• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sound characteristics

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COMPARATIVE STUDY UPON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF WRITING BETWEEN THE PATIENTS WITH WRITING DISABILITIES AND NORMAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS (쓰기 장애 환자와 정상 초등학교 학생의 쓰기 특성 비교)

  • Cho, Soo-Churl;Shin, Sung-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.51-70
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    • 2001
  • Characteristics of handwriting were investigated and compared between the patients with writing disabilities and normal elementary school pupils. Generally, the heights of the letters of the patients were significantly larger than those of normal children, and letters of the patients were more sparsely distributed than those of controls. The distance between the words were significantly reduced in the patients’ writings, which indicated that patients had much more problems of space-leaving than normal pupils. Letter heights differences were significant across all grades in the patients and normal controls. The heights of the letters decreased as they grew older, and the slope of the decrements were more steeper in normal girls(r=-0.45) than girls with writing disabilities(r=-0.16). Sex differences were found in the letter spacings in low grades(grades 1, 2), that is, the distances between the letters were significantly narrower in the male patients than normal boys in these grades, and the differences were almost indiscriminating in grades 3 through 5, and finally, in sixth grade, letter spacings were signifycantly broader in normal boys than male dysgraphics. In girls, letter spacings were significantly broader in the patients across all grades. These findings supports the hypothesis that male and female writings were qualitatively different and that distinct mechanisms served in boys and girls dysgraphics. Across all grades and sexes, spaces between the words of the patients were significantly broader than normal pupils, which suggested that space-leaving between the words was important in Korean writings. There was trend that letter spacings and word spacings decreased across grades, but in girls, no correlations between the letter spacings and grades were found. Correlation analyses revealed that letter heights and letter spacings had mild correlation(r=0.11-0.15), and that letter spacings and word spacings had robust correlation(r=0.99). Phonological errors were mostly found in last phoneme(Jong-seong), especially double-phoneme(ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ, ㅄ), and in the case the sound values changed due to assimilations of phonemes. Semantic errors were rare in both groups. Space-leaving errors were correlated with phonological errors, and more frequent in boys than girls. In conclusion, significant differences existed in the letter heights, letter spacings, word spacings, and frequencies of phonological errors and spaceleaving errors between the patients with writing disabilities and normal pupils. The characteristics of writings changed across grades and the developmental profiles were somewhat quantitatively different between the groups. The differences became obvious from the second-third grades.

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A Study on Jeju High School Students' Health Perception and Health Promotion Behavior (제주지역 고등학생의 건강지각과 건강증진 행위에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ok-Sun;Choi, In-Sook
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.3
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    • pp.79-110
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to provide basic data necessary for creating a more successful health enhancement program, health education and health policy which can enhance health management abilities and enable a healthy school life by examining relations between high school students' health perception, who are in early adolescence, and their health promotion behavior. The subjects in this study were 813 students from 8 high schools on Jeju Island. The collected data were analyzed with t-test and one-way ANOVA through questionnaires by researcher on the basis of advance research. The findings of this study were as belows : 1. When general characteristics were considered, health perception was more significantly affected by those who were boys, whose family income was on a higher level, who scored better in school, whose parents were more concerned about their children's health, and who had experiences of being hospitalized. Especially, the more parents were concerned about their children's health, the higher the child's self-confidence on health(p<.05), anxiety on health(p<.05), practicality on disease prevention(p<.05), self-confidence on future health(p<.01), health care ability(p<.01), and family roles on health(p<.05). The less parents were concerned about their children's health, the higher the child's anxiety on disease(p<.01) and uncertainty on future health(p<.01). 2. When students' health promotion behavior was concerned, in the area of Eating Habits, having regular meals(72.9%), moderate consumption of meat(89.7%) and a balanced diet(64%) were common, whereas having a regular breakfast(37.4%) and eating vegetables and fruits(43.6%) were rare. In the area of Exercise, all subareas such as exercising 3 or 4 times a week(76.7%), more than one hour of exercise at a time(74.9%), a short distance walk(51.8%), exercise within one hour after meals(87%), and whether wanning up or not(88.6%) were above average. In the area of Personal Hygiene, all subareas such as drinking boiled water(57.3%), washing hands after using the bathroom(71%), brushing teeth after eating(42.4%), washing up after going out(50.3%), and washing hair and taking a frequent bath(77.2%) were rare. In the area of Control of Personal Relations, consulting personal problems with family(78.7%) had a positive response, whereas meeting someone new(59.8%), maintaining sound relations with the opposite sex(47.3%), having respect for one's opinion(51.5%), and maintaining peaceful relations with people(58.4%) had rare negative results. In the area of Stress Management, not being competitive(69.4%), releasing problems(62.4%) and sleeping soundly(66.2%) were common, whereas having your own ways to relieve stress(46.8%) and having your own dreams and hopes(58.5%) were rare. 3. When general characteristics were considered, as far as relations of health promotion behavior were concerned, the boys were significantly different in the area of Eating Habits(p<0.01) and Exercise(p<0.01), and the girls were in the area of Personal Hygiene. As family economic status was high and parents were concerned about their children's health, the entire areas of health promotion behavior were significantly different. Whether or not they were hospitalized made no significant difference in statistics. 4. When their regions were considered, it comparing city to town, there was no statistically significant difference in health perception and relations of health promotion behavior according to general characteristics. As seen in the results above, high school students' level of health perception and level of practicing health promotion behavior were generally low. In conclusion, by enhancing health perception, a plan for activating health education, which can implement positive health promotion behavior, should be made.

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Effects of ultrasonic thawing on the physicochemical properties of frozen pork (주파수에 따른 초음파 해동처리가 냉동 돈육의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Jinse;Park, Seok Ho;Choi, Dong Soo;Choi, Seung Ryul;Kim, Yong Hoon;Lee, Soo Jang;Park, Chun Wan;Han, Gui Jeung;Jo, Byeong-Gwan;Park, Jong Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.230-236
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effects of ultrasonic thawing on physicochemical characteristics of frozen pork sirloin. To determine the velocity of an ultrasonic thawing machine, $-80^{\circ}C$ frozen pork sirloins were thawed using 132, 580, and 1,000 kHz ultrasonic thawing machines, and the physicochemical properties of pork sirloin thawed with $15^{\circ}C$ tap water and those using the ultrasonic thawing machines were compared. As a result, thawing speed by ultrasonic thawing was three times faster than that of tap water, but drip weight loss rate is increased by about 5% during ultrasonic thawing compared to that during thawing in tap water. However, biochemical properties, such as pH, volatile basic nitrogen, thiobarbituric acid, and total aerobic bacteria, were not improved by ultrasonic thawing. Hunter values, such as total color change and redness, improved slightly after 580 kHz ultrasonic thawing. The hardness and chewiness of the pork sirloin decreased significantly after 580 kHz ultrasonic thawing; however, springiness was not changed. These results indicate that ultrasonic thawing is faster than thawing in tap water, but the physicochemical characteristics of frozen pork sirloin was not significantly improve by ultrasonic sound.

The Variation of Cone, Seed and Germination Characteristics of Picea jezoensis (Siebold & Zuccarini) Carriere Populations in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 가문비나무 자생집단(自生集團)의 구과(毬果), 종자(種子) 및 발아특성(發芽特性) 변이(變異))

  • Song, Jeong-Ho;Jang, Kyung-Hwan;Kim, Du-Hyun;Lim, Hyo-In
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to investigate the variation of cone, seed and germination characteristics among populations and among individuals within populations of Picea jezoensis(Siebold & Zuccarini) Carriere distributed in Korea. Cone collected from 25 trees in two natural populations(Mt. Jiri and Mt. Dokyu) and their thirteen cone and seed characteristics as well as three germination behaviors were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed significant differences among populations and among individuals within populations in 9 traits except for seed breadth, seed weight, index of seed wing and mean germination time. Generally, morphological variation of cone and seed wings from Mt. Jiri population has smaller and longer than those of Mt. Dokyu population. Percentage of sound seeds and Tetrazolium test from Mt. Jiri population showed 1.79 and 1.87 higher values than Mt. Dokyu population, respectively. The maximum germination percentage was obtained at the optimum temperature of $20^{\circ}C$ and in this case, mean germination time and germination rate showed 7.5 days and 2.9 ea./day, respectively. In seed germination behaviors, percentage(40.7%) and rate(0.90 ea./day) of germination in Mt. Jiri population were more higher and faster than those of Mt. Dokyu population(17.7%, 0.37 ea./day). According to correlation analysis, P. jezoensis populations with small restricted distribution may have been reduced because seed qualities were correlated with increased levels of inbreeding and disproportion flowering.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research: A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2008 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향: 2008년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwa-Taik;Choi, Chang-Ho;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Seo-Young;Kwon, Yong-Il;Choi, Jong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.21 no.12
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    • pp.715-732
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    • 2009
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2008. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. Conclusions are as follows. (1) Research trends in thermal and fluid engineering have been surveyed in the categories of general fluid flow, fluid machinery and piping, new and renewable energy, and fire. Well-developed CFD technologies were widely applied in developing facilities and their systems. New research topics include fire, fuel cell, and solar energy. Research was mainly focused on flow distribution and optimization in the fields of fluid machinery and piping. Topics related to the development of fans and compressors had been popular, but were no longer investigated widely. Research papers on micro heat exchangers using nanofluids and micro pumps were also not presented during this period. There were some studies on thermal reliability and performance in the fields of new and renewable energy. Numerical simulations of smoke ventilation and the spread of fire were the main topics in the field of fire. (2) Research works on heat transfer presented in 2008 have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, industrial heat exchangers, and ground heat exchangers. Research on heat transfer characteristics included thermal transport in cryogenic vessels, dish solar collectors, radiative thermal reflectors, variable conductance heat pipes, and flow condensation and evaporation of refrigerants. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, examined are research on micro-channel plate heat exchangers, liquid cooled cold plates, fin-tube heat exchangers, and frost behavior of heat exchanger fins. Measurements on ground thermal conductivity and on the thermal diffusion characteristics of ground heat exchangers were reported. (3) In the field of refrigeration, many studies were presented on simultaneous heating and cooling heat pump systems. Switching between various operation modes and optimizing the refrigerant charge were considered in this research. Studies of heat pump systems using unutilized energy sources such as sewage water and river water were reported. Evaporative cooling was studied both theoretically and experimentally as a potential alternative to the conventional methods. (4) Research papers on building facilities have been reviewed and divided into studies on heat and cold sources, air conditioning and air cleaning, ventilation, automatic control of heat sources with piping systems, and sound reduction in hydraulic turbine dynamo rooms. In particular, considered were efficient and effective uses of energy resulting in reduced environmental pollution and operating costs. (5) In the field of building environments, many studies focused on health and comfort. Ventilation. system performance was considered to be important in improving indoor air conditions. Due to high oil prices, various tests were planned to examine building energy consumption and to cut life cycle costs.

Flowering Characteristics and Acorn Production of Quercus auta Thunb. in Wando Island, Korea (완도지역 붉가시나무의 개화특성과 종실생산)

  • Park, In-Hyeop;Kim, So-Dam;Park, Jong-Won;Chae, Kyung-Seog;Kim, Gab-Tae;Um, Tae-Won
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.326-330
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    • 2014
  • Flowering characteristics and acorn production of Quercus acuta were studied in a Quercus acuta forest at Wando island, Korea. Three sample trees were cut and measured to investigate flowering characteristics during flowering season. Eight $20m{\times}25m$ quadrats were set up and three $1m{\times}1m$ seed traps were established within each quadrat to investigate acorn production. There were no significant differences in number of female and male inflorescence per bearing shoot among crown positions, but these values decreased from the upper part to the lower part of crown. The number of female flowers was 5,025 flowers/tree, and of the total number, 60.3% was in the upper part, 28.4% was in the middle part and 11.3% was in the lower part of crown. The number of male flowers was 7,063 flowers/tree and increased from the lower part to the upper part of crown. Acorn production of total 24 seed traps was 947 acorns/$24m^2$, and of total acorn production, 11.0% was sound, 61.9% was damaged, 25.1% was decayed and 2.0% was empty. Monthly acorn production was 240 acorns/$24m^2$ in August, 632 acorns/$24m^2$ in September, 56 acorns/$24m^2$ in October, 17 acorns/$24m^2$ in November and 2 acorns/$24m^2$ in December. Acorns fallen in October showed higher mean length, diameter and weight than those of other months.

Ultasonic Reflection Characteristics of the Underwater Corner Reflector (수중코오너리프렉터의 초음파반사특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Dae-Jae;Sin, Hyeong-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1983
  • The corner reflector is used to increase the echoing area of radar targets in the air, and it can also be applied to increase the echoing area of the sonar targets under water. As the basic research for this application, the authors investigated the ultrasonic reflection characteristics under water for the corner reflector which was made of aluminum plate. The experiments were made by pulse measuring method with the magnetostrictive ferrite transducers of 28, 50 and 75KHz in the experimental water tank. The results obtained are as follows; 1. The target strength of corner reflectors were increased in proportion to the diameter and were greater at higher frequency of 75KHz than at lower frequency of 28KHz. 2. In the case of 5 corner reflectors of 150mm in diameter which have corner angles of 15$^{\circ}$, 30$^{\circ}$, 45$^{\circ}$, 60$^{\circ}$ and 90$^{\circ}$the measured values of the maximum target strength at 75KHz were-25.0 dB, -17.2dB, -15.1dB, -13.4dB and 11.0dB, and then the number of main lobes showing the maximum target strength in the backscattering patterns were 24, 12, 8, 6 and 4, respectively. 3. When 7 corner reflector of 80mm in diameter and 90$^{\circ}$ in the corner angle was located on the minor axis of the horizontal section with directional angles of 0$^{\circ}$, 2.5$^{\circ}$, 5.0$^{\circ}$, 7.5$^{\circ}$, 10$^{\circ}$ and 12.5$^{\circ}$ against the sound beam axis, the measured values of the target strength on each position at 75KHz were -21.2dB, -21.9dB, -26.0dB, -30.5dB and -36.8dB, respectively.

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Validity of Nursing Diagnoses Related to Difficulty in Respiratory Function (호흡기능장애와 관련된 간호진단의 타당도 조사)

  • 김조자;이원희;유지수;허혜경;김창희;홍성경
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.569-584
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    • 1993
  • This study was done to verify validity of nursing diagnoses related to difficulty in respiratory function. First, content validity was examined by an expert group considering the etiology and the signs / symptoms of three nursing diagnoses - ineffective airway clearance, ineffective breathing pattern, impaired gas exchange. Second, clinical validity was examined by comparing the frequencies of the etiologies and signs / symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses in clinical case studies with the results of the content validity. This study was a descriptive study. The sample consisted of 23 experts (professors, head nurses and clinical instructors) who had had a variety of experiences using nursing diagnoses in clinical practice, and 102 case reports done by senior student nurses of the college of nursing of Y-university. These reports were part of their clinical practice in the ICU. The instrument used for this study was a checklist for etiologies and signs and symptoms based on the literature, Doenges and Moorhouse (1988), Kim, McFarland, McLane (1991), Lee Won Hee et al. (1987), Kim Cho Ja et at. (1988). The data was collected over four month period from May 1992 to Aug. 1992. Data were analyzed using frequencies done with the SPSS / PC+ package. The results of this study are summarized as follows : 1. General Characteristics of the Expert Group A bachelor degree was held by 43.5% and a master or doctoral degree by 56.5% of the expert group. The average age of the expert group was 35.3 years. Their average clinical experience was 9.3 years and their average experience in clinical practice was 5.9 years. The general characteristics of the patients showed that there were more women than men, that the age range was from 1 to over 80. Most of their medical diagnoses were diagnoses related to the respiratory. system, circulation or neurologic system, and 50% or more of them had a ventilator with intubation or a tracheostomy. The number of cases for each nursing diagnoses was : · Ineffective airway clearance, 92 cases. · Ineffective breathing pattern, 18 cases. · Impaired gas exchange, 22 cases. 2. The opinion of the expert group as to the classification of the etiology, and signs and symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses was as follows : · In 31.8% of the cases the classification of etiology was clear. · In 22.7%, the classification of signs and symptoms was clear. · In 17.4%, the classification of nursing interventions was clear. 3. In the expert group 80% or mere agreed to ‘dysp-nea’as a common sign and symptom of the three nursing diagnoses. The distinguishing signs and symptoms of (Ineffective airway clearance) were ‘sputum’, ‘cough’, ‘abnormal respiratory sounds : rales’. The distinguishing sings and symptoms of (Ineffective breathing pattern) were ‘tachypnea’, ‘use of accessory muscle of respiration’, ‘orthopnea’ and for (Impaired gas exchange) it was ‘abnormal arterial blood gas’, 4. The distribution of etiology, and signs and symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses was as follows : · There was a high frequency of ‘increased secretion from the bronchus and trachea’ in both the expert group and the case reports as the etiology of ineffective airway clearance. · For the etiologies for ineffective breathing pat-tern, ‘rain’, ‘anxiety’, ‘fear’, ‘obstructions of the tract, ca and bronchus’ had a high ratio in the ex-pert group and ‘decreased expansion of lung’ in the case reports. · For the etiologies for impaired gas exchanges, ‘altered oxygen -carrying capacity of the blood’ and ‘excess accumulation of interstitial fluid in lung’ had a high ratio in the expert group and ‘altered oxygen supply’ in the case reports. · For signs and symptoms for ineffective airway clearance, ‘dyspnea’, ‘altered amount and character of sputum’ were included by 100% of the expert group. ‘Abnormal respiratory. sound(rate, rhonchi)’ were included by a high ratio of the expert group. · For the signs and symptoms for ineffective breathing pattern. ‘dyspnea’, ‘shortness of breath’ were included by 100% of the expert group. In the case reports, ‘dyspnea’ and ‘tachypnea’ were reported as signs and symptoms. · For the sign and symptoms for impaired gas exchange, ‘hypoxia’ and ‘cyanosis’ had a high ratio in the expert group. In the case report, ‘hypercapnia’, ‘hypoxia’ and ‘inability to remove secretions’ were reported as signs and symptoms. In summary, the similarity of the etiologies and signs and symptoms of the three nursing diagnoses related to difficulty in respiratory function makes it difficult to distinguish among them But the clinical validity of three nursing diagnoses was established through this study, and at last one sign and symp-tom was defined for each diagnosis.

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A Qualitative Study on the Forces that Influence the Article Production of Local Newspapers Focus on the Article Production of Gwangjudream (지역신문 기사생산에 영향을 미치는 요인에 대한 질적 연구 "광주드림" 기사생산을 중심으로)

  • Her, Jin-Ah;Lee, Oh-Hyeon
    • Korean journal of communication and information
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    • v.46
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    • pp.449-484
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    • 2009
  • It has been said that Gwangjudream, nevertheless a free press, plays a role as a local press that it should be, in a situation that other local papers do not. This study aims to reveal the forces that influence the article production of Gwangjudream, and to examine the interrelations between them, through using the methods of participant observations and depth interviews. In this course, it is eventually purpose of providing more deep understandings on the present circumstances and problems of the local papers and having a chance to concern the concrete ways to enhance them. This study results in revealing the five forces that primarily influence the article production of Gwangjudream: 1) as a historical force, keeping the spirit of the first publication that look forward to playing a role as a local press that it sound be, 2) as an individual force, the habitus of its members that is critical of mainstream society and culture, 3) as an organizational force, non-hierarchical culture and the independence of the editorial rights, 4) as a habitual force, the deny of beat system, 5) as an economical force, the power of sponsors, financial poorness, and the competition for attracting subscribers. While the historical force and the individual force play a role as fundamental circumstances and the organizational force and the habitual force as practical circumstances for producing articles, they encourage to emerge the characteristics of the articles that are related to citizens' everyday life and reflect locality, and criticize and keep an eye on government and other public offices. However, the economical force provides the circumstances that weaken the characteristics of Gwangjudream. The results of this study question the perspective to overly regard it as coming from their economical weakness that the local newspaper do not play a role as a local press that it should be.

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Studies on the Seed Characteristics and Viabilities of Six Acer Species in Relation to Natural Regeneration in Korea (천연갱신과 관련된 한국산 단풍나무속 6종의 종자특성과 종자활력에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Gab-Tae;Kim, Hoi-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.358-364
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    • 2011
  • To examine the possibility of natural regeneration of six Acer species in broadleaved mixed forest in Korean peninsula, samples of six Acer species' samaras were collected at several seed sources from September to October 2009 and 2010, and seed morphological characteristics and viability were studied using cutting method. Inflorescense type of Acer mandshuricum(AM), A. pseudosieboldianum(APS) and A. palmatum(AP) is corymb, that of A. pictum subsp. mono(APSM) and A. okamotoanum(AO) is flat-topped panicle, and that of A. ukurunduense(AU) is raceme. Number of seed-set per inflorescense proves the highest value 38.5 sets in AU and the lowest value 2.4 sets in APS. Diameter of the seeds proves highest value 13.5mm in AO, and the lowest value 4.7mm in APS. Angles between the wings proves the highest values $130.05^{\circ}$ in APS, and the lowest value $48.60^{\circ}$ in AU. Air dry weight of 20 seed-sets proves highest value 3,900mg, in AO, and the lowest value 404mg in AU. Viable seed ratio of AP proves 50%, and that of AU does 43.2%. Those of other four species ranges 8.6~22.2%. Considering postdispersal seed predators and disturbance of litter, viable seeds of APSM, AO, AM, and APS supplied in the natural forest in Korea might be insufficient for seedling establishment. This study showed that sound viable seed supply might be key factors of natural regeneration of major Acer species in Korea. The openings made by insect pests were observed on the seed-coat of APSM, AM, AU, and APS samara, and Bradybatus sharpi were observed in the samaras of APSM and AO. Further study on the seed insect fauna, pre- and post-dispersal seed viability, and annual variation on these factor should be needed.