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The Importance of Smoking Definitions for the Study of Adolescent Smoking Behavior

  • Park Sun-Hee;June Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.612-620
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    • 2006
  • Purpose. Smoking is the leading cause of death and smoking initiation rarely occurs after adolescence. Thus research on adolescent smoking is crucial. A consistent definition of smoking is important because inconsistent definitions make comparisons across studies an arduous task. Thus, the aim of the study was to suggest future research directions for smoking definitions after examining pitfalls in the literature. Methods. In this study the literature on adolescent smoking in the U.S. and South Korea was examined, and three types of smoking definitions were identified. Limitations in the studies are identified and future research directions are suggested. Results. In the U.S. literature, smoking definitions can be categorized into three groups: definitions based on stage models, smoking trajectories, and definitions derived from specific data. In the South Korean literature, various levels of smoking have not been differentiated. Conclusions. While the literature does not provide a definitive answer regarding the definition of smoking, it suggests three issues to consider for future research. First, multiple measures of smoking are more desirable than a one-time measure. Second, theory- or trajectory-based smoking definitions are more desirable than definitions derived from available data. Finally, regularity and amount of cigarette use should be incorporated in defining smoking behavior.

Factors Affecting Smoking Cessation Success during 4-week Smoking Cessation Program for University Students (4주간 금연성공 영향요인에 관한 연구: 금연 프로그램에 참여한 대학생 흡연자 중심으로)

  • Koo, Sang Mee;Kang, Jeong Hee
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.165-172
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Smoking cessation interventions are important because university students are vulnerable to smoking and good health practices during their university lives greatly affects their health status. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting smoking cessation success among the university students who participated in the 4-week smoking cessation program. Methods: This study was conducted with 101 university student smokers. To identify the factors affecting the success of smoking cessation, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: In Model 1, without the smoking cessation aids variable, when the frequency of face-to-face counseling was greater, the success rate of smoking cessation was 1.70 times higher. In Model 2, including the smoking cessation aids variable, when the nicotine dependence score was higher, the success rate of smoking cessation was 0.72 times lower, and when the number of smoking cessation aids used was greater, the success rate of smoking cessation was 1.40 times higher. Conclusion: Smoking cessation aids are essential to increase the success of short-term smoking cessation, and face-to-face counseling and telephone counseling should be provided continuously to maintain long-term smoking cessation.

Peer and Parental Influences on Adolescent Smoking

  • Lee Eunyoung;Tak Youngran
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.694-700
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    • 2005
  • Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between peer and parental factors and smoking behavior of adolescents in urban cities and to investigate whether there are gender differences. Methods. A stratified and random cluster sampling design was used to obtain a cross-sectional sample of high school students in two urban cities. The sample consisted of 512 Korean adolescents (256 boys and 256 girls) aged 15 to 18 (mean age 16.7$\pm$.58). Self-reported questionnaire consisted of adolescent smoking behavior, peer smoking and alcohol use, parental smoking and alcohol use, father-mother-peer relationships and perceived social support from peers and parents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the hypothesized model. Results. The findings showed that peer and parental factors accounted for $30.3\%$ of the variance in adolescent smoking and peer smoking was most strongly associated with adolescent smoking behavior (OR = 10.18). In addition, peer smoking (OR = 4.71), peer alcohol use (OR = 4.21), and peer relationships (OR = 1.03) were significantly associated with boys' smoking behavior. In girls, peer smoking (OR = 26.50) and parent smoking (OR = 5.48) were significantly associated with smoking behavior. Conclusions. Consistent with previous findings, peer smoking is a significant factor on adolescent smoking. Specifically, boys would be more influenced from peers than girls. Therefore, smoking prevention programs for adolescents might be focused on the social context such as, resisting to peer pressure and enhancing the self-efficacy to control.

Factors Influencing Adolescent Lifetime Smoking and Current Smoking in South Korea: Using data from the 10th (2014) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (청소년의 평생 흡연 및 현재 흡연 영향요인: 제10차(2014년) 청소년건강행태온라인조사 통계를 이용하여)

  • Gwon, Seok Hyun;Jeong, Suyong
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.552-561
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing lifetime smoking and current smoking among adolescents in South Korea. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted based on complex sample analysis using statistics from the 10th (2014) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. The study sample comprised 72,060 adolescents aged 12 to 18. Results: The significant factors influencing adolescent lifetime smoking were female gender, older age, higher stress, higher weekly allowance, lower economic status, living apart from parents, parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking, observation of school personnel smoking, and coed school compared to boys' school. The significant factors influencing adolescent current smoking were female gender, older age, higher stress, higher weekly allowance, both higher and lower economic status compared to middle economic status, living apart from parents, parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking, observation of school personnel smoking, and coed school compared to boys' school. Conclusion: Factors identified in this study need to be considered in programs directed at prevention of adolescent smoking and smoking cessation programs, as well as policies.

A Study of the Smoking of high school girls and its factor (여고생의 흡연실태와 이에 영향을 미치는 요인 - 흡연지식, 흡연태도, 건강행위를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Gey on;Kim, Myung
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 1992
  • This study was surveyed among 1136 respondent of high school girls in seoul from Feb. 6, till Feb. 22, 1992 for the purpose of analysing the smoking of high school girls and its factor. The data was analied by X²-test and Multiple Regression and shows the following. 1. Out of 1,136 respondent, the current smokers were found to be 176, 15.5% and the former smokers were 204, 18.0%. This implies that 23.5% of high school girls seoul have experience smoking. 2. For the first smoking time in both smoking group and former smokers, it shows that the third grade of middle school lead the lists. 36.9% (65) of the smokers and 37.3(75)of former smokers experienced the first smoking at that time. 70.5%(124) of the smoking group have the intention to stop smoking and the first reason of it is health problem, 65.6%(75). 3. For the type of the school the smoking rate rages from 2.7%(7) of literary part in day time to 25.3%(97) of vocational part in evening time and the rate of smoking experience shows from 9.9%(26) literary part in day time to 25.3%(97) of vocational part in evening time. This data show that literary part in day time has the lowst rate while vocational part in eveing time the highest rate. 4. Compared with non smoker group, smoking group and former smoking group spent more money (P<0.001) and felt dissatisfied with school life and didn't have good school records. 5. Smoking group and former smokers have more boy friends than non smoking group and in most cases their boy friend have smoking habits (P<0.001) and it is the same with their gril friend (P<0.001). 6. Compared with non smoker group, smoking group and former smokers lack of their parents' interest (P<0.001). But whether it is strict or free there is little difference among the three group. 7. For smoking group and former smoking group, in most cases their parent, brother and sister tend to smoke and especially their sisters' smoking has much influence on their smoking in comparison with non-smokers. 8. Compared with non-smoker group, smoking group and former smoking group tend to think less of the harm of smoking. In regard with health problem, more smoking group and former smokers think that smoking can relieve the stress (P<0.001), and more non-smokers know that when a pregnant woman smokes, it can cause the lack of supply of Oxygen{P<0.01). 9. Smoking group and former smoking group have more positive attitude towards smoking than non-smokers and tend to agree to their boy and girl friends' smoking(P<0.001).

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A Study on the Actual Conditions of Smoking in Middle and High School Students in One Region (일 지역 중·고등학생의 흡연실태)

  • Kim, Hyeon-Ok
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.149-167
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    • 1999
  • To investigate the actual conditions of smoking in middle and high school students in Chinan County, I used a sturctured questionnaire for 1,579 students attending twelve middle-high schools from December 1, 1998 to December 20, 1998. I collected and data correlated the using an $SPSS-PC^+$ 1. The smoking rate of middle-high schoo1 students in Chinan County was 17.9%, relatively high. This smoking rate was different according to the gender, grade, religion, and economic situation. In mals, high school students, non-religious, students low income family students, the smoking rate was higher. The smoking rate of high school students was almost the same as the smoking rate of adults, generally higher than that of foreign teenagers. Because the smoking rat of studinets in the third grade of middle school and in the first grade of high School was six times higher, increased education should be conducted during this time in an attempt to curb the sudden increase of the smoking rate. The smoking rate of girl students was 5.0%; this has increased mor than three times from ten years ago. Consequently, counter measures should be taken against the smoking of female students as well as juvenile smoking in general. In addition, the smoking rate of middle-high school students showed interesting differences when correnated with enviornmental factors. Students with low grades, who are not satisfied with school life, who don't have both parents, who have uncaring parents who nare too strict or too arbitary, who have smoking parents, or who have experienced smoking commonly smoked. Therefore, to lower the smoking rate we should improve the school environment, improve a student's interest in school life. And parents or siblings should lead by example and quit smoking at home. Schools should educate students more effectively concerning the harmful effects of smoking and create an accurate understanding of its dancers. From the beginning, we should teach students never ever to touch cigaretts. 2. The surve discovered that most students started out of curiosity, or solicitantion from friends or elders at middle school, and had been smoking one to five cigarettes for more than a year. They obtained cigarettes at stores and most of them have friends who smoke. As a result anti-smoking education should be conducted at elementary schools prior to middle school. More than 95% of the teenagers who smoke had friends who smote and smoked out of curiosity or the recommendation of elders. Thus, we must focus on teenagers who smoke in group, rather than individually. Fuyrthermore, the strict application of the regulation of tobacco sales as well as tobacco cooperation from retailers are needed. While students did not show any mood or academic achievement difference after beginning smoking, 58.1% of the students a health situdation that was worse. Juvenile smoking is more harmful to the juvenile than adult smoking is to the adult. This should be focused on in an anti-smoking campaign. 3. Students who smoke hada more positive attitude toward smoking than students who don't smoke. Students who smoke had a tendency to have a nuetral position and are not concerned about smoking compared to non-smoking students. The survey showed that the great number of students had a nuetral position. Because this nuetrality may increase Juvenile smoking, education that provides an exact understanding of smoking should be performed to build the correct attidude toward smoking. 4. Middle school students smoke when angry, gloomy, anxious, a lone and when they have some problems to solve, on when they feel inconveniened in other wores, they smoke to reliver stress. They also smok due to addiction. Because smoking is not a praetical method to relieve stress, a program which helps to acquire positive relief stress should be provided to help reduce smoking. 5. About 65% of students who smoke want to quit smoking because of health problem, 78% of them have tried mor than once to quit but failed due to weak will power and peer pressure from friends who smoke. Juvenile smoking is group, oriented. Thus, the program that advances less smoking will be the one that focuseds on groups. 6. As for advice to students who want to quit smoking, "persuasion" was used most commonly, followed by a "presentation on how to quit smoking". Another method were severe punishment. About 70% of the students wanted the anti-smoking guide at school. 7. Most students (73.5%) had a position that more anti-smoking education at school is needed. Obriously, then, anti-smoking education at middle-high schools should be reinfoced. Although the education which explains the harmful influence of tobacco is known as an efficient way prevent smoking; it does not influence students who already smoke. Therefore, for students who smoke, multi-dimensional approaches must be attempted that include physical training, phychokogical approache, consultation and discussion, medical chek-ups, audio-visual education technigues, and professonal instructors, in addition, because smoking students have more negative on lukewarm attitude to anti-smoking education anti-smoking education should be conducted through a communicative style by dedicated teachers who care about students. In order to increase the effectiveness of this program.

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Effects of Smoking Motivation, Smoking Behavior, Stress, and Self-Efficacy for Smoking Cessation on Health Promoting Behaviors of College Students (금연 하고자 하는 대학생의 흡연동기, 흡연행동, 스트레스, 금연자기효능이 건강증진행위에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Heejeong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medicine
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2019
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking status, stress, self-efficacy for smoking cessation and the health promoting behaviors of students who want to quit smoking. Methods : Data was collected in 2018 from 143 college students (101 males and 42 females) who were enrolled in the health clinic of N university. The average age was 21.95 years. Multiple regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used to analyzed the factors affecting health promoting behavior and the correlations between variables. Results : There were statistically significant correlations between stress and the following factors: smoking motivation (r=.323, p<.001), smoking behavior (r=.329, p<.001), and health promoting behaviors (r=-.312, p=.006). There were statistically significant correlations between Self-efficacy for smoking cessation and following factors: smoking motivation (r=-.278, p<.01), smoking behaviors (r=-.313, p<.001), and stress (r=-.324, p<.001). Health promoting behaviors were negatively correlated with smoking motivation (r=-.345, p<.05), smoking behaviors (r=-.312, p<.01), and stress (r=-.265, p<.001). Self-efficacy for smoking cessation was positively correlated with health-promoting behaviors (r=.421, p<.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that the following factors exert a significant influence on health promoting behaviors: smoking motivation (${\beta}=-.376$, p=.001), smoking behaviors (${\beta}=-.233$, p=.008), stress (${\beta}=-.278$, p=.006), and self-efficacy for smoking cessation (${\beta}=.403$, p=.000). Conclusion : The results of this study suggest that it is important to provide basic data for the development of a program for the health-promoting behaviors of university students who want to quit smoking a smoking cessation clinic at the university health clinic. However, since only some college students were included in the study, there are limitations in generalizing the results.

Moderate Effects of Gender on the Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoking and Self-concept among High School Students (성별에 따른 고등학생의 흡연에 대한 지식, 태도 및 자아개념)

  • Lee Sun-Hye;Suh Kyung-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.29-45
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: This study aims to investigate the attitude toward smoking and knowledge on smoking, self-efficacy, and self-esteem among high school students, and examine the moderate effects of gender on the differences in those variables between smoking and non-smoking students. As the result of investigation, it would suggest useful information for those who want to provide interventions of smoking prevention and smoking cessation to adolescents. Methods: Participants were 1,117 high school students (511 males, 584 females), whose mean age was 16.38 (SD=.87). To identify whether participants were smoking or not, bogus-pipeline was used. The data was collected with questionnaire include Smoking Attitude Inventory, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. A Pearson chi-square test and 2-way MANOVAs were performed with SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: With bogus-pipeline, one hundred thirty five (26.0%) of male students and 125(21.4%) of female students reported as they were smoking, while 115(22.2%) of male students and 78(13.3%) of female students reported as they were smoking at unidentified survey which was performed one week before bogus-pipeline. Results revealed that students who smoked had more positive attitude toward smoking and more knowledge on smoking than those who didn't smoke. Difference in knowledge on smoking between smoking and non-smoking students only existed in female students. Female students who smoked had lower self-esteem than female students who didn't smoke, but this difference didn't exist in male students. Conclusion: With the results of this study, it is considered smoking rates of adolescents surveyed with unidentified self-report questionnaires as underestimated. Health practitioners might consider female smokers' attitude toward and knowledge on smoking and self-esteem, especially for high school students. Despite of limitation of this study, it might help those who want to prevent initiation of smoking and give up smoking in adolescence.

Determinants of Smoking-Cessation Behaviors in Female University Students (여대생의 금연행위에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구)

  • 김혜원
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.48-60
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    • 1999
  • This study was done to determine the factors influencing smoking-cessation behavior in female university students. A total of 534 students participated in this cross sectional study by answering a questionnaire. The data collection was done between September 1 and October 31, 1997 The measurement tools used in this study were the self help change process scale (Cronbach's alpha=.9930 : developed by Oh & Kim, 1996) for smoking-cessation behaviors, the self efficacy scale(Cronbach's alpha=.8250 : developed by Sherer et al, 1982), the sex role acceptance scale (KR-20=.7757 : developed by Kim, 1991) and the social support scale(Cronbach's alpha=.9172 : developed by Park, 1985). The summarized results are follows : 1. The mean scores for smoking-cessation behaviors in smokers (N=150) was 91.72 that was considered a middle score compared to the total possible score of measurement tool (150.0). The mean score for smoking-cessation behaviors by smoking-cessation step showed significant different between the groups(F=11.71, p=.000). 2. The group with no experience in smoking(N=332) showed a high general self efficacy score (t=5.24, p=.000), and more openness to sex role acceptance(t=-2.15, p=.032) compared to the group with smoking experience (N=202). 3. General self efficacy, sex role acceptance, and social support were not different significantly between the groups according to the steps in smoking-cessation. 4. Significant factors influencing smoking-cessation behavior (total, sub concepts) were religion, sex role acceptance, social support, smoking duration, smoking attitude, time of smoking onset, amount of smoking, drinking, and perception of health status. 5. Smoking-cessation behaviors which explained 11% of the variance were smoking attitude, and smoking duration. In conclusion, this study identified factors influencing smoking-cessation behavior. Thereby it will help in the development of smoking-cessation intervention strategies. For future research, exploration other determinants of smoking cessation behaviors, evaluation of intervention efficiency, and comparative study by gender characteristics are needed.

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Smoking Behavior and Related Factors of Female Smokers from Public Health Center in Incheon (여성 흡연자의 흡연 행태 및 관련 요인 -인천광역시 보건소 금연클리닉 상담자 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Jo, Hyun-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.125-138
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This study was attempted to find out female smoking behavior and the smoking related factors. Method: Study subjects were 226 female smokers who have visited temporary clinic or smoking cessation clinic run by 10 public health centers in Incheon. The data were collected through the questionnaire specially designed for this study from April 1 to June 30, 2008. The data were analyzed by the SPSS 12.0 program. Result: 68.0% of feale smokers have smoked habitually. The average daily smoking amount of the subjects was $12.0{\pm}8.7$ ea, average rate of nicotine dependence was $4.2{\pm}2.2$ points, the mean smoking duration was $12.7{\pm}9.3$ years, and the smoking start age was $23.1{\pm}8.5$ year old. The smoking behavior by the drinking frequency showed significant difference in average daily smoking amount and rate of nicotine dependence(p<.05). Also the smoking behavior by exercise showed significant difference in current smoking frequency(p<.05). There was positive relation between female smoking behavior and monthly income, frequency of drinking, exercise, and stress respectively(p<.05, p<.01). Conclusion: Compared to a male smoker, the average daily smoking amount of a female smoker was less and the duration of smoking was longer. This study suggests that not only a social movement about a female smoking cessation is imperative but also smoking cessation programs should be combined with reduced drinking consumption, exercise and stress relief programs. Moreover, early intervention for preventing teenager smoking should be added to smoking cessation programs.