• Title, Summary, Keyword: Solid oxide fuel cells

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Fuel Cells for Intermediate Temperature Operations (저온 작동 박막 고체산화물 연료전지)

  • Shim, Joon-H.;Cha, Suk-Won;Gur, Turgut M.;Prinz Fritz B.
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.751-757
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    • 2006
  • Recently, a new type of solid oxide fuel cells has been developed employing extremely thin oxide electrolyte. These fuel cells are expected to operate at significantly reduced temperature compared to conventional solid oxide fuel cells. Accordingly, they may resolve the stability and material selection issues of high temperature fuel cells. Furthermore, they may eliminate the limitations of polymer membrane fuel cells whose operation temperature is under $100^{\circ}C$. In this paper, we review the electrolytes for intermediate temperature operation. Then, we discuss the current development of thin film solid oxide fuel cells that possibly operated at low temperatures.

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Designs, Materials, and Applications

  • Singhal Subhash C.
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.42 no.12
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    • pp.777-786
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    • 2005
  • The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical device to convert chemical energy of a fuel into electricity at temperatures from about 600 to $1000^{\circ}C$. The SOFC offers certain advantages over lower temperature fuel cells, notably its ability to use CO as a fuel rather than being poisoned by it, and high grade exhaust heat for combined heat and power, or combined cycle gas turbine applications. This paper reviews the operating principle, materials for different cell and stack components, cell designs, and applications of SOFCs. Among all designs of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs), the most progress has been achieved with the tubular design. However, the electrical resistance of tubular SOFCs is high, and specific power output $(W/cm^2)$ and volumetric power density $(W/cm^3)$ low. Planar SOFCs, in contrast, are capable of achieving very high power densities.

Effects of anode and current collector materials on the power density of solid oxide electrolyte direct carbon fuel cell (고체산화물 전해질 직접탄소 연료전지의 전극 및 집전부 재질이 출력밀도에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, J.Y.;Yoon, J.E.;Kang, K.;Kim, J.H.;Lee, B.J.
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.392-394
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    • 2009
  • Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFCs) generates electricity directly converting the chemical energy in coal. In the present study, effects of anode and current collector materials on the power density of DCFC are investigated experimentally. The adopted DCFC system is combined type of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) with the use of a liquid-molten salt anode and a solid oxide electrolyte, proposed by SRI. Power densities of 25 mm button cells with various combination of anode materials and current collector materials are measured.

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Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Power Generation and Hydrogen Production

  • Minh, Nguyen Q.
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been under development for a variety of power generation applications. Power system sizes considered range from small watt-size units (e.g., 50-W portable devices) to very large multi-megawatt systems (e.g., 500-MW base load power plants). Because of the reversibility of its operation, the SOFC has also been developed to operate under reverse or electrolysis mode for hydrogen production from steam (In this case, the cell is referred to as solid oxide electrolysis cell or SOEC.). Potential applications for the SOEC include on-site and large-scale hydrogen production. One critical requirement for practical uses of these systems is long-term performance stability under specified operating conditions. Intrinsic material properties and operating environments can have significant effects on cell performance stability, thus performance degradation rate. This paper discusses potential applications of the SOFC/SOEC, technological status and current research and development (R&D) direction, and certain aspects of long-term performance degradation in the operation of SOFCs/SOECs for power generation/hydrogen production.

Study on metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (신구조 금속지지체형 고체산화물 연료전지)

  • Lee, Chang-Bo;Bae, Joong-Myeon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.129-132
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    • 2007
  • Advanced structure of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells was devised to overcome sealing problem and mechanical instability in ceramic-supported solid oxide fuel cells. STS430 whose dimensions were 26mm diameter, 1mm thickness and 0.4mm channel width was used as metal support. Thin ceramic layer composed of anode(Ni/YSZ) and electrolyte(YSZ) was joined with STS430 metal support by using a cermet adhesive. $La_{0.8}Sr_{0.2}Co_{0.4}Mn_{0.6}O_{3}$ perovskite oxide was used as cathode material. It was noted that oxygen reduction reaction of cathode governed the overall cell performance from oxygen partial pressure dependance.

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Catalytic Effects of Barium Carbonate on the Anodic Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

  • Yoon, Sung-Eun;Ahn, Jae-Yeong;Park, Jong-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.350-355
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    • 2015
  • To develop ceramic composite anodes of solid oxide fuel cells without metal catalysts, a small amount of barium carbonate was added to an $(La_{0.8}Sr_{0.2})(Cr_{0.5}Mn_{0.5})O_3(LSCM)$ - YSZ ceramic composite anode and its catalytic effects on the electrode performance were investigated. A barium precursor solution with citric acid was used to synthesize the barium carbonate during ignition, while a barium precursor solution without citric acid was used to create hydrated barium hydroxide. The addition of barium carbonate to the ceramic composite anode caused stable fuel cell performance at 1073 K; this performance was higher than that of a fuel cell with $CeO_2$ catalyst; however, the addition of hydrated barium hydroxide to the ceramic composite anode caused poor stability of the fuel cell performance.

Applications to Thin Film Processing to Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

  • Kim, Eui-Hyun;Hwang, Hee-Su;Ko, Myeong-Hee;Hwang, Jin-Ha
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.696-696
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    • 2013
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been gaining academic/industrial attention due to the unique high efficiency and minimized pollution emission. SOFCs are an electrochemical system composed of dissimilar materials which operates at relatively high temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000oC. The cell performance is critically dependent on the inherent properties and integration processing of the constituents, a cathode, an electrolyte, an anode, and an interconnect in addition to the sealing materials. In particular, the gas transport, ion transport, and by-product removal also affect the cell performance, in terms of open cell voltages, and cell powers. In particular, the polarization of cathode materials is one of the main sources which affects the overall function in SOFCs. Up to now, there have been studies on the materials design and microstructure design of the component materials. The current work reports the effect of thin film processing on cathode polarization in solid oxide fuel cells. The polarization issues are discussed in terms of dc- and ac-based electrical characterizations. The potential of thin film processing to the applicability to SOFCs is discussed.

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Electrochemical Performance and Cr Tolerance in a La1-xBaxCo0.9Fe0.1O3-δ (x = 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) Cathode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

  • Choe, Yeong-Ju;Hwang, Hae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.308-314
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    • 2015
  • The electrochemical performance and Cr poisoning behavior of $La_{1-x}Ba_xCo_{0.9}Fe_{0.1}O_{3-{\delta}}$ (LBCF, x = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) and $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{0.2}Fe_{0.8}O_{3-{\delta}}$ (LSCF) cathodes were investigated for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The polarization resistance of the LBCF/GDC/LBCF symmetrical cell was found to decrease with increasing Ba content (x value). This phenomenon might be associated with the high oxygen vacancy concentration in the LBCF sample, with x = 0.5. In addition, there was no chromium poisoning in the LBCF cathode. On the other hand, the polarization resistance of the LSCF cathode was found to significantly increase after exposure to gaseous chromium species; it appears that this result stemmed from the formation of $SrCrO_4$ phase. Therefore, it can be expected that LBCF can be a durable potential cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC).

Overview on Ceramic and Nanostructured Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) Working at Different Temperatures

  • Priya, S. Dharani;Selvakumar, A. Immanuel;Nesaraj, A. Samson
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.99-116
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    • 2020
  • The article provides information on ceramic / nanostructured materials which are suitable for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) working between 500 to 1000℃. However, low temperature solid oxide fuel cells LTSOFCs working at less than 600℃ are being developed now-a-days with suitable new materials and are globally explored as the "future energy conversion devices". The LTSOFCs device has emerged as a novel technology especially for stationary power generation, portable and transportation applications. Operating SOFC at low temperature (i.e. < 600℃) with higher efficiency is a bigger challenge for the scientific community since in low temperature regions, the efficiency might be less and the components might have exhibited lower catalytic activity which may result in poor cell performance. Employing new and novel nanoscale ceramic materials and composites may improve the SOFC performance at low temperature ranges is most focused now-a-days. This review article focuses on the overview of various ceramic and nanostructured materials and components applicable for SOFC devices reported by different researchers across the globe. More importance is given for the nanostructured materials and components developed for LTSOFC technology so far.

Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Direct Internal Reforming of Methane

  • Kim, Young Jin;Lim, Hyung-Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 2015
  • Performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), in comparison with that under hydrogen fuel, were investigated under direct internal reforming conditions. Anode supported cells were fabricated with an Ni+YSZ anode, YSZ electrolyte, and LSM+YSZ cathode for the present work. Measurements of I-V curves and impedance were conducted with S/C (steam to carbon) ratio of ~ 2 at $800^{\circ}C$. The outlet gas was analyzed using gas chromatography under open circuit condition; the methane conversion rate was calculated and found to be ~ 90% in the case of low flow rate of methane and steam. Power density values were comparable for both cases (hydrogen fuel and internal steam reforming of methane), and in the latter case the cell performance was improved, with a decrease in the flow rate of methane with steam, because of the higher conversion rate. The present work indicates that the short-term performance of SOFCs with conventional Ni+YSZ anodes, in comparison with that under hydrogen fuel, is acceptable under internal reforming condition with the optimized fuel flow rate and S/C ratio.