• Title, Summary, Keyword: Snake Venom

Search Result 53, Processing Time 0.173 seconds

The Study on the Snake by TOXICON (사독 관련논문의 유형분석(TOXICON 1990-2000))

  • Kim, Sung-Wook;Kwon, Ki-Rok;Kim, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.6 no.2
    • /
    • pp.165-177
    • /
    • 2003
  • The study was carried out to investigate the researches of Snake which was published papers in the TOXlCON(1990-2000), one of the most famous Journal of toxicology. And the results were as follows : 1. The number related with Snake is 195papers. 2. There were great papers related wih Cobra, and next is Tigris, Viper, etc. 3. There were great papers related wih protein in the composition of snake venom. 4. There were great papers related wih neurotoxin in the research of poisonous character. 5. There were great papers related wih Viper according to the anticoagulation. 6 Eight papers were published to study the immune response of snake venom. 7. The papers of molecular study of snake venom were seven. 8. The papers of anti-snake venom study were three.

Snake Venom synergized Cytotoxic Effect of Natural Killer Cells on NCI H358 Human Lung Cancer Cell Growth through Induction of Apoptosis

  • Oh, Jae Woo;Song, Ho Sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
    • /
    • v.33 no.2
    • /
    • pp.1-9
    • /
    • 2016
  • Objectives : I investigated whether snake venom can synergistically strengthen the cytotoxic effects of NK-92 cells, and enhance the inhibition of the growth of lung cancer cells including NCI-H358 through the induction of death receptor dependent extrinsic apoptosis. Methods : Snake venom toxin inhibited cell growth of NCI-H358 Cells and exerted non influence on NK-92 cell viability. Moreover, when they were co-cultured with NK cells and concomitantly treated with $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, more influence was exerted on the inhibition of growth of NCI-H358 cells than BV or NK cell co-culture alone. Results : The expression of Fas, TNFR2 and DR3 and in NCI-H358 lung cancer cells was significantly increased by co-culture of NK-92 cells and treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, compared to co-culture of NK-92 cells alone. Coincidentally, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-8 - expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins in the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, demonstrated significant increase. However, in anti-apoptotic NF-${\kappa}B$ activities, activity of the signal molecule was significantly decreased by co-culture of NK-92 cells and treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, compared to co-culture of NK-92 cells or snake venom toxin treated by NCIH358 alone. Meanwhile, in terms of NO generation, there is a significant increase, in co-culture of NK-92 cells with NCI-H358 cells as well as the co-culture of NK-92 cells and concomitant treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin. However, no synergistic increase of NO generation was shown in co-culture of NK-92 cells and treatment of $4{\mu}g/m{\ell}$ of snake venom toxin, compared to co-culture of NK-92 cells with NCI-H358 cells. Conclusion : Consequently, this data provides that snake venom toxin could be useful candidate compounds to suppress lung cancer growth along with the cytotoxic effect of NK-92 cells through extrinsic apoptosis.

The Study on The Snake Venom (사독(蛇毒)에 대한 문헌적(文獻的) 고찰(考察))

  • Lee, Jin-Seon;Kwon, Gi-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.73-91
    • /
    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to invastigate the researches of Snake Venom and snakes which used in treatment 1. The fist literature that used the snake for treatment is Shin Nong Ben Cao Jing 2. Composition of Snake Venom is consist of Enzymatic proteins ; Phospholipase A(A1-2), Protease, L-amino acid oxidase etc, and Non-enzymatic proteins ; Crotamine(Cytolysin), Proteolytic factor(Hematoxin), Crotoxin(Neurotoxin) etc. 3. Main toxins in Snake Venom are Hematoxin, Cytolysin, Neurotoxin and Cardiotoxin. Lethal dose 50 value of Agkistrodon brevicaudus is $45.87{\mu}g$/18g, Agkistrodon saxatilis is $10.28{\mu}g$/18g, Agkistrodon ussuriensis is $8.68{\mu}g$/18g, therefore Agkistrodon ussuriensis has strongist Snake Venom of all in Korea. 4. Pharmacological actions of Snake Venom are anticoagulation, thrombolytic function, hypotensor etc. 5. Systemic syndromes and signs after snakebite are Dizziness(25.7%), Vomitting(23.1%), Fever(22%), Visual disturbance(18%), Headache(17.7%) and Dyspnea(17.6%), etc. 6. Local syndrome and sign after snakebite is Discoloration(54.2%), Bleeding(20.2%), Bullae(10.7%), Skinulcer(10.8%), etc. 7. Pathological syndromes after snakebite are WBC increase, Urine protein, Urine sugar, Haematuria and elevation of S-GDT, S-GPT etc. These syndromes are leaded by Hematoxin and Cytolysin. 8. Complication signs after snakebite are Cellulitis, Gastritis, Lympoma, Abscess etc. 9. Common function of Viperidae(Agkistrodon acutus or Zaocys dhumnades etc) is expelling the wind(祛風), removing obstruction in the channels(通絡), antipastic function(止痙). And it is used in order to cure hemiparesis, hemiplegia, facial palsy and CVA disease, etc. 10. Using way of snake for medical treatment is various like Herbal alchol therapy, pill, powder and injection etc. The Study on the Snake Venom should be carried out continuously for using of medical treatment.

Snake Venom-enhanced Cytotoxic Effect of Natural Killer Cells on A549 Human Lung Cancer Cell Growth (사독의 인체 폐암세포(A549)에 대한 Natural Killer 세포 세포독성 촉진 효과)

  • Lee, Ji In;Song, Ho Sueb
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
    • /
    • v.32 no.1
    • /
    • pp.79-88
    • /
    • 2015
  • Objectives : The purpose of this research was to investigate the cytotoxic effect of Natural Killer(NK)-92 cell and Snake Venom, and to elucidate its mechanism on human lung carcinoma cell A549. Methods : In order to figure out whether Snake Venom enhances the cytotoxic effect of NK-92 cell in A549 cell, Cell Viability Assay was conducted. Also, in order to observe the changes of Caspase-3 and Caspase-8, both of which are proteinases that advance apoptosis, and the changes of TNRF and DR3, which are Death Receptors of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, Western Blot Analysis was conducted. By conducting RT-PCR analysis, we have tried to confirm Perforin, Granzyme B, and GADPH, all of which are cytotoxic-related proteins. Lastly, in order to observe the effect of Snake Venom on NO formation within human lung carcinoma cells, NO determination was conducted. Results : 1. After conducting Cell Viability Assay, Snake Venom enhanced the cytotoxic effect of NK-92 cell and inhibited the growth of A549. 2. Western Blot Analysis caused proteinases Caspase-3 and Caspase-8, which advance apoptosis, to increase in the combined treatment group, but not in treatment groups that focused only on either Snake Venom or NK-92 cell in A549 lung carcinoma cells. 3. Western Blot Analysis caused an expression of TNFR2 and DR3, both of which are Death Receptors of the apoptosis extrinsic pathway, in the combined treatment group, but not intreatment groups that focused only on either Snake Venom or NK-92 cell in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. 4. After conducting NO determination, NO formation within A549 cell showed no significant changes in both treatment groups that focused NK-92 cell and combined treatment group. 5. After conducting RT-PCR, the expression of Granzyme B and Perforin, which are cytotoxic-related proteins within A549 human lung carcinoma cells, showed growth in the combined treatment group, but not the treatment group that focused only on NK-92 cell. Conclusion : It has been indicated that, when it comes to the A549 cell, Snake Venom enhances the increase of Death Receptor expression and continuous apoptosis reaction, leading to the enhancement of the cancer cell cytotoxic effect of the NK-92 cell. It is expected that Snake Venom can be used with the NK-92 cell for further lung cancer treatment.

A Review on Venom Enzymes Neutralizing Ability of Secondary Metabolites from Medicinal Plants

  • Singh, Pushpendra;Yasir, Mohammad;Hazarika, Risha;Sugunan, Sunisha;Shrivastava, Rahul
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.20 no.3
    • /
    • pp.173-178
    • /
    • 2017
  • Objectives: Medicinal plants are vital sources of bioactive compounds that are useful for the treatment of patients with snake bites or are indirectly applicable for boosting the effects of conventional serum therapy. These plants are being used traditionally by local healers and tribes for the treatment of patients with snake bites and therefore can be used as an alternative against snake envenomation. Scientifically, using the secondary metabolites of plants to neutralize venom enzymes has an extra benefit of being based on traditional knowledge; also, the use of such metabolites for the treatment of patients with snake bites is cheaper and the treatment can be started sooner. Methods: All the available information on various secondary metabolites exhibiting venom neutralizing ability were collected via electronic search (using Google books, Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and articles of peer-reviewed journals. Results:Recent interest in different plant has focused on isolating and identifying of different phytoconstituents that exhibit Phospholipase A2 activity and other venom enzyme neutralizing ability. In this support convincing evidence in experimental animal models are available. Conclusion: Secondary metabolites are naturally present, have no side effect, are stable for a long time, can be easily stored, and can neutralize a wide range of snake enzymes, such as phospholipase A2, hyaluronidase, protease, L-amino acid oxidase, 5'nucleotidase, etc. The current review presents a compilation of important plant secondary metabolites that are effective against snake venom due to enzyme neutralization.

Preliminary Study on the Antisnake Venom Activity of Alcoholic Root Extract of Clerodendrum viscosum (Vent.) in Naja naja Venom

  • Lobo, Richard;Punitha, I.S.R.;Rajendran, K.;Shirwaikar, Arun;Shirwaikar, Annie
    • Natural Product Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.3
    • /
    • pp.153-156
    • /
    • 2006
  • The antisnake venom activity of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (Fam. Verbenaceae), a plant traditionally used in India for the treatment of snake bite was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods. While in vitro studies were performed using human blood, in vivo studies were carried out using mice administered three different i.p doses of the extract, 5 min before the administration of Naja naja snake venom. The results of the in vitro studies showed that the extract probably interacts with but does not stabilize membrane protein. In the in vivo studies the extract showed significant antisnake venom activity, which may be attributed to its possible interference with the acetylcholine receptor sites. Hence the present investigation justifies the traditional use of Clerodendrum viscosum (C. viscosum) as antisnake venom.

Purification and Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Snake Venom of Macrovipera lebetina turanica

  • Kwon, Ki-Rok;Park, Do-Il;Lee, Seung-Bae;Choi, Suk-Ho
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.5-14
    • /
    • 2011
  • Objectives: Fibrinolytic enzyme preparations were isolated from the snake venom of Macrovipera lebetica turanica in this study. Methods: The purity of the preparations was determined using SDS-PAGE and the enzymic characteristics of the purified fibrinolytic enzyme were determined. Results: 1. All of the two preparations with fibrinolytic activity obtained from the snake venom of M. l. turanicat contained the major polypeptide with the molecular weight of 27,500. One of the preparation showed purified fibrinolytic enzyme. 2. The purified fibrinolytic enzyme hydrolyzed ${\alpha}$-chain of fibrinogen faster than ${\beta}$-chain but not ${\gamma}$-chain. 3. The fibrinolytic activity was inhibited completely by EDTA, EGTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, and dithiothreitol. 4. The fibrinolytic activity was inhibited completely by calcium chloride, iron(III) chloride, mercuric chloride, and cobalt (II) chloride. 5. The fibrinolysis zone formed after addition of zinc sulfate was smaller but clearer than the control. Conclusions: These results suggested that the fibrinolytic enzyme purifed from the snake venom of M. l turanica was a metalloprotease containing dithiol group.

Enhanced Anti-Cancer Effect of Snake Venom Activated NK Cells on Lung Cancer Cells by Inactivation of NF-κB

  • Kollipara, Pushpa Saranya;Won, Do Hee;Hwang, Chul Ju;Jung, Yu Yeon;Yoon, Heui Seoung;Park, Mi Hee;Song, Min Jong;Song, Ho Sueb;Hong, Jin Tae
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
    • /
    • v.22 no.2
    • /
    • pp.106-113
    • /
    • 2014
  • In the present study, we investigated anti-cancer effect of snake venom activated NK cells (NK-92MI) in lung cancer cell lines. We used snake venom ($4{\mu}g/ml$) treated NK-92MI cells to co-culture with lung cancer cells. There was a further decrease in cancer cell growth up to 65% and 70% in A549 and NCI-H460 cell lines respectively, whereas 30-40% was decreased in cancer cell growth by snake venom or NK-92MI alone treatment. We further found that the expression of various apoptotic proteins such as that Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 as well as the expression of various death receptor proteins like DR3, DR4 and Fas was also further increased. Moreover, consistent with cancer cell growth inhibition, the DNA binding activity of NF-${\kappa}B$ was also further inhibited after treatment of snake venom activated NK-92MI cells. Thus, the present data showed that activated NK cells could further inhibit lung cancer cell growth.

Isolation and charaterization of a microbial antihemorrhagic substance on snake venom (사독의 출혈인자에 작용하는 미생물성 유출혈물질)

  • 서정훈
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.145-153
    • /
    • 1986
  • For the inactivation of venoms, the chemical methods are generally applied. In the chemical method many works have been carried out with the chemical reagents and immunological antiserums. However, all inhibitory effect of these chemicals acting on snake venomes may well be due not to the specific, but to the nonspecific inhibitory action. Therefore, it is necessary to separate venom into its compositional active proteins and develop specific inhibitor which acts on the each protein. Until now, there have not been any reports about the substance which acts on snake venom as a specific inhibitor. Recently in 1979, we had actually isolated a specific venom inhibitor(ISV) which has a strong inhibitory activity against the proteinase of snake venom of Colubridae. In our experiments described here, a strain of Aspergillus sp., isolated from soil, was able to produce a biological active substance. The partial crystallized substance had a strong inhibitory activity against hemorrhagic action of snake venom of Colubridae. For the inhibitory action of the sample on the lethality of venom, the substance prevented completely the lethal action of the hemorrhagic factor when they were treated with enough amount of the substance. The edema factor of whole venom of Agristrodon bromohoffi brevicaudus was completely inhibited, but those of HR-I and HR-II of Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom were inhibited about 50%, when they were treated with the substance of half amount of venom. On the other hand, from the result of subcutaneous hemorrhage in a rabbit, it was concluded that two kinds of antihemorrhagic substance might be produced by the strain used in this work.

  • PDF

A Collaborative Study to Establish the Second Korean National Reference Standard for Snake Venom

  • Han, Kiwon;Jung, Kikyung;Oh, Hokyung;Song, Hojin;Park, Sangmi;Kim, Ji-Hye;Min, Garam;Lee, Byung-Hwa;Nam, Hyun-sik;Kim, Yang Jin;Ato, Manabu;Jeong, Jayoung;Ahn, Chiyoung
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.191-197
    • /
    • 2018
  • In 2015, a candidate for the second national reference standard (NRS) of Gloydius snake venom was produced to replace the first NRS of Gloydius snake venom. In the present study, the potencies of the candidate were determined by a collaborative study, and the qualification of the candidate was estimated. The potencies of the candidate were determined by measuring the murine lethal titers and lapine hemorrhagic titers of venom against the regional working reference standard (RWRS) for antivenom using the methods described in the previous report for the first NRS of Gloydius snake venom. Three Korean facilities contributed data from a total of 30 independent assays. Subsequently, two foreign national control research laboratories contributed to this collaborative study. The results were calculated using the Reed-Muench method for lethality and determined using a mixed-effects model for hemorrhage. The general common potencies of the lethal and hemorrhagic titers were obtained from the results of the 30 tests performed at three Korean facilities. The results are expressed in micrograms for 1 test dose (TD) with a 95% confidence interval as follows: a lethal titer of $90.13{\mu}g/TD$ (95% confidence interval = $87.39{\sim}92.86{\mu}g$) and a hemorrhagic titer of $10.80{\mu}g/TD$ (95% confidence interval = $10.46{\sim}11.14{\mu}g$). In addition, the candidate preparation showed good quality evaluation according to the results of the quality estimation of the candidate and is judged to be suitable to serve as the Korean NRS for snake venom. In conclusion, the second NRS of Gloydius snake venom was established in this study and will be used for national quality control, including a national lot release test of Korean antivenom products.