• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sonication

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Physical and Chemical Effects on the Sonication Treatment of Chitosan Solution

  • LEE Keun-Tai;PARK Seong-Min;PARK Chan-Kyu;KIM Sang-Moo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.843-848
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    • 1996
  • As the first step of studies related to production of chitooligosaccharides by physical methods, chitosan solution were sonicated with 20 kHz and various treatment effects were examined to present fundamental data of sonicated chitosan solution. Intrinsic viscosity of chitosan solution sharply decreased from 3.76 dl/g to 2.90 dl/g until 5 minutes of sonication and then slowly decreased. With low volume of chitosan solution, sonication was very effective and temperature of chitosan solution slightly affected the efficiency of sonication. In case of changing the solvent, no significant differences were observed on the effect of sonication, however, acetate buffer had highest sonication effect among various solvents. The sonication effect was increased as the increasement of the value of pH, on the contrary, ionic strength and type of counterions showed no effect on sonication. With these results, we assumed that optimal sonication treatment would be as follows, solution volume was $10\~20\;ml$, temperature range was $20\~30^{\circ}C$, pH value of solution was 4.5 and type of solvent was acetate buffer.

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A Study on Sequential-Frequency Sonication for Improving Anaerobic Digestion (혐기성 소화 효율 향상을 위한 초음파 주파수의 순차적 적용에 대한 연구)

  • Whang, Gye-Dae;Park, Sung-Han
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.893-906
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    • 2011
  • The effect of ultrasound pretreatment on sludge degragability was investigated at different condotions: ultrasonic frequency(28, 40, 50kHz), intensity(10, 25, 50W), sonication time(10, 20, 30, 60min). Total suspended solid(TSS) and soluble chemical oxygen demand(SCOD) concentration were measured for the evaluation of pretreatment efficiency. The pretreated sludge was used as the feedstock for anaerobic digestion process. Biogas production and volatile suspended solid(VSS) removal were determined for evaluating the process performance. 1. TSS concentration of the sludge decreased at a constant rate as sonication operation was applied. The degradation rate of TSS increased when ultrasound frequency was decreased from 50kHz to 28kHz and intensity was increased from 10W to 50W. Efficiency of TSS degradation per input energy increased as ultrasonic frequency and intensity were decreased. At the frequency of 28 and 40kHz, SCOD concentration rapidly increased during the initial 30min of sonication time, and then it gradually increased. At 50kHz, SCOD concentration constantly increased for 60min of the sonication time. The SCOD production rate increased with increasing intensity under all ultrasound frequencies. 2. The optimum condition of ultrasound treatment was 28kHz, 50W and 60min for maximizing the biogas production, methane fraction, VSS removal. The highest values in biogas production, methane fraction in biogas, VSS removal were 370ml, 70%, 2.45g, respectively. Methane production rate per input energy increased at ultrasonic frequency and intensity decreased. 3. When raw sludge was pretreated at the condition of ultrasonic frequency of 28 and 40kHz in series, sequential-frequency sonication, intensity of 50W and 60min, biogas production, methane fraction, VSS removal were about the same that of 28kHz single-frequency sonication. When sequential-frequency sonication of 28 and 50kHz was applied in series, biogas production, methane fraction, VSS removal were 356 ~ 423ml, 69 ~ 71%, 2.41 ~ 2.78g, respectively. The pretreatment efficiency of 28-50kHz sequential-frequency sonication which sonication time of 28kHz and 50kHz was 40min and 20min was higher than that of 28kHz single-frequency sonication.

Effect of Sonication and Reducing Agent Addition on Soil Washing of Heavy Metals-contaminated Soil (초음파 및 환원제 첨가가 중금속 오염토양의 토양세척에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Seon-Suk;Park, Joon-Seok;NamKoong, Wan
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2007
  • This research was conducted to estimate the effect of sonication and reducing agent addition on soil washing of heavy metals-contaminated soil. Sonication trained in soil washing did not significantly increased extraction efficiency of heavy metal compared to soil washing only. The extraction efficiency of sonication trained in soil washing was 12% increased for Pb in 0.01M EDTA leaching solution. Pb and Cd showed higher extraction efficiency in case of reducing agent treatment with mechanical shaking than that with sonication. However, the extraction efficiency of Cu and Zn in case of reducing agent treatment with sonication was over 2 times higher than that in with soil washing. Therefore, application of reducing agent addition with sonication or mechanical shaking should be decided differently for pretreatment of soil washing, according to the kind of heavy metal. It was estimated that sonication after adding reducing agent could increase removal efficiency of Zn or Cu-contaminated soil and shorten the treatment time.

Enhancement of Soil Flushing Method by Ultrasonic Radiation on Diesel Contaminated Soils (디이젤 오염토 수세시 초음파가 세척률 증가에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 김영욱;김지형;이인모
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.401-406
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    • 2000
  • Spilling of petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, motor oils, and diesel fuel from underground storage tanks (USTs) is a major source of contamination to ground water and soils. In response to the need of developing an effective and economical cleanup technique, this study investigates the effectiveness of using sonication to enhance the soil flushing method. The study involves laboratory testing, and the testing was conducted using a specially designed and fabricated device to determine the effect of sonication on contaminant removal. The sonication was applied at 20 kHz frequency under different power levels. Test soil was Joomoonjin Sand, and diesel fuel was used as a contaminant of soil flushing test. The results of the investigation show that sonication enhanced the contaminant removal from soils significantly, and the degree of enhancement varied with power levels of sonication. Based on the results of the study, it is concluded that the flushing method with sonication has a great potential to become an effective method for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from the contaminated ground.

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Effect of Sonication and vir Genes on Transient Gene Expression in Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation (Agrobacterium을 이용한 형질전환에서 sonication과 vir 유전자들의 효과)

  • 이병무
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.316-320
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    • 2001
  • Sonication tremendously improves the efficiency of Agrobacterium infection by introducing small and uniform fissures and channels throughout the targeted tissue. Using shoot tips of cotton as explants, the effect of sonication treatment and virulence genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens on transformation efficiency was investigated. The pat gene which encodes resistance to the herbicide, glufosinate, was used as a selectable marker. Transformation efficiency was evaluated on th basis of survival rates of cocultivated shoot tips on selection medium containing 2.5 mg/l gulfosinate-ammonium(ppt) adn 25. mg/l Clavamax. Sonication from 5 to 15 second has a positive effect on shoop tip survival. However, whil virE as well as virG or vir GN54D showed an enhancement in transformation efficiency, virE,. virG resulted in the most significant enhancement. Overall, the combination of additional virG/virE gene and sonication treatment resulted in the most significant increase in transformation efficiency.

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Safety of Temporary Use of Recycled Autoclaved Femoral Components in Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty: Confirming Sterility Using a Sonication Method

  • Park, Hyung-Jin;Kim, Hee-June;Kim, Shukho;Kim, Seong-Min;Mun, Jong-Uk;Kim, Jungmin;Kyung, Hee-Soo
    • Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.427-432
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    • 2018
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of sonication technique for microbiological diagnosis and the sterility of the recycled autoclaved femoral components from infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a sonication method. Methods: Nineteen femoral implants explanted from patients with infected TKA were sterilized with a standard autoclave method. Standard culture of the fluid before and after sonication of the sterilized implants was performed to detect pathogenic microorganisms. Additional experiments were performed to evaluate the sterility of the recycled implant by inducing artificial biofilm formation. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was inoculated into 10 implants and sterilization in a standard autoclave was performed, and then the fluid was cultured before and after sonication. Results: Two of the 19 sterilized implants were positive for growth of bacteria after sonication, whereas no growth was detected in the cultured fluid from the sterilized implants before sonication. The bacteria were Staphylococcus species in all two cases. In one of 10 implants inoculated with MRSA, the culture was positive for growth of bacteria both before and after sonication. However, Staphylococcus epidermidis was cultured from both occasions and thus this implant was thought to be contaminated. Conclusions: We found sonication for identification of pathogens could be helpful, but this finding should be interpreted carefully because of the possibility of contamination. Sterilization of an infected femoral implant with an autoclave method could be a good method for using the temporary articulating antibiotic spacer in two-stage revision arthroplasty.

Changing the sp2 Carbon Clusters in Graphene Oxide During Exfoliation

  • Ahn, Sung Il
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.49-52
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    • 2015
  • The change of the chemical structure of graphene oxide (GO) was investigated by periodical sampling of GO during exfoliation by using a sonicator. A significant amount of GO was exfoliated during up to 10 hr of sonication. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a continuous increase of the G/D or C=C/C=O peak ratio of GO, as the sonication time increases. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of each GO sample also decreased as a function of the sonication time. PL excitation spectra with three major peaks indicate that the sizes of $sp^2$ carbon clusters were enlarged by longer sonication. In addition, new excitation at around 300 nm proves the existence of newly developed small clusters of $sp^2$ carbons as the sonication time increased.

Effects of Sonication, Osmotic Priming and Modified Drum Priming on the Germination of Tomato Seeds

  • Kim, Min Geun;Kang, Won Sik;Kim, Du Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.88-88
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    • 2018
  • In order to increase the germination speed and uniformity of tomato seeds, sonication and modified drum priming treatments were investigated to produce high quality seeds for export. Sonication treatment was performed for 5, 10 and 20minutes at an intensity of 5.2, 10.4 and 15.7kHz in water at $15^{\circ}C$. After sonication treatment, seeds were primed with water or 100mM $KNO_3$ for 4days. 40, 50 and 60% seed moisture content (SMC) of hydrated seeds were incubated for 60, 72 and 84h in a container with a relative humidity of 99% at 26rpm for a modified drum priming treatments. Germination speed were highly improved by sonication with osmotic priming. The seed treatment of osmotic priming or hydro priming after sonication or sonication without priming enhanced germination percentage (GP) on the $2^{rd}$day after sowing to 46%, 43% and 28%, respectively, while untreated seeds resulted in only 1% GP. These treatments also highly improved mean germination time (MGT) to 1.4, 1.8 and 2.6days, respectively, when compared to 3.5days MGT of untreated seeds. The modified drum priming treatment (72h incubation after 60% SMC hydration) significantly improved results of 74% GP(on the $3^{rd}$day after sowing), 2.6days MGT and $39%{\cdot}day^{-1}$ germination rate (GR), however, untreated seeds showed 19% GP, 4.1 MGT, and $25%{\cdot}day^{-1}$ GR. Although osmotic priming after sonication, hydro priming showed similar improved germination characteristics, however, modified drum priming is considered as an industrially promising treatment methods considering the shortening of the treatment period and environment-friendly aspects.

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Heating Characteristics Evaluation of Superposed Sonication Using Glycerol Tissue Mimic Phantom (글리세롤 조직유사 팬텀을 이용한 초음파 중첩 조사에 따른 가열 특성 평가)

  • Noh, Si-Cheol;Kang, Sang-Sik;Park, Ji-Koon;Kim, Ju-Young;Jung, Bong-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.9 no.7
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    • pp.523-528
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we evaluated the heating characteristics of single sonication and superposed two low-intensity ultrasonic sonication. Compare the results, the superposed sonication was showed a superior thermal effect than single sonication. And the maximum temperature was increased as 120-150%. The starting time of temperature rising has been shortened in superposed sonication. In addition, the time up to the maximum temperature has been shortened, too. In generally, as the ultrasonic intensity is higher, the more surface damage is occurred. However, in the case of superposed sonication, the same thermal effect had be confirmed without surface damage. Through the results of the study, we thought that the superposed sonication will be able to reduce the intensity of the ultrasonic treatment. And, by using the low-intensity, the more safe and more effect therapy will be possible in therapeutic ultrasound application.

Optimal Protocol for Enumeration of Attached Bacteria on Glass Slides

  • Lee, Hyun-Sang;Kwon, Kae-Kyoung;Lee, Jong-Ho;Lee, Hong-Kum
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.263-266
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    • 1999
  • In examining bacterial growth on glass surfaces immersed in sea water, we found serious differences between enumeration methods. Therefore, we compared various methods and found sonication and direct count methods were superior to other methods. Since the direct count method was not suitable for long-term investigation, we chose the sonication method and confirmed that sonication periods 8 times for 30 seconds was optimal for the detachment of bacteria from glass surfaces.

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