($11.1{\pm}7.35days$ vs. $19.2{\pm}9.42days$, p<0.05, $17.5{\pm}9.17days$ vs. $38.6{\pm}11.46days$, p<0.01). In 16 patients(44.4%) with only PCD treated or PCD and urokinase treated, the amount of effusion at the time of catheter removal was decreased more than 75% and in 17 patients(47.2%) effusion decreased 50~75%. .In one patient effusion decreased 25~50%, in two patients effusion decreased less than 25%. One month after catheter removal, in 35 patients(97.2%, four patients were cast off), the amount of pleural effusion was successfully decreased more than 50%. There were no complications related to pigtail catheter insertion. Conclusion : In this study, PCD seemed to be an early efficacious procedure in treating the patients with complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema without any serious procedure related complication.

A Study on Labor Saving in Paddy Rice Cultivation (논벼재배에 있어서의 노동력 절감에 관한 연구)

  • Young-Chul Chang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.11
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 1972
  • Experiments and investigations were done basically and practically for the purpose of labor saving in paddy rice cultivation especially on Homizil i.e. hoeing and herbicide, 1969. 8 concrete tanks were established on the open base of Keon Kuk University for comparison of percolation, dissolved oxygen and yield test of rice in the paddy plot of tank. The dimension of the bottom of each tank is square meter. Each of the 4 of the 8 tanks is 21cm in height and each of the remaining 4 tanks is 36cm. Each tank has a system that comprises 2 sets of tubes, each of which has 20 holes of 5mm in diameter scattered every side and is covered with nylon cloth taking water in the tank. One set consists of 4 P.V.C tubes. The first set is situated 8cm below the top of the tank and the second set is located at bottom layer inside the tank. The 4 tubes of each set are combined together and led to the glass tube which protects from inside to outside. And this inside-outside glass tube is connected to the small rubber tube. Also a glass tube is set 4cm below the top of the tank. Paddy loam was filled on sand in each of the tanks in the soil depth of either 15cm or 30cm. The depth of sand was 5cm in the soil depth of 15cm and 10cm in the soil depth of 30cm. (Fig. 1, 2 and 3). The paddy rice was grown in the tank. The percolation of water, the dissolved oxygen and the yield of rice were observed in the tank. And the dissolved oxygen was detected by Winkler method. A sandy paddy field of heavy percolation was selected at the field of the National Agricultural Material Inspection Center in Seoul. It was divided into 9 plots. These plots were given 3 treatments: (A) not hoeing, (B) hoeing one time and (C) hoeing two times. These treatments were replicated 3 times along the latin square design. The paddy rice was grown and sprayed with Stam F-34 in the all plots for the purpose of killing weeds before hoeing. The two types of paddy of field i.e. one for normal percolation and the other for ill drainage were selected at Iri Crop Experiment Station, Jeonla-Bukdo. Each field was divided into 24 plots for 8 treatments. They are: (A) not hoeing; (B) hoeing one time; (C) hoeing two times; (D) not hoeing but treating with herbicide, Pamcon; (E) hoeing one time and weeding two times also treating with herbicide, Pamcon; (F) hoeing two times and weeding one time a], o treating with herbicide, Pamcon; (G) hoeing two times and weeding two times also treating with herbicide, Pamcon, ; (H) usual manner. The labor hours and expenses needed for weeding in the paddy by hoeing were investigated in a farmer at Suwon and the price of herbicide and the yield of rice were taken out at Iri, Jeonla-Bukdo. The results obtained from the above experiments and investigations are as follows: 1. The relationship between percolation and dissolved oxygen shows that a very small amount of oxygen is detected in the soil water under 2cm below surface of earth in the paddy even when percolation is over 4.0cm per 24 hours (Tab. 1). 2. The relationship between percolation and yield of rice shows that the yield of rice increases in the percolation of 0cm and 1.5cm per 24 hours and decreases in the percolation of 2.5cm and 3.4cm in the plot of the 15cm ploughing depth and increases in the percolation of 1.4cm and 3.0cm and decreases in the percolation of 0cm and 4.0cm in the plot of 30cm ploughing depth (Tab. 1 and Fig. 5). 3. The yield of paddy weeded with Stam F-34 in the sandy field of heavy percolation in Seoul was 3.02 tons in the plot of not hoeing, 2.99 tons in hoeing one time and 3.05 tons in hoeing two times per hectare (Tab. 5). 4.1). 4. 1) The yield of rice per 10 ares in the field of normal percolation at Iri was 338kg in not hoeing, 379kg in hoeing one time, 383kg in hoeing two times, 413kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and not hoeing, 433kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and hoeing one time and weeding two times, 399kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and hoeing two times and weeding one time, 420kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and hoeing two times and weeding two times and 418kg in usual manner (Tab. 6-1). 2) The yield of rice per 10 ares in the field of ill drainage at Iri was 323kg in not hoeing, 363kg in hoeing one time, 342kg in hoeing two times, 388kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and not hoeing, 425kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and hoeing one time and weeding two times, 427kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and hoeing two times and weeding one time, 449kg in spraying herbicide, Pamcon, and hoeing two times and weeding two times and 412kg in usual manner (Tab. 6-2). 5. 1) The labor hours for weeding by hoeing was 37.1 hours but 53.5 hours if hours for meal, smoking and so on are included, and the expenses including labor cost needed for weeding by hoeing in the paddy rice was 2, 346 Won per 10 ares at Suwon (Tab. 7). 2) The labor hours for weeding by spraying herbicide with hand sprayer in the paddy rice was about 5 hours per 10 ares at Suwon and the expenses for weeding by spraying herbicide in the paddy rice was 750 Won but 1130 Won if the loss by decrement of rice in the paddy field of ill drainage per 10 ares is calculated in estimation at Iri (Tab. 8). From these observations and investigations it is known that using of some kinds of herbicides Saves labor and expenses of weeding, almost without giving damages to the rice itself, in the field of normal or heavy percolation comparing usual manner of hoeing.

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Cohort Observation of Blood Lead Concentration of Storage Battery Workers (축전지공장 근로자들의 혈중 연농도에 대한 코호트 관찰)

  • Kim, Chang-Yoon;Kim, Jung-Man;Han, Gu-Wung;Park, Jung-Han
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.324-337
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    • 1990
  • To assess the effectiveness of the interventions in working environment and personal hygiene for the occupational exposure to the lead, 156 workers (116 exposed subjects and 40 controls) of a newly established battery factory were examined for their blood lead concentration (Pb-B) in every 3 months up to 18 months. Air lead concentration (Pb-A) of the workplaces was also checked for 3 times in 6 months interval from August 1987. Environmental intervention included the local exhaust ventilation and vacuum cleaning of the floor. Intervention of the personal hygiene included the daily change of clothes, compulsory shower after work and hand washing before meal, prohibition of cigarette smoking and food consumption at the work site and wearing mask. Mean Pb-B of the controls was $21.97{\pm}3.36{\mu}g/dl$ at the preemployment examination and slightly increased to $22.75{\pm}3.38{\mu}g/dl$ after 6 months. Mean Pb-B of the workers who were employed before the factory was in operation (Group A) was $20.49{\pm}3.84{\mu}g/dl$ on employment and it was increased to $23.90{\pm}5.30{\mu}g/dl$ after 3 months (p<0.01). Pb-B was increased to $28.84{\pm}5.76{\mu}g/dl$ 6 months after the employment which was 1 month after the initiation of intervention program. It did not increase thereafter and ranged between $26.83{\mu}g/dl\;and\;28.28{\mu}g/dl$ in the subsequent 4 tests. Mean Pb-B of the workers who were employed after the factory had been in operation but before the intervention program was initiated (Group B) was $16.58{\pm}4/53{\mu}g/dl$ before the exposure and it was increased to $28.82{\pm}5.66{\mu}g/dl$(P<0.01) in 3 months later (1 month after the intervention). The values of subsequent 4 tests remained between 26.46 and $28.54{\mu}g/dl$. Mean Pb-B of the workers who were employed after intervention program had been started (Group C) was $19.45{\pm}3.44{\mu}g/dl$ at the preemployment examination and gradually increased to $22.70{\pm}4.55{\mu}g/dl$ after 3 months(P<0.01), $23.68{\pm}4.18{\mu}g/dl$ after 6 months, and $24.42{\pm}3.60{\mu}g/dl$ after 9 months. Work stations were classified into 4 parts according to Pb-A. The Pb-A of part I, the highest areas, were $0.365mg/m^3$, and after the intervention the levels were decreased to $0.216mg/m^3\;and\;0.208mg/m^3$ in follow-up tests. The Pb-A of part II was decreased from $0.232mg/m^3\;to\;0.148mg/m^3,\;and\;0.120mg/m^3$ after the intervention. Pb-A of part III and W was tested only after intervention and the Pb-A of part III were $0.124mg/m^3$ in Jannuary 1988 and $0.081mg/m^3$ in August 1988. The Pb-A of part IV not stationed at one place but moving around, was $0.110mg/m^3$ in August 1988. There was no consistent relationship between Pb-B and Pb-A. Pb-B of the group A and B workers in the part of the highest Pb-A were lower than those of the workers in the parts of lower Pb-A. Pb-B of the workers in the part of the lowest Pb-A incerased more rapidly. Pb-B of group C workers was the highest in part I and the lowest in part IV. These findings suggest that Pb-B is more valid method than Pb-A for monitoring the health of lead workers and intervention in personal hygiene is more effective than environmental intervention.

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