• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soil fungi

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Decrease of Nematode Population by Introduction of Nematophagous Fungi into The Soil as Affected by Inoculum Concentration and Temperature in Vitro (선충 기생 전적 진균의 접종원 농도와 온도조건에 따른 성충감염 및 집단 감소효과)

  • 김희규;정미정;추호렬;박창석
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 1988
  • Five nematophagous fungi were evaluated for their nematicidal effect in vitro on Rhabditis sp. and Meloidogyne hapla in soil. Inocula of Arthrobotrys arthrobotryoides, A. conoides, A. oligospora, Dactylella lobata, and Fusarium oxyaporum were grown in moistened corn-sandy soil and chopped potato-sandy soil media, and incubated at 26$^{\circ}C$ for one week. The prepared inocula were incorporated in autoclaved sandy soil, mixing thoroughly at rates equ-invalent to 1:50, 1:100, 1:200, and 1:400, repectively, before 80g of the mixture carrying 100 Rhabditis sp. was put into petri plates. Nematophagous fungi effectively teduced the popuation of Rhabditis sp. in soil in a week or two following treatment of the incula at concentration of 1:50 and 1:100. The optimum was at $25^{\circ}C$ for nematicidial effect as high as 80-100%. The at the rate of 1:100 prepared incula were incorporated in auto-claved soil, where 100 Juveniles M. hapla were introduced per 80% soil. All fungi infected the M. hapla effectively in soil, caysing more than 90% mortality within one week. This result indicated the potential value of these fungi as promising biocontrol agents.

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Study on Selective Media for Isolation of Entomopathogenic Fungi

  • Shin, Tae-Young;Choi, Jae-Bang;Bae, Sung-Min;Koo, Hyun-Na;Woo, Soo-Dong
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 2010
  • To determine the optimal isolation conditions of the entomopathogenic fungi from soil, we compared their growth characteristics with non-entomopathogenic fungi on agar media containing various concentrations of cooper (II) chloride ($CuCl_2$) or dodine. The result showed that dodine medium is more selective, and the optimal concentration of dodine is determined with $50{\mu}g$/ml. We could isolate several putative entomopathogenic fungi from soil using this, and identify them using ITS analysis. As a result, 64% fungi were identified as typical entomopathogenic fungi. This selective medium may be useful to the rapid and simple isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil.

Species Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Community Depending on Environmental Conditions of Forest Soils (산림(山林)의 토양환경(土壤環境) 조건(條件)에 따른 수지상(樹枝狀) 균근(菌根)(AM)균(菌) 집단(集團)의 종(種) 다양성(多樣性))

  • Koo, Chang-Duck
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.70-79
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    • 2000
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi have significant role for ecosystem structure and function. They are the major component of forest soil ecosystems and critically important for water and nutrient cycling in the system. To understand the ecology of AM fungi the fungal spores were collected, identified and counted in forest soils under various climatic and edaphic conditions. In relation to soil depth 90% of AM fungi spores and mycorrhizas distributed within 15cm soil depth. Number of spores per $100m{\ell}$ forest soil volume was 5 to 36 spores from 1 to 3 fungal species. AM fungal species diversity was higher in warmer climates, and more moist and fertile soils. The most frequently found species were Gigaspora decipiens irrespective of soil moisture and Gi. gigantea irrespective of soil fertility. In the Jeju island the soils of Cryptomeria japonica plantations and Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens meadow had more AM spores than the other soils. We suggest AM fungi be considered as keystones species when restoring a disturbed forest ecosystem.

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Diversity of Fungi in Soils with Different Degrees of Degradation in Germany and Panama

  • Rosas-Medina, Miguel;Macia-Vicente, Jose G.;Piepenbring, Meike
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.20-28
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    • 2020
  • Soil degradation can have an impact on the soil microbiota, but its specific effects on soil fungal communities are poorly understood. In this work, we studied the impact of soil degradation on the richness and diversity of communities of soil fungi, including three different degrees of degradation in Germany and Panama. Soil fungi were isolated monthly using the soil-sprinkling method for 8 months in Germany and 3 months in Panama, and characterized by morphological and molecular data. Soil physico-chemical properties were measured and correlated with the observed values of fungal diversity. We isolated a total of 71 fungal species, 47 from Germany, and 32 from Panama. Soil properties were not associated with fungal richness, diversity, or composition in soils, with the exception of soil compaction in Germany. The geographic location was a strong determinant of the soil fungal species composition although in both countries there was dominance by members of the orders Eurotiales and Hypocreales. In conclusion, the results of this work do not show any evident influence of soil degradation on communities of soil fungi in Germany or Panama.

Comparison between Siderophores Production by Fungi Isolated from Heavy Metals Polluted and Rhizosphere Soils

  • Hussein, Khalid A.;Joo, Jin Ho
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.798-804
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    • 2012
  • Although siderophores are induced primarily in response to iron deficiency, soil and other ecological factors can affect on this process. This study was to evaluate the production of siderophores by different fungal species isolated from heavy metal contaminated and uncontaminated soils. More than thirty fungal strains were isolated from heavy metal contaminated and rhizosphere uncontaminated soils. Chrome azurol sulfonate (CAS) was used for both quantitative and qualitative evaluation of siderophores production. No significant correlations were observed between the tested variables such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation method and CAS-agar plate and heavy metal concentration in both soils. The production of siderophores in rhizosphere fungi was higher than those isolated from the contaminated soil; however, the difference was not significant. The siderophore production (%) by fungi isolated from heavy metal contaminated soil using UV irradiation method was positively correlated with the qualitative values using CAS-plate method (P<0.05). Pearson correlation test indicated a positive correlation between the quantitative and qualitative methods of detection for fungi isolated from rhizosphere and also those isolated from heavy metal contaminated soil.

Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi in red pine seedlings

  • Seo, Il-Won;Lee, Jong-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Plant Pathology Conference
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    • pp.89.1-89
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    • 2003
  • Disease suppression by ectomycorrhizal(ECM) fungi has been demonstrated on red pine seedlings. Culturing of pathogenic fungi on petri plates containing culture filtrates of ECM fungi showed that culture filtrates of the ECM fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum may inhibit the mycelial growth of all tested soil-borne plant pathogenic(SBPP) fungi upto 60%, In order to examine the effects of ECM fungi on SBPP fungi and on red pine seedlings, both symbiotic and pathogenic fungi were inoculated into the soil with red pine seedlings by three inoculation methods; pre-inoculation of SBPP fungi 10 days before inoculation of ECM fungi, simultaneous inoculation of both fungi, post-inoculation of SBPP fungi 60 days after inoculation of ECM fungi. Seedling mortality, seedling growth, and ectomycorrhizal formation by the combined treatments were examined and compared. Pine seedlings were dead by the pre-inoculation of pathogenic fungi, except Rhizina undulate which required 9-12 days, within 6 days after inoculation. Among pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium oxysporum was the most pathogenic with the mortality of 44%. However, no dead seedlings were shown by simultaneous inoculation of both fungi or pre-inoculation of ECM fungi. In addition, pine seedlings treated by simultaneous or post-inoculation of SBPP fungi were relatively higher than those treated by pre-inoculation in diameter at root crown and the number of ectomycorrhizal roots. There were no significant differences among inoculation methods in root length and dry weight of treated seedlings. It means that ECM fungi somehow play a role in protecting primary roots of red pine seedlings against invasion by the SBPP fungi.

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A study on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) plant Biochemical and histochemical changes inoculated with indigenous AM fungi under Barren soil

  • Pal, Ajay;Pandey, Sonali
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.203-206
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    • 2017
  • The soil organisms that develop beneficial Symbiotic relationships with plants roots and contribute to plant growth are mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculations change the growth and biochemical composition of the host plant and soil. Mycorrhizal root systems do augment the absorbing area of roots from 10 to 100 times thereby greatly improving the ability of the plants to utilize the soil resources. A pot experiment was conducted during the kharif seasons at Jaipur, Rajasthan, to find out the effects of three different indigenous AM fungi i.e. Glomus mosseae, Glomus fasciculatum and Gigaspora decipiens either single and in combination inoculation on biochemical and histochemical changes of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) grown under barren soil conditions. The AM fungus has shown to improve the tolerance of plant to drought stress. Experimental results showed that AM fungi treated plants improved their plants growths, biochemical and histochemical changes as compared to non-mycorrhizal treatments. The AM fungi inoculated plant was found to be attaining maximum plant biochemical and histochemical substances in Glomus mosseae (alone) and also Glomus mosseae + Glomus fasciculatum treatments.

On the Decay Rate of Soil Organic Matter and Changes of Soil Microbial populaiton (토양유기물의 분해속도와 Microbial populaiton의 소장에 관한 연구)

  • 김춘민
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.10 no.1_2
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 1967
  • The aim of present study is to elucidate the relationship between decay rate of soil organic matter, and the change of soil microbial population under the oak and pine forest soils in Kwang-nung plantation stand. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The correlation coefficient between decay rate and the soil bacteria is 0.84 and fungi 0.93. 2) The distribution of soil microbial population is higher in both F horizon of the oak forest soil, and F and H horizon of the pine forest soil. However, the number of soil microorganisms decreases with the depth in each forest soil. 3) The population of soil microbes is related to moisture content, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable calcium, except organic carbon in fungi. 4) The soil organic matter has been mainly decomposed by fungi, and the size of its population are governed by the factors such as moisture content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable calcium.

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Spore Associated Bacteria (SAB) of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Increase Nutrient Uptake and Plant Growth Under Stress Conditions

  • Gopal, Selvakumar;Chandrasekaran, Murugesan;Shagol, Charlotte;Kim, Ki-Yoon;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.582-592
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    • 2012
  • Microorganisms present in the rhizosphere soil plays a vital role in improving the plant growth and soil fertility. Many kinds of fertilizers including chemical and organic has been approached to improve the productivity. Though some of them showed significant improvement in yield, they failed to maintain the soil properties. Rather they negatively affected soil eventually, the land became unsuitable for agricultural. To overcome these problems, microorganisms have been used as effective alternative. For past few decades, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been used as effective inoculants to enhance the plant growth and productivity. PGPR improves the plant growth and helps the plant to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses. AM fungi are known to colonize roots of plants and they increase the plant nutrient uptake. Spore associated bacteria (SAB) are attached to spore wall or hyphae and known to increase the AMF germination and root colonization but their mechanism of interaction is poorly known. Better understanding the interactions among AMF, SAB and PGPR are necessary to enhance the quality of inoculants as a biofertilizers. In this paper, current knowledge about the interactions between fungi and bacteria are reviewed and discussed about AMF spore associated bacteria.