• Title, Summary, Keyword: Soybean Meal

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A NOTE ON THE REMOVAL OF PHYTATE IN SOYBEAN MEAL USING Aspergillus usami

  • Ilyas, A.;Hirabayasi, M.;Matsui, T.;Yano, H.;Yano, F.;Kikishima, T.;Takebe, M.;Hayakawa, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.135-138
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    • 1995
  • Soybean meal was fermented by Aspergillus usami in order to reduce phytate content. Aflatoxin B1 was not detected in the fermented soybean meal. The contents of crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and crude ash were slightly increased following fermentation with a concomitant reduction in nitrogen free extract. Though the fermentation partly degraded proteins in the soybean meal, there was small difference in amino acid composition between the soybean meal and the fermented soybean meal. The results showed that the fermentation did not affect nutritional value of protein in soybean meal. Approximately 55% of phosphorus extracted by trichloroacetic acid was inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) in the soybean meal. The content of inositol tetra to hexaphosphates was not detected in the fermented soybean meal. These results indicated that the fermentation almost completely eliminated phytate in soybean meal. Phytase activity was not detected in the unfermented soybean meal. However, the enzyme activity in the fermented soybean meal was 167.7 U/g. When the fermented soybean meal in supplemented in formula feeds, phytase in the fermented soybean meal might partly degrade the phytate in other ingredients in the digestive tract. The fermented soybean meal is possibly used as a phytate-free protein source of feed, which contains high available phosphorus.

Effect of soybean meal on the alcohol fermentation of sugar-alcohol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (내당 내알콜성 Saccharomyces cerevisiae의 알콜 발효에 미치는 soybean meal의 영향)

  • Rho, Min-Jeong;Park, Keung-Ho;Paik, Un-Hwa;Yu, Ju-Hyun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 1991
  • In order to improve the productivity of ethanol by sugar-alcohol-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae D1, the effect of addition of soybean meal on the alcohol fermentation was investigated. The addition of soybean meal led tn the increase of the ethanol productivity and viable cell concentration. Increasing the mont of soybean meal increased the number of viable cells and the consumption percentage of glucose. The water-soluble fraction of soybean meal was nearly as effective as whole-soybean meal, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect. The addition of 4% soybean meal increased the rate of ethanol production regardless of the initial concentrations of glucose. The rate of glucose consumption fermenting a soybean meal supplemented medium was higher than possible in a non-supplemented medium, either in the absence or in the presence of ethanol. But the percentage of ethanol inhibition of the glucose consumption rate was identical for supplemented md unsupplemented media. The increase of final ethanol concentration could not be attributed In an increase of ethanol tolerance of yeast cells but to the satisfaction of nutritional deficiencies.

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Utilization of Defatted Soybean Meal As a Substitute for Fish Meal in the Diet of Juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) (넙치 치어 배합사료의 어분 대체 단백질원으로서 탈지 대두박 이용성)

  • KIM Yoon-Sook;KIM Bong-Seok;MOON Tae-Seok;LEE Sang-Min
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.469-474
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate the utilization of defatted soybean meal as a substitute for fish meal in the diet for juvenile flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Duplicate groups of average weighing 35 g were fed one of four isonitrogenous ($54{\%}$) and isocaloric (575 kcal/100 g diet) diets containing $0{\%}, 10{\%}, 20{\%} and 30{\%}$ soybean meal for 45 days. Survival rates of all groups were $100{\%}$, Weight gain of fish decreased with increasing dietary soybean meal levels, However, this value was not significantly different between fish fed the control and $10{\%}$ soybean meal diet (P > 0.05). Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio decreased with increasing dietary soybean meal levels, but no significant differences were found among fish fed the control, $10{\%}\;and\;20{\%}$ soybean meal diets (P > 0.05). Daily feed and protein intake increased with increasing dietary soybean meal level. Crude protein and moisture content of liver tended to decrease and crude lipid content tended to increase with decreasing of dietary soybean meal levels. Plasma total cholesterol levels of fish fed the diets containing $20{\%}\;and\;30{\%}$ soybean meal were significantly lower than that of fish fed control diet (P < 0.05), Plasma GOT level significantly increased with increasing dietary soybean meal level (P < 0.05). It is concluded that soybean meal can be used as a partial substitute for fish meal up to $10{\%}$ in this dietary formulation for growth of juvenile flounder.

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True Metabolisable Energy and True Amino Acid Availability in Chinese Varieties of Dehulled and Hulled Soybean Meals Determined with Adult Roosters

  • Wang, Jitan;Li, Defa;Gong, Limin;Xing, Jianjun;Shen, Huile;Ma, Guolong Song Fabo
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1487-1494
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    • 2003
  • Studies were conducted with intact White Leghorn roosters to determine the true metabolisable energy (TME) and the true amino acid availability (TAAA) in five dehulled and hulled soybean meals produced in China. 60 roosters, kept in individual cages, were fasted for 48 h and then tube-fed 50 g of one of experimental feedstuffs and their excreta was then collected for the subsequent 48 h period. Two separate collection periods were used with each meal being fed to 12 roosters. The birds were given a 15-day recovery period between collection periods. An additional 12 roosters were either fasted or fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the extent of endogenous losses of energy and amino acids in excreta. The average values per bird for nitrogen loss, endogenous energy losses (EEL) and endogenous energy losses corrected to zero-nitrogen balance ($EEL_n$) were found to be 0.74 g, 47.0 kJ and 21.5 kJ, respectively. It was found that the TME and TAAA values of dehulled soybean meal were higher than those of hulled soybean meal. The TME and nitrogen-corrected TME metabolisable energy values of dehulled soybean meal were 10.58 and 10.74 MJ/kg, respectively, while the corresponding values for hulled soybean meal were 10.03 and 10.27 MJ/kg, respectively. The average indispensable and dispensable amino acid availability of dehulled soybean meal was 92.1 and 93.5%, compared with 89.3 and 91.4% for hulled soybean meal. Dehulled soybean meal would therefore appear to be superior to hulled soybean meal as a source of protein and energy for use in poultry rations.

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND AMINO ACID DIGESTIBILITIES AFFECTED BY VARIOUS PLANT PROTEIN SOURCES IN GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

  • Moon, H.K.;Kim, J.W.;Heo, K.N.;Kim, Y.H.;Kim, S.W.;Kwon, C.H.;Shin, I.S.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.537-546
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    • 1994
  • This experiment was carried out to compare the effects of six different plant protein sources such as soybean meal, extruded full-fat soybean, canola meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and perilla meal as a sole protein source of diets on growth performance and amino acid bioavailabilities in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 54 pigs with average 25 kg of body weight were used as experimental subjects for a 65-d feeding trial. Digestion trial was carried out with seven ileal-cannulated pigs. The most rapid rate of weight gain was observed in pigs fed soybean meal and full-fat soybean, the moderate one in pigs fed canola meal and cottonseed meal and the least one in pigs fed rapeseed meal and perilla meal (p<0.005). Feed efficiency was better for groups fed soybean meal and full-fat soybean than other protein meals (p<0.05). The apparent ileal digestibilities of essential amino acids of soybean meal and full-fat soybean (82.5% and 81.6%) were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of other protein sources (61.2 to 69.4%). Regardless of protein sources, the apparent ileal digestibility of arginine was highest, whereas that of histidine was lowest among essential amino acids. Proline had the lowest digestibility among non-essential amino acids. True amino acid digestibilities tended to be higher than apparent amino acid digestibilities. The differences between true and apparent ileal digestibilities were greater in canola meal, rapeseed meal or cottonseed meal than other protein sources. The differences was greatest in praline except for cottonseed meal. The fecal digestibility appeared to be higher than the ileal digestibility. The differences between fecal and ileal digestibilities were greater in canola meal, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and perilla meal than in soybean meal and full-fat soybean. In general, praline was the most disappeared amino acid in the hind gut, while the net synthesis of lysine in the large intestine was observed in all protein sources except perilla meal. It is appropriate that swine feeds should be formulated based on true ileal amino acid digestibility of protein sources for pig's normal growth.

Effect of Enzyme Supplementation on the Performance of Growing-Finishing Pigs Fed Barley-Based Diets Supplemented with Soybean Mealor Canola Meal

  • Thacker, P.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.1008-1013
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    • 2001
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of enzyme supplementation on the performance of 80 growing-finishing pigs (26.2 kg) fed diets containing either soybean or canola meal. Barley-based diets formulated using either soybean meal or canola meal were fed with or without enzyme (Allzyme Vegpro, Alltech Biotechnology Centre). Eight castrates and twelve gilts were fed each diet. Digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy was 8.0 (p=0.0001), 7.9 (p=0.0005) and 7.9 (p=0.0003) percent lower for pigs fed diets containing canola meal compared with soybean meal. Enzyme supplementation had no effect on nutrient digestibility (p>0.05). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for all three nutrients. Over the entire experimental period (26.2 to 77.9 kg), pigs fed canola meal consumed 9.4% less feed (p=0.001), gained weight 20.4% slower (p=0.001) and had a 12.9% poorer feed conversion (p=0.001) than pigs fed soybean meal. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were unaffected by enzyme addition (p>0.05). Castrates gained weight 11.4% faster (p=0.001), consumed 9.3% more feed (p=0.001) and had a 2.6% better feed conversion (p=0.026) than gilts. There was a significant interaction between protein source and sex of pig for feed conversion. Pigs fed diets based on canola meal had a significantly lower carcass value index (p=0.01), lower lean yield (p=0.007) and lower lean depth over the loin (p=0.001) than pigs fed diets based on soybean meal. Enzyme addition significantly increased lean depth over the loin (p=0.01). There was a significant interaction between protein source and enzyme for carcass value index (p=0.04), estimated lean yield (p=0.05) and fat depth over the loin (p=0.05). These results confirm previous studies which have demonstrated poorer pig performance when canola meal completely replaces soybean meal in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs. In addition, the results provide little justification for the inclusion of the Vegpro enzyme in diets fed to pigs of this weight range.

Effect of Substitution of Groundnut with Soybean Meal at Varying Fish Meal and Protein Levels on Performance and Egg Quality of Layer Chickens

  • Naulia, Uma;Singh, K.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.1617-1621
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    • 2002
  • Two hundred and sixteen single comb white egg layers of the White Leghorn hens of 24 weeks of age were randomly allocated to 12 groups with three replications of six hens in each. Hens were fed in a factorial arrangement 2${\times}3{\times}$2, on diets containing either 16 or 18% crude protein with 0, 3 or 6% fish meal, replacing groundnut meal with soybean meal. Soybean meal incorporation improved (p<0.05) egg production, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and egg weights. Egg quality traits of specific gravity, shape index, albumen index, yolk index and shell thickness remained unchanged. Laying performance was significantly (p<0.05) better at 18% than on 16% dietary protein level. Use of fish meal linearly improved egg production and feed conversion efficiency on diets supplemented with groundnut meal and fish meal incorporation showed quadratic improvement on feed conversion efficiency with SBM diets at 16% dietary protein level. Therefore, use of soybean meal as substitute of groundnut meal is recommended in layer diets, at 16% dietary protein level and fish meal incorporation could be beneficial for layers.

Nutritional Evaluation of Imported Organic Feeds and Locally Produced Agricultural By-products for Organic Ruminant Farming (유기 반추동물 전용 수입산 유기사료 및 국내산 유기 부산물의 사료적 가치 평가)

  • Park, Joong-Kook;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.513-528
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of locally produced organic agricultural by-products to substitute imported organic feeds for organic ruminant farming. Imported organic feeds (corn grain, soybean meal, soybean seed, oat grain, barley grain, wheat grain, buckwheat, sunflower seed meal) and byproducts (rice bran, grape seed meal, rice straw, soybean hull, soybean curd, rice hull, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain) were analyzed for chemical composition and NDF, ADF, mineral, and amino acid contents and anti-nutritional factors. Dry matter, NDF and ADF contents in organic feeds were higher than those in conventional feeds. Especially, the 9.65% fat content of organic soybean meal was 6 times higher than the 1.95% fat content of conventional soybean meal. Fat contents of rice bran, grape seed meal, green kernel rice, and crushed rice grain were 25.66, 6.09, 3.57 and 1.59%, respectively. Protein contents of soybean hull and soybean curd were 14.68 and 19.87%, respectively, which are highest among organic by-products. Levels of aflatoxin in all feeds were below the safety level. Therefore, organic rice bran, green kernel rice and crushed rice as energy source, and soybean hull and soybean curd as protein source could partial replace imported feeds for organic ruminant farming.

Fundamental Study on Nutritional Evaluation for Rapeseed Meal (탈지유채종자의 영양평가에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • Tadahiro Tadokoro;Kazuhiro Kubo;Kazuhiro Yamada;Toru Ota;Akio Maekawa;Han, Yang-Il
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.409-413
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    • 1994
  • This fundamental study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional value of Canola rapeseed meal which has been increasingly used as a by-product with the demand for the food oil resource. To compare the nutritive values among rapeseed meal and soybean meal, two experiments were carried out by using rats. One was a digestibility test of rapessed meal and the other was the growth rate of rats for 21 days. The chemical compositions , blucosinolate and amino acids of defatted repeseed meal and defatted soybean meal were analyzed. After one week feeding, nitrogen excretion in rats was measured to study FER, PER , TD , BW , and NPU of the meals. The amount of crude proteins in defatted rapeseed meal and defatted soybean meal were 45.5% and 37.9%. The glucosinolate content of defatted rapeseed meal was 0.04% . The body weight gain of defatted rapeseed meal was not signficantly different from that of defatted soybean meal (p>0.01). After one week feeding, there was no significant differencess in organ weight and serum components between two groups(p>0.01). It was presumed that the rapeseed meal has enough possibility for developing food to use as a protein source like a soybean meal protein. However, more careful experiments are needed to clarify the nutritional value of rapeseed meal of Canola since the lipids composition of blood tended to be different when the rapeseed meal and soybean meal were used.

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Effects of Meat Meal, Blood Meal or soybean Meal as a Dietary Protein Source Replacing Fish Meal in Parrot Fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus (돌돔사료의 대체 단백질원으로서 육분, 혈분 및 대두박의 효과)

  • 강용진;이상민;양상근;배승철
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 1999
  • A feeding trial was conducted to evaluate dietary protein sources replacing fish meal for parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus. A control diet with white fish meal as a protein source was included. White fish meal in the isonitrogenous diet was replaced with each of 22% meat meal, 17% blood meal, or 31% soybean meal. Triplicate groups of 25 fish initially averaging 26 g were fed four experimental diets for 7 weeks in a flow-through tank system. Weight agin and feed efficiency in fish fed diet containing 17% blood meal (this diet also contained 45% white fish meal) were not significantly different from those in fish fed the control diet (P>0.05). Fish fed diet containing 22% meat meal had lower weight gain and feel efficiency than those of fish fed the control diet (P<0.05). weight gain of fish fed diet containing 31% soybean meal was not different from that of fish fed the control diet, but feed efficiency of fish fed the diet was lower than that of fish fed the control diet.

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