• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sound characteristics

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Comparison of Agronomic Characteristics, Forage Production and Quality of Kenaf (Hongma 300), Maize (Kwangpyeongok) and Sorghum × Sudangrass Hybrids (Jumbo) in Middle Region of Korea (중부지역에서 케나프(홍마 300), 옥수수(광평옥) 및 수수×수단그라스 교잡종(점보)의 생육특성, 수량성 및 품질비교)

  • Hwang, Tae-Young;Ji, Hee Chung;Kim, Ki Yong;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Ki-Won;Choi, Gi Jun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.152-158
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted from 2013 to 2014 in the middle region of Korea to compare the agronomic characteristics, forage production, and quality of kenaf, maize, and a sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid. The three crops used in this study were kenaf "Hongma 300," maize "Kwangpyeongok," and the sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid "Jumbo" (headless type). The sugar contents of the kenaf, maize, and sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid were 5.4%, 4.4%, and 2.5%, respectively. The emergence rates and lodgings of the three crops were sound, as they were more than 80% and 1.5, respectively. The fresh yields of kenaf, maize, and the sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid were 117,521 kg/ha, 73,336 kg/ha, and 133,334 kg/ha, respectively, and the dry matter (DM) yields were 28,598 kg/ha, 19,951 kg/ha and 20,083 kg/ha, respectively. The DM yield of kenaf was significantly the highest among the three crops (p<0.05). However, the total digestible nutrients (TDN) contents of the kenaf, corn, and sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid were 43.3 %, 72.0 %, and 54.8 %, respectively, and the in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) yields were 44.4%, 73.7%, and 59.6 %, respectively; therefore, the TDN yield of the corn was 13 % significantly higher than that of the kenaf (p<0.05). The TDN yields of the kenaf, corn, and sorghum ${\times}$ sudangrass hybrid were 12,472 kg/ha, 14,350 kg/ha, and 11,001 kg/ha, respectively. Among the three crops, the content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were highest in the kenaf. This study shows that the kenaf had a good forage productivity but a low forage quality.

The Preference Analysis of Forest Therapy Program with regard to MBTI Personality Types (MBTI 성격유형에 따른 산림치유 프로그램 선호도에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Youn-Hee;Kim, Dong-Jun;Kim, Eun-Jin;Yeoun, Pyung-Sik;Choi, Byung-Jin;Kim, Jea-Kean;Kim, Youn-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.485-498
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    • 2015
  • The need for forest therapy programs has been increasing. For more effective forest healing, it is necessary to identify the characteristics of participants and develop and operate more targeted and differentiated forest therapy programs accordingly. In this study, the relationships between MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) personality types and the relationship between the temperaments of MBTI and the preference for the forest therapy programs were analyzed respectively in pursuit of the basic data required for the effective development and operation of forest healing on the basis of individual characteristics. The survey on the forest therapy program and MBTI personality tests were conducted for 245 normal adults. Using the SPSS 21.0 program analysis, data were analyzed by Analysis of variance (ANOVA) to obtain the difference of preference on the forest therapy program according to the personality type. The Extraversion(E)-Introversion(I) types showed differences in technique-based breathing exercises, walking in the forest(wearing shoes), laughter therapy in the forest, viewing the forest, forest bathing, wind bathing and sun bathing. And the Sensing(S)-iNtuition (N) types had marked differences in listening to the sound of water flowing, drinking herbal tea and sleeping in the forest. The Thinking (T) -Feeling (F) types marked differences in soaking hands and feet in water and sleeping in the forest. The Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) types had differences in vision quest and viewing the forest, respectively, in statistics. Depending on the temperament of the character, there were statistically significant differences in preferences such as drinking herbal tea, eating natural food, sleeping in the forest, viewing the forest and listening to the forest commentary. The results of this study are expected to be used as a basis for forest healing program development and operation.

Characteristics of Micro-Particle Separation according to HRT Changes (HRT 변화에 따른 미세입자 분리 특성)

  • Ahn, Kwangho;Ahn, Jaehwan;Kim, I-Tae;Kim, Seoggu;Kang, Sungwon;Park, Eunzoo;Lee, Youngsup
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.937-942
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    • 2013
  • Fluid generated within the sonic or ultrasonic waves are reflected by the wall, while the opposite direction forming a predetermined sound wave to the acoustic standing wave is referred to. In this study, the frequency of 1.0 MHz and 2.0 MHz acoustic standing wave generation module is installed in a continuous particle separation device, the laminar flow of influent, taking into account the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in accordance with changes in particle separation characteristics investigated. Operation of a standing wave in the particle separation device about $1.3{\sim}2.8^{\circ}C$ temperature is increased, but did not significantly affect the formation of standing waves. During operation, the HRT 1 hr frequency 1.0 MHz 2 hr, 4 hr longer as the particle separation efficiency (turbidity) were 64.1%, 70.0%, 74.3% and, 2.0 MHz has 58.0%, respectively, depending on HRT, 61.8%, 70.7% in the respectively. That is, the same frequency, the HRT treatment efficiency is 10% or more, depending on differences in generation and, 1.0 MHz frequency, 2 hr, 2.0 MHz 4 hr at about 70% or more of the processing efficiency can be maintained. Frequency of 1.0 MHz and 2.0 MHz operation at the same time, as a result, HRT 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr particle separation efficiency of 63.8%, respectively, 70.6%, 77.6%, rather than the generation of standing waves appear continuous HRT is affecting a lot of particles to separate could know.

Clinical Assessment of Patients with Mandibular Condyle hypoplasia (하악 과두저형성증 환자의 임상적 평가)

  • Yi, Young-Chul;Cho, Bong-Hae;Ok, Soo-Min;Heo, Jun-Young;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Ahn, Young-Woo;Ko, Myung-Yun;Jeong, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.175-185
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    • 2013
  • Objective : Condyle hypoplasia in temporomandibular joint(TMJ) is often observed in several radiographic views. Mandibular Condyle hypoplasia is frequently confused with osteoarthritis with bony changes in TMJ. This paper investigated clinical characteristics of mandibular condyle hypoplasia as compared with TMJ osteoarthritis. Material and method : 276 patients with TMD were taken clinical and radiological examination and were divided into study group, 189 patients diagnosed with mandibular condyle hypoplasia, and control group, 87 patients diagnosed with TMJ osteoarthritis. And clinical features(Onset, Overjet, Overbite, Noise, Locking, NAS of noise, LOM, pain, MCO, and site of diagnosis and pain)of the two groups were compared. Results : 1. Mandibular condyle hypoplasia and TMJ osteoarthritis were similar in many of the clinical features. 2. Mandibular condyle hypoplasia concordance rates of the radiographic diagnosis site and the pain site was significantly lower than TMJ osteoarthritis. 3. Bilateral mandibular condyle hypoplasia group had more occlusal discomfort, and clenching habits than unilateral mandibular condyle hypoplasia group. 4. Unilateral mandibular condyle hypoplasia group had more unilateral chewing habits and LOM than unilateral TMJ osteoarthritis group. Unilateral TMJ osteoarthritis group had more morning stiffness and higher concordance rates of the radiographic diagnosis site and the click sound site than unilateral mandibular condyle hypoplasia group. 5. Bilateral mandibular condyle hypoplasia group had more usual headaches and overjet than bilateral TMJ osteoarthritis group. Conclusion : Mandibular condyle hypoplasia has somewhat distinguishing clinical characteristics as compared with TMJ osteoarthritis.

The Characteristics and Significance of 'Wanpan Changgeuk' Written by Heogyu (허규 연출 '완판 창극'의 특징과 의의)

  • Kim, Kee-hyung
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.20
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    • pp.5-30
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    • 2010
  • It has been diversified and serious attempt to establish the identity of Changgeuk, but it is still independent dramaturgy or the current unformed progressive art. In this situation, exploring works of the identity of changgeuk that is base on the performed individual and specific works in the title of Changgeuk is needed. The 80s and 90s Heo, Gyu was leading an active life as a director who was responsible for directing of Changgeuk. He dramatized Siljeon Pansori -which is a group of Pansori missing text- as well as 5-remained Songs in Pansori and he presented a number of creative Changgeuk works on stage. Especially, the completion of dramatizing 5-remained Songs in Pansori under the name of 'Wanpan Changgeuk -which means full version performance without omit-' is the one of his big achievement by performing "Heungbojeon" on the stage 1982 and "Jeokbyeokga" 1985. The purposes of this research are confirmation of Heo's direction of the formulation and considering its characteristics & significance through 'Wanpan Changgeuk' which written by Heo. Heo was a practical play who was interested in the subjective formulation of national culture and creative transmission for Korean traditional performance. He tried to formulate Changgeuk to a representative performance of Korea. In the process he pointed out those problems, (1) interpretation of a work problem, (2) actor's creative problems, (3) structure problem of theater for Changgeuk. He indicated that the other challenges are to use of the stage & device, to overcome sentimentalism, to stylize acting, to improve own quality, to control the speed and length of the song, to choose the suitable musical accompaniment, to create new repertories problems, and etc. Changgeuk is classified in 3 group by origin, (1)dramatizing of 5-remained Songs, (2)dramatizing of 7-missing Songs, (3)creative dramatizing. It contains all of 3 types that Heo's work. The dramatizing of remained 5 Songs are the great importance among those works. Heo hoped that Chaggeuk has become the most representative art work of Korea by performing 'Wanpan Changgeuk' compiled heritage of Korea's outstanding artistic achievement. The characteristics of 'Wanpan Changgeuk' can be summarized following four. (1) Directing attitudes that emphasizes tradition, (2) Accepting the elements of traditional performance actively, (3) Valuing the classy and ethic, (4) Emphasizing humor and active utilizing of the secondary characters. Heo's 'Wanpan Changgeuk' shows a peak of the artistic level which Changgeuk can be reached. He want to make Changgeuk a Korean representative artistic performance by compiling Pansori heritage and accommodating Korean traditional performance. Heo continued his effort to present Pansori's authenticity and to dramatize from beginning to end without missing. It shows very well that 'Wanpan Changgeuk' takes 4~5 hours for playing. It looks Heo's achievement in the 'Wanpan Changgeuk' influenced Changgeuk significantly since then. Heo's 'Wanpan Changgeuk' is matrix of 'Wanpan JangMak Changgeuk' attempted in the 1990s. Especially, their intent is consistent to synthesize texts and to show all the virtue of Pansori. But 90's 'Wanpan JangMak Changgeuk' aim for large stage, fancy device & costume and variety contents compared with 'Wanpan Changgeuk'. Recently, producers have tried not to make a impressive Changgeuk but to make a interesting one. They usually organize performance within 2 hours and prefer orchestral music to its unique sound. In those point of view, it seems that Heo's idle in 'Wanpan Changgeuk' has become one of target to conquer in these days.

Validation of the Korean Version of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 among Psychiatric Outpatients (정신건강의학과 외래환자 대상 한국판 외상 증상 체크리스트(Trauma Symptom Checklist-40)의 타당도 연구)

  • Park, Jin;Kim, Daeho;Kim, Eunkyung;Kim, Seokhyun;Yun, Mirim
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : Effects of multiple trauma are complex and extend beyond core PTSD symptoms. However, few psychological instruments for trauma assessment address this issue of symptom complexity. The Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40) is a self-report scale that assesses wide range of symptoms associated with childhood or adult traumatic experience. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the validity of the Korean Version of the TSC-40 in a sample of psychiatric outpatients. Methods : Data of 367 treatment-seeking patients with DSM-IV diagnoses were obtained from an outpatient department of psychiatric unit at a university hospital. The diagnoses were anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive disorder, adjustment disorder and others. Included in the psychometric data were the TSC-40, the Life events checklist, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Zung's Self-report Depression Scale, and the Zung's Self-report Anxiety Scale. Cronbach's ${\alpha}$ for internal consistency were calculated. Convergent and concurrent validity was approached with correlation between the TSC-40 and other scales (PTSD, anxiety and depression). Results : Exploratory factor analysis of the Korean Version of TSC-40 extracted seven-factor structure accounted for 59.55% of total variance that was contextually similar to a six-factor structure and five-factor structure of the original English version. The Korean Version of TSC-40 demonstrated a high level of internal consistency. (Cronbach's ${\alpha}=0.94$) and good concurrent and convergent validity with another PTSD scale and anxiety and depression scales. Conclusions : Excellent construct validity of The Korean Version of TSC-40 was proved in this study. And subtle difference in the factor structure may reflect the cultural issues and the sample characteristics such as heterogeneous clinical population (including non-trauma related disorders) and outpatient status. Overall, this study demonstrated that the Korean version of TSC-40 is psychometrically sound and can be used for Korean clinical population.

Assessment of Environmentally Sound Function on the Increasing of Soil Fertility by Korean Organic Farming (한국 토착유기농업의 토양비옥도 증진책에 대한 환경보전적 기능 평가)

  • Sohn, Sang-Mok;Han, Do-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.193-204
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    • 2000
  • In order to get some basic data on environmental friendly function by Korean organic farming, the chemical characteristics of soil were determined on 100 farm cultivating site in Paldang watershed area of Great Seoul. The EC and content of $NO_3-N$ and Av. $P_2O_5$ in topsoil(0~30cm) showed $2.30dS\;m^{-1}$, $82mg\;kg^{-1}$, $918mg\;kg^{-1}$ in the soil cultivated chinese cabbage. $2.29dS\;m^{-1}$, $86mg\;kg^{-1}$, $954mg\;kg^{-1}$ in the soil of lettuce, $1.83dS\;m^{-1}$, $66mg\;kg^{-1}$, $1114mg\;kg^{-1}$ in the soil of crown daisy. These salt accumulation(EC) and the high concentration of mineral content in topsoil such as nitrate and phosphate showed the soils of organic farming were contaminated by practice of organic farming for the maintenance strategy of soil fertility. The $NO_3-N$ and Av. $P_2O_5$ in the subsoil(30~60cm) showed $75mg\;kg^{-1}$ and $641mg\;kg^{-1}$, $72mg\;kg^{-1}$ and $466mg\;kg^{-1}$, $42mg\;kg^{-1}$ and $873mg\;kg^{-1}$ in soil cultivated chinese cabbage, lettuce and crown daisy respectively. It indicates eventually the high concentration of nitrate and phosphate in topsoil caused penetration to subsoil, and the high concentration of mineral contents in subsoil indicate the potential risk of leaching of ground water by Korean organic farming. The positive correlation at 1% between EC and $NO_3-N$, $K_2O$, T-C, $P_2O_5$ and T-N show the salt accumulation in the both soil depth of Korean organic farming were caused by minerals such as $NO_3-N$, $K_2O$, T-C, $P_2O_5$ and T-N by overuse of organic fertilizer.

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A Study on the Development of Multimedia CAI in Smoking Prevention for Adolescents (청소년 흡연예방을 위한 멀티미디어 CAI 개발)

  • Lee, Sook-Ja;Park, Tae-Jin;Joung, Young-Il;Cho, Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.35-61
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    • 2003
  • Background: The purpose of this study was to develop a structured and individualized smoking prevention program for adolescents by utilizing a multimedia computer-assisted instruction model and to empirically assess its effect. Method: For the purpose of this study, a guide book of smoking prevention program for middle and high school students was developed as the first step. The contents of this book were summarized and developed into an actual multimedia CAI smoking prevention program according to the Gane & Briggs instructional design and Keller's ARCS motivation design models as the second step. At the final step, the short-tenn effects of this program were examined by an experiment. This experiment were made for middle school and high school students and the quasi experimental design was the pretest - intervention - posttest. The measured data was attitude, belief, and knowledge about smoking, interest in the program, and learning motivation. Result: The results of this study were as follows: First, the guide book of a smoking prevention program was developed and the existing literature on adolescent smoking was analyzed to develop the content of the guide book. Then the curriculum was divided into three main domains on tobacco and smoking history, smoking and health, adolescent smoking and each main domain was divided into sub-domains. Second, the contents of the guide book were translated into a multimedia CAI program of smoking prevention througn Powerpoint software according to the instructional design theory. The characteristics of this program were interactive, learner controllable, and structured The program contents consisted of entrance(5.6%), history of tobacco(30%), smoking and health(38.9%), adolescent smoking(22.2%), video(4.7%), and exit(1.6%). Multimedia materials consisted of text(121), sound and music, image(still 84, dynamic 32), and videogram(6). The program took about 40 minutes to complete. Third, the results on analysis of the program effects were as follows: 1) There was significant knowledge increase between the pre-test and post-test with total mean difference 3.44, and the highest increase was in the 1st grade students of high school(p<0.001). 2) There was significant decrease in general belief on smoking between the pre-test and post-test with total mean difference 0.28. In subgroup analysis, the difference was significantly higher in the 1st grade of high school (p<0.001), low income class (p<0.001), and daily smokers (p<0.01). 3) There was no significant difference in attitudes on his personal smoking between the pre-test and post-test. 4) The interest in the program seemed to lower as students got older. The score of motivation toward this prevention program was the highest in the middle school 3rd grade. Among sub-domains of motivation, the confidence score was the highest. Conclusion: To be most effective, the smoking prevention program for adolescents should utilize the most up-to-date and accurate information on smoking, and then instructional material should be developed so that the learners can approach the program with enjoyment. Through this study, a guide book with the most up-to-date information was developed and the multimedia CAI smoking prevention program was also developed based on the guide book. The program showed positive effect on the students' knowledge and belief in smoking.

A Study on the Landscape Interpretation of Songge Byeoleop(Korean Villa) Garden at Jogyedong, Mt. Bukhansan near Seoul for the Restoration (북한산 조계동 송계별업(松溪別業) 정원 복원을 위한 경관해석)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Song, Suk-Ho;Jo, Jang-Bin;Sim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to interpret the landscape of Songge Byeoleop(Korean villa) garden at Jogyedong, Bukhansan near Seoul which was built in the mid 17C. to restore through the literature reviews and field surveys. The results were as follows; Songge Byeoleop garden was a royal villa, constructed at King Injo24(1646) of Joseon dynasty by prince Inpyeong(麟坪大君), Lee, Yo(李?, 1622~1658), the third son of King Injo who was a brother of King Hyojong. It was a royal villa, Seokyang-lu under Mt. Taracsan of Gyendeokbang, about 7km away in the straight line from main building. It was considered that the building system was a very gorgeous with timber coloring because of owner's special situation who was called the great prince. The place of Songge Byeoleop identity and key landscape of the place were consisted with Gucheon waterfall and the sound of the water with multi-layered waterfall which might be comparable to the waterfall of Yeosan in China. After the destruction of the building, the place was used for the royal tomb quarry, but there was a mark stone for forbidden quarry. The Inner part of Songge Beoleop, centered with Jogedongcheon, Chogye-dong, composted beautifully with the natural sceneries of Gucheon waterfall, Handam and Changbeok, and artificial structures, such as Bihong-bridge, Boheogak, Yeonghyudang and Gyedang. In addition, the existing Chinese characters, 'Songge Beoleop' and 'Gucheoneunpog' carved in the rocks are literary languages and place markings symbolizing with the contrast of the different forests and territories. They gave the names of scenery to the rock and gave meaning to them. Particularly, Gucheon waterfall which served as a visual terminal point, is a cascade type with multi-staged waterfall. and the lower part shows the topographical characteristics of the Horse Bowl-shaped jointed with port-holes. On the other hand, the outer part is divided into the spaces for the main entrance gate, a hanging bridge character, a bridge connecting the inside and the outside, and Yeonghyudang part for the purpose of living. Also in the Boheogak area, dual view frame structures are made to allow the view of the four sides including the width and the perimeter of the villa. In addition, at the view point in Bihong-bridge, the Gucheon water fall divides between the sacred and profane, and crosses the Bihong-bridge and climbs to the subterranean level.

Viewpoint on the Analects of Confucius and the Learning Direction of Seokjeong JEONG-JIK LEE in Modern Enlightenment Period (근대계몽기 석정 이정직의 논어관과 학습의 방향)

  • Lee, Seung-yong
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.71
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    • pp.147-180
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    • 2018
  • Seokjeong JEONG-JIK LEE is a scholar who tried to render a form of service for his country by writing works of literature during the crisis of the Period of Modern Enlightenment. He mainly expressed his perception of reality through an evaluation of historical figures. He left behind a text on the Analects of Confucius, which is known as the '10 questions and answers regarding the Analects of Confucius', in his posthumous work. It seems that he wrote it to be used as lecture material for his students. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze his recognition to the Analects of Confucius and its learning direction expressed in the writing '10 questions and answers regarding the Analects of Confucius'. With respect to the word ren(仁), which is the most fundamental concept of the Analects, he viewed his life in an introspective way from the standpoint of a 'Hoinyupe(好仁有蔽)', which means that if you like kindness and fairness but don't like learning it, then there will be negative effects, and through the 'Gwangwajiin(觀過知仁)', which means that you will know for sure kindness and fairness when you observe wrongdoing, not the general viewpoint of 'Humaneness or Love'. He tried to determine the meaning of ren, and virtue(德) through a common denominator from an overall point of view. It might have been a reflection of his thoughts that a sound comprehension of powerful countries was needed. In terms of relationship between Gunja(君子) and Myeong(命), Gunja needs to make constant efforts to understand Myeong as a talented person who can maintain order. The direction of learning was examined under three categories: Jongipjibang (從入之方), Gunjajiryu(君子之類), and Sumunihae(隨文而解). Jongipjibang is defined as a way to complement the weaknesses of leaners according to their characteristics and it promotes a focus on pushing ethics into practice rather than acquiring knowledge as it is today. Gunja was classified into 3 stages. However, it merely provides standards to help learners' understandings, so not all students may fall into these stages. Sumunihae gives explanations of commentaries on the book. Seokjeong remarked that the meaning was not different even if the same concept was annotated differently in the "Four Books". This is because the context was emphasized according to the principle of 'Sosisojeol Pilchakpilseom (所始所切, 必着必贍)'.