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Classification System of Wetland Ecosystem and Its Application (습지생태계 분류체계의 검토 및 적용방안 연구)

  • Chun, Seung Hoon;Lee, Byung Hee;Lee, Sang Don;Lee, Yong Tae
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.55-70
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    • 2004
  • The wetland ecosystem is a complex products of various erosion force, accumulation as water flows, hydrogeomorphic units, seasonal changes, the amount of rainfalls, and other essential element. There is no single, correct, ecologically sound definition for wetlands because of the diversity of wetlands and the demarcation between dry and wet environments occurs along a continuum, but wetland plays various ecosystem functions. Despite comprehensive integration through classification and impact factors there is still lacking in systematic management of wetlands. Classification system developed by the USFWS(1979) is hierarchical progresses from systems and subsystems at general levels to classes, subclasses, dominance types, and habitat modifiers. Systems and subsystems are delineated according to major physical attributes such as tidal flushing, ocean-derived salts, and the energy of flowing water or waves. Classes and subclasses describe the type of substrate and habitat or the physiognomy of the vegetation or faunal assemblage. Wetland classes are divided into physical types and biotic types. For the wise management of wetlands in Korea, this study was carried out to examine methodology of USFWS classification system and discuss its application for Korean wetland hydrogeomorphic units already known. Seven wetland types were chosen as study sites in Korea divided into some different types based on USFWS system. Three wetland types belonging to palustrine system showed no difference between Wangdungjae wetland and Mujechi wetland, but Youngnup of Mt. Daeam was different from the former two types at the level of dominant types. This fact means that setting of classification system for management of wetland is needed. Although we may never know much about the wetland resources that have been lost, there are opportunities to conserve the riches that remain. Extensive inventory of all wetland types and documentation of their ecosystem functions are vital. Unique and vulnerable examples in particular need to be identified and protected. Furthermore, a framework with which to demonstrate wetland characteristics and relationships is needed that is sufficiently detailed to achieve the identification of the integrity and salient features of an enormous range of wetland types.

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A Study on the Landscape Symbolism of Tongdo-palkyung and It's Narrative Structure (통도팔경(通度八景)의 경관상징성(景觀象徵性)과 서사구조(敍事構造))

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.27-37
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    • 2010
  • This study tries to illuminate the features and values of the Buddhist temple Palkyung by closely examining the forms, structures, and meanings of Tongdo-palkyung(通度八景) handed down at Tongdosa Temple, the best among Korea's Buddhist temples with its three treasures of Buddha, law of Buddha and Buddhist monks. The findings of this study can be summarized as the following. First of all, it reveals the meaning of the geographical name Yeongchuksan(靈鷲山), located to the west of Tongdosa, and a spectacular sight spread like an eagle's spread wings, as well as its location and spatial features. In particular, the arrangement features of a number of attached hermitages clearly show Yeongchuksan's world as being a temple with buddhist treasures. The multi-layered unfolding and centripetal intention of the scenery can be perceived through the shape of the Sshangryongnongju(雙龍弄珠形), around Tongdosa and the feature of the enclosed landscape encircling the steps of Hyeolcheo(穴處) Geumganggyedan. The substances and components of Tongdopalkyung include sound-based spectacles derived from Beoneumgu(梵音具) creating sounds related to religious rituals to enlighten and redeem mankind, such as Yeongji(影池: a holy pond with shadow reflections), drum sounds, and bell sounds along with physical features like pine trees, Dae(臺), waterfalls, Dongcheon (洞天), and a glow in the sky. On the other hand, Palkyung's geographical arrangements exhibit a circular spatial formation based on the main motif as Buddhist symbolism, beginning with the 'Gukjangsangseokpyo(國長生石標)' awakening the territoriality of Tongdosa and locating the first scene 'Mupunghansong(舞風寒松)' in its introductory area, with the features of water, bridge, pine grove, and Iljumun(gate) to stand for the influx. Six other scenes including 'Anyangdongdae(安養東臺)' are placed in the sacred precincts around Daeungjeon and Geumganggyedan while the glow of sunset at 'Danjoseong' just outside the domain closes the symbolic circular formation of the Tongdopalkyung, which coincides with the development of the Mandala figure symbolizing 'Gusanpalhae(九山八海)' centered in Sumisan(須彌山). What is more, Tongdopalkyung, while excluding primary scenic elements inside the temple, maximizes the domain of the mountain's entrance and the effects of the multi-layered mountain, mountain upon mountain, by intensifying the influx and centripetal qualities. The Tongdopalkyung analysis reveals the antithesis of four-coupled scenes conveying buddhist principles and thoughts on the basis of seasons, directions, space and time to display a narrative structural landscape when viewed from the temple's territoriality. Likewise, the characteristics and porch structures of Tongdopalkyung are tools and language of symbols to both externally strengthen the temple's territoriality and to internally, maximize the desires to the Land of Happiness as well as intensify religious wishes and the Mandala's multi-layered qualities through the meanings of time and space.

Aspects and Significance of Musa basjoo, a Landscaping Plant - Focused on Analysis of Old Paintings of Chosun Dynasty - (조경식물 파초(Musa basjoo) 식재 양상과 그 의미 - 조선시대 옛 그림 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Young-Suk;Goh, Yeo-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.23-36
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to infer the aspects and significance of Musa basjoo of latter part of Chosun Dynasty by analyzing the planting tendency and planting location of Musa basjoos drawn in total 77 old paintings and the characteristics of the paintings where Musa basjoos appeared, while trying to understand symbolic meanings of floral languages as well as the images and significance of Musa basjoos which appeared in the prose and poetry of Chosun Dynasty, and the results are as follows; With its floral languages of 'waiting', 'parting' and 'beauty', Musa basjoo represented the wealth and resuscitation and it aroused the elegance of hermits in its Taoistic sense. And it also represented 'the unworldliness to get out of transient human affairs' in its Buddhistic sense. Musa basjoos which appeared in 'Garden Custom Painting(庭園雅集圖)', 'Gosa Figure Painting(故事人物圖)' and 'Gyehoe Painting(契會圖)' is considered a device to increase the unworldly atmosphere of gardens and to dignify the elegant meetings of scholars, reflected by the high appearance frequencies of cranes and deer. And it seems that the meaning of Musa basjoo in certain paintings like 'Life-time Paintings(平生圖)', 'Castle City Painting(盛市圖), and 'Cultivating and Weaving Painting(耕織圖)' is an aspiration for wealth and prosperity, and the Musa basjoos planted in temples are considered to have symbolic meanings of aspiration for 'Salvation through Belief' as well as a unworldly meaning which reminds the transiency of human affairs. In addition, the expected effect of experiencing 'the sound of rain falling on the leaves of Musa basjoo' has been pursued, which can be confirmed by the fact that Firmiana simlex with wide leaves similar to Musa basjoo can be frequently spotted near the houses. Meanwhile, Musa basjoos seem to have been planted mainly in front garden or side garden around detached house and Musa basjoos inside the houses seem to have been planted mainly in right side when viewed from the entrance, in relation with the location of bedrooms where it is easier to hear the sounds from the right side of the environment. And the paintings where Musa basjoos appear with strange rocks and bizarre stones among other things have greater part of all the paintings, which is considered a kind of intentional landscaping and a product of mixed materials for elegant appreciation. And the major characters of the painting were involved in the activities of scholars such as arts, and the activities of minor characters were greatly related to their everyday lives. Musa basjoo of Chosun Dynasty in $17^{th}$ and $18^{th}$ century was one of the symbols necessary for description of gardens. And it provided the images of rainy scenes together with scholar culture which had a meaning of self-discipline, and it is assumed that the planting of Musa basjoo with the spirit of cease lessen deavor of a new leaf pushing up the tree and the spirit of resuscitation had the same trace of wheels in the city space of our country as the decline of scholar culture of Chosun Dynasty.

Actual Status of and Measure for False Alarm of Electronic Security in Korea (한국 기계경비업무의 오경보 대응책)

  • Park, Dong-Kyun;Kim, Tae-Min
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.30
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    • pp.33-60
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    • 2012
  • False alarm of Electronic security causes various serious side effects such as decrease of electronic security guard's morale caused by unnecessary mobilization, increase of fatigue caused by workload increase, increase of electronic security company owner's management burden and decrease of electronic security service utilization rate caused by customer's distrust. Therefore, the study considered the Korean regulation related with false alarm of electronic security and proposed actual status of false alarm and measure for it. The study proposed systematic resolution assignments and political assignments in relation with the measure for false alarm. Systematic resolution assignments are as follows. First, electronic security company should construct electronic security system accurately from the initial step of security consulting and security planning related with target facility. Second, it is necessary to encourage installation and operation of video monitoring system. Third, sensor wiring should be separated. Fourth, the measures for false alarm depending on main system causes should be prepared. It is necessary to encourage the installation of 'arming disarming alarm sound' generator. In addition, the measures for false arm depending on the characteristics of sensor should be prepared and standardized. Fifth, system maintenance should be reinforced. Political assignments related with the measures for false alarm are as follows. First, it is necessary to reinforce education & training. Individual nurturing & education process should be run by electronic security company or the education focusing on the measure for false alarm should be performed in job training defined in "Security Industry Act". Second, it is necessary to establish and reinforce legal regulation and establish device. If police authority standardizes the documents related with false alarm, provides their forms and requires them for periodical reports or documents, it is expected that good measures for false alarm will be prepared on the basis of actual data in the future. Third, cooperation organization to discuss the measures for false alarm like 'Conference for False Alarm of Electronic Security' should be organized and operated. Fourth, interest and role of electronic security company and electronic security supervisor should be enlarged.

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The Effect of Coffee Consumption Motivation on the Future Coffee Consumption Intentions (커피의 소비동기와 향후 소비의도에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Ja Young
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.129-144
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    • 2013
  • The consumption of coffee has been drastically increased last two decades. Now almost all the Korean adult people enjoy the coffee and diverse cultures related coffee have been spread widely in Korea. Therefore new marketing strategies are necessary to satisfy consumers according to ages, attitudes, and other characters. It has been continuously discussed whether the coffee gives negative impacts to health. Regardless of the discussions of the effects to health, now coffee became a part of modern daily lives. In this study the motivations of coffee consumption were classified to five; wellbeing motivation, refreshment motivation, social motivation, habitual motivation, and emotional motivation. Future intention of coffee consumption were also classified to five factors: sound mental intention, addictive intention, side-effect recovery intention, economic intention, and psychological intention. The survey was conducted in Seoul City and Kyeongki Province from January 3 to February 2, 2013. Total 500 questionaries were distributed and 450 were collected and 428 samples were used for the analysis of this study. The data were analyzed by SPSS Win 18 Version. The methods used in this study were factors analysis test, reliability test, validity test, t-testy, One-Way ANOVA, and regression analysis. The hypnosis in this study were as follows. First, The motivations of coffee consumption would influence to the intention of coffee consumption. Second, there would be statistical differences to the intention of coffee consumption according to the demographic characteristics. According to the result of the study, the motivation of coffee partially affected to the intention of coffee consumption. And there were statistical differences according to age, occupations, educational levels, and monthly incomes. The implications of this study were the factors related health and emotional feeling were considered more important than tastes and characters of coffee-shop that people thought more important before.

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The Study of Satire Shown in Animation -Focusing on and (애니메이션에 나타난 풍자성 연구 -<대화의 차원>과 <이웃>을 중심으로)

  • Choi, Don-Ill
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.143-161
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted focusing on the role of auteurism animation. The purpose of auteurism animation is to criticize irregularities of a society in witty and fierce way through satires from the sharp perspectives of a animator that is not bound by tastes of people or the interests or standpoints of specific groups, and thus to induce positive changes in a society as a purifier. In the context, this study investigated satires shown in by Jan Svankmajer and by Norman Mclaren among the animators who utilize animation as a tool to produce social meaning. As a result, the following characteristics and meanings were found. First, Dimensions of Dialogue is an animation that satires absurdity and irregularities of a human society in symbolic and exceptional way through directing by segmentations of images and omnibus structures. The satire carries the lesson of improvement in the hidden part of cynical attack to history, society, and human beings. It also maximizes absolute reality and engagement of images of Jan Svankmajer through unique and grotesque images of the animator such as alienated world, confusing shapes, and amusement of irregularities. Second, the movie, is an exemplary animation that applied core concept of animation through pixilation techniques based on an event story structure by causal relationship. It satires the changing process of a good man to violent madness through confrontation and conflicts for material desires, with exaggerated slipstick movements and humors as a black comedy. The satire methods of both animation works are delivered through unique image styles and symbolic wordage of the animators who triggered ironical laughter in attacking humanism and moral insensitivity that might be felt seriously otherwise. That is, the animators try to show the positive will for changing the society to a sound one through the form of negativity in terms of moral perspective in animation rather than destruction against the target. As such, the satires in both works worked as an auteurism allegory that maximizes social functions and artistic influence of animation.

A Research on Park Jae-sam's Sijo with Emphasis on his Methods of Creating Poetic Images and the Process of Creating New Ideas (박재삼 시조의 이미지 구현방식과 의미화 과정 연구)

  • Son, Jin-Eun
    • Sijohaknonchong
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    • v.44
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    • pp.29-56
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this article is to shed light on the position and the importance of sijo (Korean traditional poetic form of Three-Line Stanzas) of the Korean poet Park Jae-sam among Korean sijo writers. Even though Park Jae-sam started his career as a poet writing two sijos and a poem, he began to write more poems than sijos later on. Anyway his interest in sijo writing has continued and he has served as a judge of sijo writing contests ever since. Especially in 1985, he published a collection of sijo. And each sijo writing in this collection are composed of three-line stanzas and each stanza of three lines. And each line has a rhythmic sound with a formal word formation. This article reveals that Park Jae-sam has pursued a happy unity of form and content in his sijo writings from the collection and that he has tried his hardest to realize this goal. This article notes that for this goal he puts stress on some methods of creating poetic images and the process of creating new ideas, the unity of Koreans's unique emotion of han(恨) and a sense of eternity, transcendence through ambivalent emotions, and the structure of statement mainly made of juxtaposed metaphors. And this articles also notes that as a most sincere lyric poet in the history of sijo he is much distinguished from other Korean poets in that he depicts mainly Koreans's unique emotions and their characteristics.

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The influence of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of experience store on satisfaction and loyalty (체험매장의 지각된 용이성과 유용성이 만족과 충성도에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ji-Hyun
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.5-14
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    • 2011
  • One of the new roles of modern retail stores is to supply consumers with a memorable experience. In Korea, enhancing a store's environment so that customers remember a unique shopping experience is recognized as a sound strategy for strengthening the store's competitiveness. Motivated by this incentive, awareness of the experience-store concept is starting to increase in various categories of the retail industry. However, many experience stores, except in a few cases, have yet to derive a significant profit, explaining why Korean consumers are somewhat unfamiliar with, yet fascinated by, the experience stores that now exist in the country. Consumer satisfaction directly, and indirectly, affects a company's future profit and potential financial gain; customer satisfaction also affects loyalty. Therefore, knowing the significant factors that increase satisfaction and loyalty is essential for any company, in any field, to be able to effectively differentiate itself from the competition. Intrigued by increased competition opportunities, most Korean companies have adopted experience-store marketing strategies. When establishing the most effective processes for increasing sales and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage of a new concept, companies should consider certain factors that influence consumers' ability to accept new concepts and ideas. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is a theory that models how people accept new concepts. TAM proposes the following two factors that influence a person's decisions about how, and when, he or she will use a new product: "perceived usefulness" and "perceived ease of use." Much of the existing research has suggested that a person's character also affects the process for accepting new ideas. Such personal character attributes as individual preferences, self-confidence, and a person's values, traits, and/or skills affect the process for willingly consenting to try something new. It will be meaningful to establish how the TAM theory's components, as well as personal character, affect individuals accepting the experience-store concept. To that end, as it pertains to an experience store, the first goal of the study is to examine the influence of innovative factors (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) on satisfaction and loyalty. The second objective is to define the moderate effect of consumers' personal characteristics on the model. The proposed model was tested on 149 respondents who were engaged in leisure sports activities and bought sports outdoor garments and equipment. According to the study's findings, the satisfaction and loyalty of an experience store can be explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, with the study's results demonstrating the stronger of the two factors being "perceived ease of use." The study failed to explain the effects of a person's character on the model. In conclusion, when the companies that operate the experience stores execute their marketing and promotion strategies, they should stress the stores' "ease of use" product components. Additionally, it can be extrapolated from the study data that since the experience-store idea is still relatively unfamiliar to Korean consumers, most customers are not yet able to evaluate, nor take a position regarding, their respective attitudes toward experience stores.

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Nondestructive Methods for the Detection of Internal Decay and the Vitality Measurement of Old-Giant Trees (노거수 활력 측정 및 내부 부후 검출을 위한 비파괴검사법)

  • Gao, Yuliang;Cha, Byeong Jin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.144-157
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    • 2009
  • Nondestructive methods to check the vitality of trees and to find out internal decay of old-giant trees include the use of electrical resistance, ultrasound transmission time, microdrilling, and infrared thermography etc. Among these, ultrasound transmission offers some advantages compared to others such as it is an entirely nondestructive detection method and it can be applied to very big trees. However, the ultrasound equipment is comparatively expensive and not broadly spread yet. On the other hand, Shigometer is versatile to be applied to check vitality of the tree and find out internal decay. Electrical conductivity of plant tissues is a very useful characteristics to determine the vitality and internal decay of trees. Electrical resistance of cambial area tells about the vitality of a tree and electrical resistance of heartwood reveals discoloration or decay of it. For determination of the vitality of the tree, the standard equation for calibration of measured electrical resistances should be developed by measuring and analyzing electrical resistance from at least 30-40 trees of the same species with that tree. All the factors, especially tree species, diameter of the stem, and temperature, which can altered the electrical resistance of trees, should be taken into consideration in the development of the equation. If the standard equation is developed for old-giant trees that we should conserve, it will be very useful. In addition, periodical and continued measuring of a certain tree will help to determine the condition of the tree by comparing the measurement with accumulated data of the tree. Measuring electrical resistance of wood might not require the standard equation. But it also needs to check electrical resistance of sound wood of the same tree species. If the stems that should be examined is thicker than 40cm, it is better to use the ultrasound measurement combined to Shigometer.

Clinical Findings of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia under 3 Year-Old Children (3세 이하 Mycoplasma pneumoniae 폐렴환자의 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Sung-Soo;Youn, Kyung-Lim;Kang, Hyeon-Ho;Cho, Byoung-Soo;Cha, Sung-Ho
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.78-85
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia has been to be developed frequently in school age children and adolescence and hard to see under 3 year-old children. But it seems to be increased in number of patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia under 3-year old in clinical practice in these days. We have aimed to examine the characteristics of clinical findings of Mycoplasma pneumonia under 3 year-old children. Methods : We had performed retrospective review of medical records of 30 patients with Mycoplasmal pneumonia under 3-year old children who admitted to Department of Pediatrics, Kyunghee University Hospital from Jan. 1994 to Dec. 1997. The diagnostic criteriae was Cold agglutinin titer>1:64 or Mycoplasma antibody titer>1:80. Results : Mycoplasmal pneumonia was 30 out of 235 cases(12.7%) of total pneumonia under 3 year old children. Male female ratio was 1.3 : 1 and age distributions were 0~1y : 0, 1~2y : 8, 2~3y : 22 cases. Clinical symptoms and signs were cough(100.0%), sputum(83.3%), fever(80.0%) rhinorrhea(33.3%), vomiting(33.3%), moist rale(86.7%), decreased breathing sound(26.7%), wheezing(20.0%), and pharyngeal injection(30.0%). Thirteen out of 30 cases(43.3%) had unilateral infiltration, 10 cases(33.4%) had bilateral infiltration, 1 case(3.3%) had pleural effusion, and 6 cases(20.0%) had negative findings on chest radiography and there was no cases of atelectasis. On laboratory findings, 6 out of 30 cases(20.0%) had leukocytosis, 1 case(3.3%) had neutrophilia, 10 cases(30.0%) had eosinophilia, 17 cases(56.7%) had increased ESR, and 18 cases(60.6%) had positive CRP. Positive cold agglutinin titers(>1 : 64) were 19 cases(63.3%), and positive mycoplasma antibody(M-ab) titers(>1 : 80) were 27 cases(93.3%). Mycoplasma antibody test was more valuable than cold agglutinin test for the diagnosis of Mycoplasmal pneumonia and there was no correlation between cold agglutinin titer and mycoplasma antibody titer. Mycoplasma-polymerase chain reaction(M-PCR) was done with 13 cases, 12 out of 13 cases(92.3%) were positive. M-PCR test was valuable to the diagnosis of Mycoplasmal pneumonia but it will be needed to further study for their clinical application. Among 30 cases, 5 cases(16.7%) had complications, 3 cases(10.0%) had skin rash, 1 case(3.3%) had pleural effusion, 1 case(3.3%) had arthralgia, but all complications were mild and recovered without residual sequelae. Conclusion : The occurrence of Mycoplasmal pneumonia under 3 year-old children was not rare from this study. Clinical characteristics of Mycoplasmal pneumonia under 3-year old were normal radiologic findings in many cases, low complication rate, mild clinical course, and tend to rapid recovery compared with general manifestations of Mycoplasmal infectionsin children and adolescence. There were likely to be missed patients with Mycoplasmal pneumonia which did not diagnose by conventional serologic tests that had low sensitivity and specificity. We have to pay attention to the Mycoplasmal infection of the young children with pneumonia during epidemic periods of Mycoplasmal infection.

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