• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sox-9

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Usefulness of SOX9 and SRY Gene on Sex Determination in Human Teeth (사람치아에서 성별감정시 SOX9 과 SRY 유전자의 유용성)

  • Ko, Nam-Ju;Ahn, Jong-Mo;Yoon, Chang-Lyuk
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2001
  • SOX9과 SRY 유전자는 척추동물에서 남성고환의 형성을 유도하는 요소로 알려졌다. SOX9 유전자는 SRY related HMG box gene중 하나로 유전질환의 XY성전환 및 성을 결정하는 데에 관여하며 성결정시기에 그 양에 따른 성전환 발생등 연구가 진행되고 있다. 그러나 이 유전자가 성별판정에 유용할 지는 확실치 않다. 반면 SRY 유전자는 포유동물에서의 배형성시기 고환형성을 결정하는 Y염색체 유전자로 남성에만 존재하고 여성에는 존재 않는다. 현재까지 이을 이용하여 법의학적 검체에서 남성판별에 유용하게 사용되고 있다. 본 실험에서는 X, Y와 같은 성염색체가 아닌 상동염색체상에 있으면서 SRY 유전자와 더불어 남성고환을 결정하는 또다른 요소로서의 기능을 가진 SOX9 유전자를 치아에서 검출하여 법의학적 성별판정에 유용할 수 있는지 알아보고자 본 연구를 수행하였다. 남녀각각 5개의 치아에서 치수와 상아질을 분리한 후 DNA를 추출하여 SOX9과 SRY 유전자의 특이적인 시발체를 제작하고 중합효소연쇄반응을 시행하여 증폭하고 전기영동을 시행하였다. 그 결과 SOX9 유전자는 남녀모두에서 유전자가 검출되었고, SOX9 유전자산물과 SRY 유전자를 혼합하여 사용시 남자에서만 유전자가 검출되었다. 이는 법의치과학적 성별판정에 있어 SOX9 유전자는 사람의 치아에서는 남녀 모두 존재하며 남녀 구별을 위한 성별판정에는 이용할 수 없으며 SRY 유전자와 함께 적용시 남성 특이적 SRY 유전자 검사중 발생할 수 있는 가성 음성 반응여부를 확인하는 데 유용할 것으로 사료된다.

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GATA4 negatively regulates bone sialoprotein expression in osteoblasts

  • Song, Insun;Jeong, Byung-chul;Choi, Yong Jun;Chung, Yoon-Sok;Kim, Nacksung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.343-348
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    • 2016
  • GATA4 has been reported to act as a negative regulator in osteoblast differentiation by inhibiting the Dlx5 transactivation of Runx2 via the attenuation of the binding ability of Dlx5 to the Runx2 promoter region. Here, we determine the role of GATA4 in the regulation of bone sialoprotein (Bsp) in osteoblasts. We observed that the overexpression of Runx2 or Sox9 induced the Bsp expression in osteoblastic cells. Silencing GATA4 further enhanced the Runx2- and Sox9-mediated Bsp promoter activity, whereas GATA4 overexpression down-regulated Bsp promoter activity mediated by Runx2 and Sox9. GATA4 also interacted with Runx2 and Sox9, by attenuating the binding ability of Runx2 and Sox9 to the Bsp promoter region. Our data suggest that GATA4 acts as a negative regulator of Bsp expression in osteoblasts.

BMP-2-Enhanced Chondrogenesis Involves p38 MAPK-mediated Down-Regulation of Wnt-7a Pathway

  • Jin, Eun-Jung;Lee, Sun-Young;Choi, Young-Ae;Jung, Jae-Chang;Bang, Ok-Sun;Kang, Shin-Sung
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.353-359
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    • 2006
  • The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family has been implicated in control of cartilage development. Here, we demonstrate that BMP-2 promotes chondrogenesis by activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which in turn downregulates $Wnt-7a/{\beta}$-catenin signaling responsible for proteasomal degradation of Sox9. Exposure of mesenchymal cells to BMP-2 resulted in upregulation of Sox9 protein and a concomitant decrease in the level of ${\beta}$-catenin protein and Wnt-7a signaling. In agreement with this, the interaction of Sox9 with ${\beta}$-catenin was inhibited in the presence of BMP-2. Inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway using a dominant negative mutant led to sustained Wnt-7a signaling and decreased Sox9 expression, with consequent inhibition of precartilage condensation and chondrogenic differentiation. Moreover, overexpression of ${\beta}$-catenin caused degradation of Sox9 via the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway. Our results collectively indicate that the increase in Sox9 protein resulting from downregulation of ${\beta}$-catenin/Wnt-7a signaling is mediated by p38 MAPK during BMP-2 induced chondrogenesis in chick wing bud mesenchymal cells.

Influence of $1{\alpha}$, 25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ [1, $25(OH)_2D_3$] on the expression of Sox 9 and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 5/6 ion channels in equine articular chondrocytes

  • Hdud, Ismail M.;Loughna, Paul T.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.56 no.8
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    • pp.33.1-33.8
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    • 2014
  • Background: Sox 9 is a major marker of chondrocyte differentiation. When chondrocytes are cultured in vitro they progressively de-differentiate and this is associated with a decline in Sox 9 expression. The active form of vitamin D, 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ has been shown to be protective of cartilage in both humans and animals. In this study equine articular chondrocytes were grown in culture and the effects of 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ upon Sox 9 expression examined. The expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels 5 and 6 in equine chondrocytes in vitro, we have previously shown, is inversely correlated with de-differentiation. The expression of these channels in response to 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ administration was therefore also examined. Results: The active form of vitamin D (1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ when administered to cultured equine chondrocytes at two different concentrations significantly increased the expression of Sox 9 at both. In contrast 1, 25 $(OH)_2D_3$ had no significant effect upon the expression of either TRPV 5 or 6 at either the protein or the mRNA level. Conclusions: The increased expression of Sox 9, in equine articular chondrocytes in vitro, in response to the active form of vitamin D suggests that this compound could be utilized to inhibit the progressive de-differentiation that is normally observed in these cells. It is also supportive of previous studies indicating that $1{\alpha}$, 25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ can have a protective effect upon cartilage in animals in vivo. The previously observed correlation between the degree of differentiation and the expression levels of TRPV 5/6 had suggested that these ion channels may have a direct involvement in, or be modulated by, the differentiation process in vitro. The data in the present study do not support this.

The Relation Between Sox9, TGF-${\beta}1$, and Proteoglycan in Human Intervertebral Disc Cells

  • Lee, Yong-Jik;Kong, Min-Ho;Song, Kwan-Young;Lee, Kye-Heui;Heo, Su-Hak
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.149-154
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    • 2008
  • Objective: The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of transforming growth factor-${\beta}$ (TGF-${\beta}$)1 and L-ascorbic acid on proteoglycan synthesis, and the relationship between Sox9, proteoglycan, and TGF-${\beta}1$ in intervertebral disc cells. Methods: Human intervertebral disc tissue was sequentially digested to 0.2% pronase and 0.025% collagenase in DMEM/F-12 media and extracted cells were cultured in $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ incubator. When intervertebral disc cells were cultured with TGF-${\beta}1$ or L-ascorbic acid, the production level of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) was estimated by dimethyl methyleneblue (DMMB) assay. The changes of Sox9 mRNA and protein levels via TGF-${\beta}1$ were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in each. Results: The amount of sGAG was increased with the lapse of time during incubation, and sGAG content of pellet cultured cells was much larger than monolayer culture. When primary cultured intervertebral disc cells in monolayer and pellet cultures were treated by TGF-${\beta}1$ 20 ng, sGAG content of experimental group was increased significantly compared to control group in both cultures. L-Ascorbic acid of serial concentrations (50-300 ug/ml) increased sGAG content of mono layer cultured intervertebral disc cells significantly in statistics. The co-treatment of TGF-${\beta}1$ and L-ascorbic acid increased more sGAG production than respective treatment. After treating with TGF-${\beta}1$, Sox9 mRNA and protein expression rates were significantly increased in disc cells compared with the control group. Conclusion: This study suggests that TGF-${\beta}1$ would increase sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and other proteoglycans such as versican by elevating Sox9 mRNA and protein expressions in order.

A Korean Girl with Campomelic Dysplasia caused by a Novel Nonsense Mutation within the SOX9 Gene

  • Ko, Jung Min;Hah, J.-Hun;Kim, Suk-Wha;Cho, Tae-Joon;Kim, Gu-Hwan;Yoo, Han-Wook
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.89-92
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    • 2012
  • Campomelic dysplasia (CMD) is a rare, often lethal, genetic disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and abnormal development of the reproductive organs in males. Mutations in the SOX9 gene are known to cause CMD. We present a Korean CMD girl with a normal 46,XX karyotype and a female reproductive organ phenotype. She was born at 2.35 kg at 38 weeks of gestation and showed characteristic phenotypes, including cleft palate, micrognathia, hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, congenital bowing of limbs, hypoplastic scapulae, deformed pelvis, and 11 pairs of ribs. She also had an atrioseptal defect of the heart and marked laryngotracheomalacia requiring tracheostomy and tracheopexy. SOX9 mutation analysis revealed the presence of a novel nonsense mutation, $p.Gln369^*$, and the patient was genetically confirmed to have CMD. Although she showed marked failure to thrive and neurodevelopmental delay, she is now 40 months of age and is the only surviving patient with CMD in Korea.

The Effects of TWEAK, Fn14, and TGF-$\beta1$ on Degeneration of Human Intervertebral Disc

  • Huh, Hoon;Lee, Yong-Jik;Kim, Jung-Hee;Kong, Min-Ho;Song, Kwan-Young;Choi, Gun
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.30-35
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    • 2010
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to explain the effect and reciprocal action among tumor necrosis factor (TNF) like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), and transforming growth factor-$\beta1$ (TGF-$\beta1$) on degeneration of human intervertebral disc (IVD). Methods: Human intervertebral disc tissues and cells were cultured with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium/Nutrient F-12 Ham (DMEM/F-12) media in $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ incubator. When IVD tissues were cultured with TWEAK, Fn14 that is an antagonistic receptor for TWEAK and TGF-$\beta1$, the level of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) was estimated by dimethyl methyleneblue (DMMB) assay and sex determining region Y (SRY)-box 9 (Sox9) and versican messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were estimated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: When human IVD tissue was cultured for nine days, the sGAG content was elevated in proportion to culture duration. The sGAG was decreased significantly by TWEAK 100 ng/mL, however, Fn14 500 ng/mL did not change the sGAG production of IVD tissue. The Fn14 increased versican and Sox9 mRNA levels decreased with TWEAK in IVD tissue TGF-$\beta1$ 20 ng/mL elevated the sGAG concentration 40% more than control. The sGAG amount decreased with TWEAK was increased with Fn14 or TGF-$\beta1$ but the result was insignificant statistically. TGF-$\beta1$ increased the Sox9 mRNA expression to 180% compared to control group in IVD tissue. Sox9 and versican mRNA levels decreased by TWEAK were increased with TGF-$\beta1$ in primary cultured IVD cells, however, Fn14 did not show increasing effect on Sox9 and versican. Conclusion: This study suggests that TWEAK would act a role in intervertebral disc degeneration through decreasing sGAG and the mRNA level of versican and Sox9.

Activation of CREB by PKA Promotes the Chondrogeneic Differentiation of Chick Limb Bud Mesenchymal Cells

  • Kim, Kook-Hee;Lee, Young-Sup
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.289-295
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    • 2009
  • Cyclic AMP-mediated signaling pathways regulate a number of cellular functions. In this study, we examined the regulatory role of cAMP signaling pathways in chondrogenesis of chick limb bud mesenchymal cells in vitro. Forskolin, which increases cellular cAMP levels by the activation of adenylate cyclase, enhanced chondrogenic differentiation. Inhibition of PKA with specific inhibitors (H89 or KT5720) blocked pre-cartilage condensation stage, indicating that chondrogenesis is regulated by the increase in cellular cAMP level and subsequent activation of PKA. Downstream signaling pathway of PKA leading to gene expression was investigated by examination of several nuclear transcription factors. Forskolin treatment increased transcription level for a cartilage-specific marker gene Sox9. However, inhibition of PKA with H89 led to restore expression of Sox9, indicating PKA activity was required to regulate the expression of Sox9 in chondrogenesis. In addition, CREB was highly phosphorylated at early stage of mesenchyme culture, and followed by progressive dephosphorylation. CBP and ATF, another CRE related proteins were transiently expressed at the early stage of chondrogenesis with a pattern similar to CREB phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that the binding activity of CREB to the CRE is closely correlated to the phosphorylation pattern of CREB. Therefore, cAMP-mediated signal transduction to nuclear events for the induction of genes appeared to be required at the early stage of chick limb bud chondrogenesis.

PLAG1, SOX10, and Myb Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary Gland Neoplasms

  • Lee, Ji Hyun;Kang, Hye Ju;Yoo, Chong Woo;Park, Weon Seo;Ryu, Junsun;Jung, Yuh-Seog;Choi, Sung Weon;Park, Joo Yong;Han, Nayoung
    • Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2019
  • Background: Recent findings in molecular pathology suggest that genetic translocation and/or overexpression of oncoproteins is important in salivary gland tumorigenesis and diagnosis. We investigated PLAG1, SOX10, and Myb protein expression in various salivary gland neoplasm tissues. Methods: A total of 113 cases of surgically resected salivary gland neoplasms at the National Cancer Center from January 2007 to March 2017 were identified. Immunohistochemical staining of PLAG1, SOX10, and Myb in tissue samples was performed using tissue microarrays. Results: Among the 113 cases, 82 (72.6%) were benign and 31 (27.4%) were malignant. PLAG1 showed nuclear staining and normal parotid gland was not stained. Among 48 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 29 (60.4%) were positive for PLAG1. All other benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms were PLAG1-negative. SOX10 showed nuclear staining. In normal salivary gland tissues SOX10 was expressed in cells of acinus and intercalated ducts. In benign tumors, SOX10 expression was observed in all pleomorphic adenoma (48/48), and basal cell adenoma (3/3), but not in other benign tumors. SOX10 positivity was observed in nine of 31 (29.0%) malignant tumors. Myb showed nuclear staining but was not detected in normal parotid glands. Four of 31 (12.9%) malignant tumors showed Myb positivity: three adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC) and one myoepithelial carcinoma with focal AdCC-like histology. Conclusions: PLAG1 expression is specific to pleomorphic adenoma. SOX10 expression is helpful to rule out excretory duct origin tumor, but its diagnostic value is relatively low. Myb is useful for diagnosing AdCC when histology is unclear in the surgical specimen.

무당개구리 (Bombina orientalis) 배아에서 제초제 Molinate에 의한 발생 위해성 평가 및 Biomarker 유전자 발굴

  • Gang Han Seung;Gye Myeong Chan;Kim Mun Gyu
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Biology Conference
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    • pp.124-126
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    • 2004
  • Molinate is thiocarbamate herbicide used primarily in rice production. Chondrogenesis is a multistep process that is essential for endocondral bone formation. The transcription factor Sox9 has an essential role during the sequential steps of chondrocyte differentiation. Bombina orientalis is one of the most common amphibians in the world and comprises a large proportion of their total number. We examined the embryotoxic and survival effects of molinate at various concentration in B. orientalis embryos. The survival rates of embryos at 312h post fertilization treated with molinate was decreased with concentration dependent manner. Also, developmental malformations appeared by molinate in B. orientalis embryos. the expression levels of Sox9 mRNA was examined by RT-PCR. In our result showed that Sox9 expression was found to be increased in malformed tadpole compared to normal tadpole. These results suggested that molinate was detrimental for survival and development of B. orientalis embryo.

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