• Title, Summary, Keyword: Solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency

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Economic Evaluation of Domestic Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production (국내 광전기화학 수소생산의 경제성 평가)

  • Gim, Bong-Jin;Kim, Jong-Wook
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2010
  • This paper deals with an economic evaluation of domestic immersing type photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. We also make some sensitivity analysis of hydrogen production prices by changing the values of input factors such as the initial capital cost, the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency, and the system duration time. The hydrogen production price of the immersing type photoelectrochemical system was estimated as 8,264,324 won/$kgH_2$. It is expected that the production cost by photoelectrochemical hydrogen production can be reduced to 26,961 won/$kgH_2$ if the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased to 14%, the system duration time is increased to 20,000 hours, and the initial capital cost is decreased to 10% of the current level. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen production is evaluated as uneconomical at this time, and we need to enhance the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency and the system duration time as well as to reduce prices of the system facilities.

Economic Evaluation of Domestic Window Type Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Utilizing Solar Cells (태양전지를 이용한 국내 Window Type 광전기화학 수소생산의 경제성 평가)

  • Gim, Bong-Jin;Kim, Jong-Wook
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.595-603
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    • 2010
  • This paper deals with an economic evaluation of domestic window type photoelectrochemical hydrogen production utilizing solar cells. We make some sensitivity analysis of hydrogen production prices by changing the values of input factors such as the initial capital cost, the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency, and the system duration time. The hydrogen production price of the window type photoelectrochemical system was estimated as 1,168,972 won/$kgH_2$. It is expected that hydrogen production cost can be reduced to 47,601 won/$kgH_2$ if the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased to 14%, the system duration time is increased to 20,000 hours, and the initial capital cost is decreased to 25% of the current level. We also evaluate the hydrogen production cost of the water electrolysis using the electricity produced by solar cells. The corresponding hydrogen production cost was estimated as 37,838 won/$kgH_2$. The photoelectrochemical hydrogen production is evaluated as uneconomical at this time, and we need to enhance the solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency and the system duration time as well as to reduce prices of the system facilities.

Highly Stabilized Protocrystalline Silicon Multilayer Solar Cells (고 안정화 프로터결정 실리콘 다층막 태양전지)

  • Lim Koeng Su;Kwak Joong Hwan;Kwon Seong Won;Myong Seung Yeop
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.102-108
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    • 2005
  • We have developed highly stabilized (p-i-n)-type protocrystalline silicon (pc-Si:H) multilayer solar cells. To achieve a high conversion efficiency, we applied a double-layer p-type amorphous silicon-carbon alloy $(p-a-Si_{1-x}C_x:H)$ structure to the pc-Si:H multilayer solar cells. The less pronounced initial short wavelength quantum efficiency variation as a function of bias voltage proves that the double $(p-a-Si_{1-x}C_x:H)$ layer structure successfully reduces recombination at the p/i interface. It was found that a natural hydrogen treatment involving an etch of the defective undiluted p-a-SiC:H window layer before the hydrogen-diluted p-a-SiC:H buffer layer deposition and an improvement of the order in the window layer. Thus, we achieved a highly stabilized efficiency of $9.0\%$ without any back reflector.

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Design of Supramolecular Electrolytes for Solid State Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (고체형 염료감응 태양전지용 초분자 전해질 개발)

  • Koh, Jong-Kwan;Koh, Joo-Hwan;Seo, Jin-Ah;Kim, Jong-Hak
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.24-27
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    • 2009
  • Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been constructed employing supramolecular electrolytes with multiple hydrogen bonding. A supramolecule was facilely synthesized by one-pot reaction between the amines of methyl isocytosine (MIC) and the epoxy groups of poly(ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether) (PEGDGE) to produce quadruple hydrogen bonding units. Hydrogen bonding interactions and dissolution behavior of salt in supramolecular electrolytes are investigated. The ionic conductivity of the supramolecular electrolytes with ionic liquid, i.e. 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) reaches $8.5{\times}10^{-5}$ S/cm at room temperature, which is higher than that with metal salt (KI). A worm-like morphology is observed in the FE-SEM micrographs of $TiO_2$ nanoporous layer, due to the connection of $TiO_2$ nanoparticles resulting from adequate coating by electrolytes. DSSCs employing the supramolecular electrolytes with MPII and KI exhibit an energy conversion efficiency of 2.5 % and 0.5 %, respectively, at 100 $mW/cm^2$, indicating the importance of the cation of salt. Solar cell performances were further improved up to 3.7 % upon introduction of poly(ethylene glycol dimethyl ether) (PEGDME) with 500 g/mol.

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Optimization of Passivation Process in Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG)-Silicon Solar Cells (UMG 실리콘 태양전지의 패시베이션 공정 연구)

  • Chang, Hyo-Sik;Kim, Yoo-Jin;Kim, Jin-Ho;Hwang, Kwang-Taek;Choi, Kyoon;Ahn, Jon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.438-438
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    • 2009
  • We have investigated the effect of forming gas annealing for Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG)-silicon solar cell in order to obtain low-cost high-efficiency cell using post deposition anneal at a relatively low temperature. We have observed that high concentration hydrogenation effectively passivated the defects and improved the minority carrier lifetime, series resistance and conversion efficiency. It can be attributed to significantly improved hydrogen-passivation in high concentration hydrogen process. This improvement can be explained by the enhanced passivation of silicon solar cell with antireflection layer due to hydrogen re-incorporation. The results of this experiment represent a promising guideline for improving the high-efficiency solar cells by introducing an easy and low cost process of post hydrogenation in optimized condition.

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Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation and $CO_2$ Conversion for Artificial Photosynthesis

  • Park, Hyunwoong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.70-70
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    • 2013
  • As the costs of carbon-footprinetd fuels grow continuously and simultaneously atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration increases, solar fuels are receiving growing attention as alternative clean energy carriers. These fuels include molecular hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide produced from water, and hydrocarbons converted from carbon dioxide. For high efficiency solar fuel production, not only light absorbers (oxide semiconductors, Si, inorganic complexes, etc) should absorb most sunlight, but also charge separation and interfacial charge transfers need to occur efficiently. With this in mind, this talk will introduce the fundamentals of solar fuel production and artificial photosynthesis, and then discuss in detail on photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting and CO2 conversion. This talk largely divides into two section: PEC water oxidation and PEC CO2 reduction. The former is very important for proton-coupled electron transfer to CO2. For this oxidation, a variety of oxide semiconductors have been tested including TiO2, ZnO, WO3, BiVO4, and Fe2O3. Although they are essentially capable of oxidizing water into molecular oxygen, the efficiency is very low primarily because of high overpotentials and slow kinetics. This challenge has been overcome by coupling with oxygen evolving catalysts (OECs) and/or doping donor elements. In the latter, surface-modified p-Si electrodes are fabricated to absorb visible light and catalyze the CO2 reduction. For modification, metal nanoparticles are electrodeposited on the p-Si and their PEC performance is compared.

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Solid-state Supramolecular polymer electrolytes containing double hydrogen bonding sites for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells(DSSCs) (초분자 고체전해질을 이용한 고효율 염료감응형 태양전지)

  • Kim, Sun-Young;Jeon, La-Sun;Lee, Yong-Gun;Kang, Yong-Soo
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.309-311
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    • 2007
  • Supramolecules containing double hydrogen bonding sites at their both chain ends were self-polymerized to become solid state polymer and were utilized to improve the efficiency of solid state DSSCs. Hydrogen bonding sites were attached at the chain ends of PEG of Mw=2000, such as pyrimethamine and glutaric acid. The solar cell with the solid state supramolecular polymer electrolyte resulted in the overall energy conversion efficiency of 4.63 % with a short circuit current density $(J_{sc})$ of 10.41 $mAcm^{-2}$, an open circuit voltage $V_{oc}$, of 0.71 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 at one sun condition ([oligomer]:[1-methyl-3-propyl imidazolium iodide (MPII)]:$[I_2]$ = 20 : 1 : 0.19, active area = 0.16 $cm^2$, $TiO_2$ layer thickness = 10 ${\mu}m$). The ionic conductivity of the sol id state electrolyte was $5.11{\times}10^{-4}$ (S/cm). The cell performance was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ionic conductivity.

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Fabrication of NiS Thin Films as Counter Electrodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells using Atomic Layer Deposition

  • Jeong, Jin-Won;Kim, Eun-Taek;Park, Su-Yong;Seong, Myeong-Mo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.276.2-276.2
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    • 2016
  • Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are promising candidates for light-to-energy conversion devices due to their low-cost, easy fabrication and relative high conversion efficiency. An important component of DSCs is counter electrode (CE) collect electrons from external circuit and reduct I3- to I-. The conventional CEs are thermally decomposed Pt on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates, which have shown excellent performance and stability. However, Pt is not suitable in terms of cost effect. In this report, we demonstrated that nickel sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD)-using Nickel(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-butanolate)2 and hydrogen sulfide at low temperatures of $90-200^{\circ}C$-could be good CEs in DSCs. Notably, ALD allows the thin films to grow with good reproducibility, precise thickness control and excellent conformality at the angstrom or monolayer level. The nickel sulfide films were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, hall measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The ALD grown nickel sulfide thin films showed high catalytic activity for the reduction of I3- to I- in DSC. The DSCs with the ALD-grown nickel sulfide thin films as CEs showed the solar cell efficiency of 7.12% which is comparable to that of the DSC with conventional Pt coated counter electrode (7.63%).

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Electrical Properties of Photovoltaic cells depending on Simulated design (모의 설계에 따른 Photovoltaic cells의 전기적 특성)

  • Choi, Hyun-Min;Jeong, In-Bum;Kim, Gwi-Yeol;Kim, Tae-Wan;Hong, Jin-Woong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.36-36
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    • 2010
  • Currently, there are several newly developed energy resources for the future to replace petroleum resources such as hydrogen fuel cell, solar cell, wind power, and etc. Among them, solar cell has attracted a worldwide concern, because it has an enormous amount of resources. In general, a study of solar cells can be classified in to an area of bulk type and thin-film type. Inorganic solar cells based on silicon have been tremendously developed in technology and efficiency. However, since there are many lithographic steps, high processing temperature approximately $1000^{\circ}C$, and expensive raw materials, a manufacturing cost of device are nearly reaching a limit. Contrary to those disadvantages, organic solar cells can be manufactured at room temperature. Also, it has many advantages such as a low cost, easy fabrication of thin film, and possible manufacture to a large size. Because it can be made to be flexible, research and development on solar cells are actively in progress for the next generation. ever though an efficiency of the organic solar cell is low compared to that of inorganic one, a continuous study is needed. In this paper, we report optimal device structure obtained by a program simulation for design and development of highly efficient organic photovoltaic cells. we have also compared simulated results to experimental ones.

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Development of Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using ZnO Post-Treated TiO2 Photoelectrodes (ZnO로 후처리된 TiO2 광전극을 이용한 고효율의 염료감응형 태양전지의 개발)

  • PARK, JUN-YONG;YUN, BYEONG-RO;KIM, TAE-OH
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.419-425
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    • 2017
  • In this study, an efficient dye-sensitive solar cells (DSSC) was developed after post-treatment of ZnO on $TiO_2$ photoelectrode. The $TiO_2$ electrode with ZnO post treatment was prepared with Titanium isoporopoxide in Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate aqueous solution by incineration for 30 min at $450^{\circ}C$. The ZnO-post treated $TiO_2$ electrode showed strong dispersion force between particles in relation to the control $TiO_2$, referring high specific surface area and dye-adsorption rate. Proper addition of ZnO enhanced electron mobility and reduced internal resistance and electron recombination. Light conversion efficiency of DSSCs containing the ZnO-posttreated $TiO_2$ electrode increased 35.4% when compared to the DSSCs using $TiO_2$ electrode. It is similar to the DSSCs with $TiCl_4$ post treatment $TiO_2$ electrode. Increasing of light conversion efficiency was due to high specific surface area and dispersion force, and low dye-adsorption rate and electron recombination. Taken together, ZnO may be used as posttreatment of photoelectrode and replaced $TiCl_4$ that has high toxicity and causticity.